Potassium silicate is the name for a family of inorganic compounds. The most common potassium silicate has the formula K2SiO3, samples of which contain varying amounts of water. These are white solids or colorless solutions.
|Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
|E number||E560 (acidity regulators, ...)|
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||154.279 g·mol−1|
|P260, P261, P264, P271, P280, P301+P330+P331, P303+P361+P353, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P310, P312, P321, P363, P403+P233, P405, P501|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Synthesis, structure, reactionsEdit
Potassium silicate can be synthesized in the laboratory by treating silica with potassium hydroxide, according to this idealized equation:
These solutions are highly alkaline. Addition of acids causes the reformation of silica.
K2SiO3 adopts a chain or cyclic structures with interlinked SiO32− monomers. Each Si is tetrahedral.
Woodwork protection against fireEdit
Impregnation of wood with a potassium silicate solution is an easy and low cost way for rendering the woodwork of houses secure against catching fire. The woodwork is first saturated with a diluted and nearly neutral solution of potash silicate. After drying, one or two coats of a more concentrated solution are usually applied.
It is also used as a supplement (in conjunction with normal fertilizer) for the numerous benefits that increasing the availability of silicon compounds has. Silicon-containing compounds are valuable to a plant, and serve to support the plant. Stems thicken, the plant becomes more tolerant to drought and resists wilting, and the plant gets larger leaves and fruit (because the stem can support more weight). The thicker cell walls of the plant also provides an added mechanical resistance to sap sucking insects (e.g. spider mite) and various pathogenic fungi (e.g. powdery mildew).
Potassium silicate is strongly alkaline.
- Gerard Lagaly, Werner Tufar, A. Minihan, A. Lovell "Silicates" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, 2005. doi:10.1002/14356007.a23_661
- Cobleigh, Rolfe (1909). Handy farm devices and how to make them. Part II: Worth knowing to render wood fireproof. New York: Orange Judd.
- S. Y. Wang & G. J. Galletta (1998) Foliar application of potassium silicate induces metabolic changes in strawberry plants, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 21:1, 157-167, doi:10.1080/01904169809365390
- Elmore AR (2005). "Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate". Int. J. Toxicol. 24 (Suppl 1): 103–17. doi:10.1080/10915810590918643. PMID 15981734. S2CID 208153862.