Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula KF. After hydrogen fluoride, KF is the primary source of the fluoride ion for applications in manufacturing and in chemistry. It is an alkali halide salt and occurs naturally as the rare mineral carobbiite. Solutions of KF will etch glass due to the formation of soluble fluorosilicates, although HF is more effective.

Potassium fluoride
IUPAC name
Potassium fluoride
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.228 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 232-151-5
RTECS number
  • TT0700000
  • InChI=1S/FH.K/h1H;/q;+1/p-1 checkY
  • InChI=1S/FH.K/h1H;/q;+1/p-1
  • [F-].[K+]
Molar mass 58.0967 g/mol (anhydrous)
94.1273 g/mol (dihydrate)
Appearance colourless
Density 2.48 g/cm3
Melting point 858 °C (1,576 °F; 1,131 K) (anhydrous)
41 °C (dihydrate)
19.3 °C (trihydrate)
Boiling point 1,502 °C (2,736 °F; 1,775 K)
92 g/100 mL (18 °C)
102 g/100 mL (25 °C)
349.3 g/100 mL (18 °C)
Solubility soluble in HF
insoluble in alcohol
−23.6·10−6 cm3/mol
GHS labelling:
GHS06: Toxic
H301, H311, H331[1]
P261, P264, P270, P271, P280, P301+P310, P302+P352, P304+P340, P311, P312, P321, P322, P330, P361, P363, P403+P233, P405, P501
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704 four-colored diamondHealth 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g. chlorine gasFlammability 0: Will not burn. E.g. waterInstability 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no code
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
245 mg/kg (oral, rat)[2]
Related compounds
Other anions
Potassium chloride
Potassium bromide
Potassium iodide
Other cations
Lithium fluoride
Sodium fluoride
Rubidium fluoride
Caesium fluoride
Francium fluoride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Potassium fluoride is prepared by reacting potassium carbonate with hydrofluoric acid. Evaporation of the solution forms crystals of potassium bifluoride. The bifluoride on heating yields potassium fluoride:


Platinum or heat resistant plastic containers are often used for these operations.

Potassium chloride converts to KF upon treatment with hydrogen fluoride. In this way, potassium fluoride is recyclable.[3]

Crystalline properties


KF crystallizes in the cubic NaCl crystal structure. The lattice parameter at room temperature is 0.266 nm.[4]

Applications in organic chemistry


In organic chemistry, KF can be used for the conversion of chlorocarbons into fluorocarbons, via the Finkelstein (alkyl halides)[5] and Halex reactions (aryl chlorides).[3] Such reactions usually employ polar solvents such as dimethyl formamide, ethylene glycol, and dimethyl sulfoxide.[6] More efficient fluorination of aliphatic halides can be achieved with a combination of crown ether and bulky diols in acetonitrile solvent.[7]

Potassium fluoride on alumina (KF/Al2O3) is a base used in organic synthesis. It was originally introduced in 1979 by Ando et al. for inducing alkylation reactions.[8] It is [9][verification needed]

Safety considerations


Like other sources of the fluoride ion, F, KF is poisonous, although lethal doses approach gram levels for humans. It is harmful by inhalation and ingestion. It is highly corrosive, and skin contact may cause severe burns.


  1. ^ "Potassium Fluoride". sigmaaldrich.com. Retrieved 2018-12-20.
  2. ^ Chambers, Michael. "ChemIDplus - 7789-23-3 - NROKBHXJSPEDAR-UHFFFAOYSA-M - Potassium fluoride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information". chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov.
  3. ^ a b Siegemund, Günter; Schwertfeger, Werner; Feiring, Andrew; Smart, Bruce; Behr, Fred; Vogel, Herward; McKusick, Blaine (2002). "Fluorine Compounds, Organic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a11_349. ISBN 978-3527306732..
  4. ^ "Potassium fluoride". University College London.
  5. ^ Vogel, A. I.; Leicester, J.; Macey, W. A. T. (1956). "n-Hexyl Fluoride". Organic Syntheses. 36: 40. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.036.0040.
  6. ^ Han, Q.; Li, H-Y. "Potassium Fluoride" in Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, 2001 John Wiley & Sons,New York. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rp214
  7. ^ Silva, Samuel L.; Valle, Marcelo S.; Pliego, Josefredo R. (2020-12-04). "Nucleophilic Fluorination with KF Catalyzed by 18-Crown-6 and Bulky Diols: A Theoretical and Experimental Study". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 85 (23): 15457–15465. doi:10.1021/acs.joc.0c02229. ISSN 0022-3263. PMID 33227195. S2CID 227156364.
  8. ^ Blass, Benjamin E. (2002). "KF/Al2O3 Mediated organic synthesis". Tetrahedron. 58 (46): 9301–9320. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(02)00992-4.
  9. ^ Ando, Takashi; Yamawaki, Junko (1979). "Potassium Fluoride on Celite. A Versatile Reagent for C-, N-, O-, and S-Alkylations". Chemistry Letters. 8: 45–46. doi:10.1246/cl.1979.45.