Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of mood disorder associated with childbirth, which can affect both sexes. Symptoms may include extreme sadness, low energy, anxiety, crying episodes, irritability, and changes in sleeping or eating patterns. Onset is typically between one week and one month following childbirth. PPD can also negatively affect the newborn child.
|Symptoms||Extreme sadness, low energy, anxiety, changes in sleeping or eating patterns, crying episodes, irritability|
|Usual onset||Week to month after childbirth|
|Risk factors||Prior postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, family history of depression, psychological stress, complications of childbirth, lack of support, drug use disorder|
|Diagnostic method||Based on symptoms|
|Differential diagnosis||Baby blues|
|Frequency||~15% of births|
While the exact cause of PPD is unclear, the cause is believed to be a combination of physical and emotional factors. These may include factors such as hormonal changes and sleep deprivation. Risk factors include prior episodes of postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, a family history of depression, psychological stress, complications of childbirth, lack of support, or a drug use disorder. Diagnosis is based on a person's symptoms. While most women experience a brief period of worry or unhappiness after delivery, postpartum depression should be suspected when symptoms are severe and last over two weeks.
Among those at risk, providing psychosocial support may be protective in preventing PPD. Treatment for PPD may include counseling or medications. Types of counseling that have been found to be effective include interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and psychodynamic therapy. Tentative evidence supports the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
Postpartum depression affects about 15% of women around childbirth. Moreover, this mood disorder is estimated to affect 1% to 26% of new fathers. Postpartum psychosis, a more severe form of postpartum mood disorder, occurs in about 1 to 2 per 1,000 women following childbirth. Postpartum psychosis is one of the leading causes of the murder of children less than one year of age, which occurs in about 8 per 100,000 births in the United States.
Signs and symptomsEdit
Symptoms of PPD can occur any time in the first year postpartum. Typically, a diagnosis of postpartum depression is considered after signs and symptoms persist for at least two weeks. These symptoms include, but are not limited to:
- Persistent sadness, anxiousness or "empty" mood
- Severe mood swings
- Frustration, irritability, restlessness, anger
- Feelings of hopelessness or helplessness
- Guilt, shame, worthlessness
- Low self-esteem
- Numbness, emptiness
- Inability to be comforted
- Trouble bonding with the baby
- Feeling inadequate in taking care of the baby
- Lack of interest or pleasure in usual activities
- Low or no energy
- Low libido
- Changes in appetite
- Fatigue, decreased energy and motivation
- Poor self-care
- Social withdrawal
- Insomnia or excessive sleep
- Diminished ability to make decisions and think clearly
- Lack of concentration and poor memory
- Fear that you can not care for the baby or fear of the baby
- Worry about harming self, baby, or partner
Onset and durationEdit
Postpartum depression onset usually begins between two weeks to a month after delivery. A study done at an inner-city mental health clinic has shown that 50% of postpartum depressive episodes there began prior to delivery. Therefore, in the DSM-5 postpartum depression is diagnosed under "depressive disorder with peripartum onset", in which "peripartum onset" is defined as anytime either during pregnancy or within the four weeks following delivery. PPD may last several months or even a year. Postpartum depression can also occur in women who have suffered a miscarriage. For fathers, several studies show that men experience the highest levels of postpartum depression between 3–6 months postpartum.
Postpartum depression can interfere with normal maternal-infant bonding and adversely affect acute and longterm child development. Postpartum depression may lead mothers to be inconsistent with childcare. These childcare inconsistencies may include feeding routines, sleep routines, and health maintenance.
In rare cases, or about 1 to 2 per 1,000, the postpartum depression appears as postpartum psychosis. In these, or among women with a history of previous psychiatric hospital admissions, infanticide may occur. In the United States, postpartum depression is one of the leading causes of annual reported infanticide incidence rate of about 8 per 100,000 births.
The cause of PPD is not well understood. Hormonal changes, genetics, and major life events have been hypothesized as potential causes.
Evidence suggests that hormonal changes may play a role. Hormones which have been studied include estrogen, progesterone, thyroid hormone, testosterone, corticotropin releasing hormone, and cortisol.
Fathers, who are not undergoing profound hormonal changes, can also have postpartum depression. The cause may be distinct in males.
Profound lifestyle changes that are brought about by caring for the infant are also frequently hypothesized to cause PPD. However, little evidence supports this hypothesis. Mothers who have had several previous children without suffering PPD can nonetheless suffer it with their latest child. Despite the biological and psychosocial changes that may accompany pregnancy and the postpartum period, most women are not diagnosed with PPD.
While the causes of PPD are not understood, a number of factors have been suggested to increase the risk:
- Prenatal depression or anxiety
- A personal or family history of depression
- Moderate to severe premenstrual symptoms
- Stressful life events experienced during pregnancy
- Maternity blues
- Birth-related psychological trauma
- Birth-related physical trauma
- Previous stillbirth or miscarriage
- Formula-feeding rather than breast-feeding
- Cigarette smoking
- Low self-esteem
- Childcare or life stress
- Low social support
- Poor marital relationship or single marital status
- Low socioeconomic status
- Infant temperament problems/colic
- Unplanned/unwanted pregnancy
- Elevated prolactin levels
- Oxytocin depletion
Of these risk factors, formula-feeding, a history of depression, and cigarette smoking have been shown to have additive effects. Some studies have found a link with low levels of DHA in the mother.
These above factors are known to correlate with PPD. This correlation does not mean these factors are causal. Rather, they might both be caused by some third factor. Contrastingly, some factors almost certainly attribute to the cause of postpartum depression, such as lack of social support.
Not surprisingly, women with fewer resources indicate a higher level of postpartum depression and stress than those women with more resources, such as financial. Rates of PPD have been shown to decrease as income increases. Women with fewer resources may be more likely to have an unintended or unwanted pregnancy, increasing risk of PPD. Women with fewer resources may also include single mothers of low income. Single mothers of low income may have more limited access to resources while transitioning into motherhood.
Studies have also shown a correlation between a mother's race and postpartum depression. African American mothers have been shown to have the highest risk of PPD at 25%, while Asian mothers had the lowest at 11.5%, after controlling for social factors such as age, income, education, marital status, and baby's health. The PPD rates for First Nations, Caucasian and Hispanic women fell in between.
One of the strongest predictors of paternal PPD is having a partner who has PPD, with fathers developing PPD 50% of the time when their female partner has PPD.
Sexual orientation has also been studied as a risk factor for PPD. In a 2007 study conducted by Ross and colleagues, lesbian and bisexual mothers were tested for PPD and then compared with a heterosexual sample group. It was found that lesbian and bisexual biological mothers had significantly higher Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores than did the heterosexual women in the sample. These higher rates of PPD in lesbian/bisexual mothers may reflect less social support, particularly from their families of origin and additional stress due to homophobic discrimination in society.
A correlation between postpartum thyroiditis and postpartum depression has been proposed but remains controversial. There may also be a link between postpartum depression and anti-thyroid antibodies.
A meta-analysis reviewing research on the association of violence and postpartum depression showed that violence against women increases the incidence of postpartum depression. About one-third of women throughout the world will experience physical or sexual violence at some point in their lives. Violence against women occurs in conflict, post-conflict, and non-conflict areas. It is important to note that the research reviewed only looked at violence experienced by women from male perpetrators, but did not consider violence inflicted on men or women by women. Further, violence against women was defined as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women". Psychological and cultural factors associated with increased incidence of postpartum depression include family history of depression, stressful life events during early puberty or pregnancy, anxiety or depression during pregnancy, and low social support. Violence against women is a chronic stressor, so depression may occur when someone is no longer able to respond to the violence.
Postpartum depression in the DSM-5 is known as "depressive disorder with peripartum onset". Peripartum onset is defined as starting anytime during pregnancy or within the four weeks following delivery. There is no longer a distinction made between depressive episodes that occur during pregnancy or those that occur after delivery. Nevertheless, the majority of experts continue to diagnose postpartum depression as depression with onset anytime within the first year after delivery.
The criteria required for the diagnosis of postpartum depression are the same as those required to make a diagnosis of non-childbirth related major depression or minor depression. The criteria include at least five of the following nine symptoms, within a two-week period:
- Feelings of sadness, emptiness, or hopelessness, nearly every day, for most of the day or the observation of a depressed mood made by others
- Loss of interest or pleasure in activities
- Weight loss or decreased appetite
- Changes in sleep patterns
- Feelings of restlessness
- Loss of energy
- Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
- Loss of concentration or increased indecisiveness
- Recurrent thoughts of death, with or without plans of suicide
Postpartum blues, commonly known as "baby blues," is a transient postpartum mood disorder characterized by milder depressive symptoms than postpartum depression. This type of depression can occur in up to 80% of all mothers following delivery. Symptoms typically resolve within two weeks. Symptoms lasting longer than two weeks are a sign of a more serious type of depression. Women who experience "baby blues" may have a higher risk of experiencing a more serious episode of depression later on.
Postpartum psychosis is not a formal diagnosis, but is widely used to describe a psychiatric emergency that appears to occur in about 1 in a 1000 pregnancies, in which symptoms of high mood and racing thoughts (mania), depression, severe confusion, loss of inhibition, paranoia, hallucinations and delusions begin suddenly in the first two weeks after delivery; the symptoms vary and can change quickly. It is different from postpartum depression and from maternity blues. It may be a form of bipolar disorder. It is important not to confuse psychosis with other symptoms that may occur after delivery, such as delirium. Delirium typically includes a loss of awareness or inability to pay attention.
About half of women who experience postpartum psychosis have no risk factors; but a prior history of mental illness, especially bipolar disorder, a history of prior episodes of postpartum psychosis, or a family history put some at a higher risk.
The most severe symptoms last from 2 to 12 weeks, and recovery takes 6 months to a year. Women who have been hospitalized for a psychiatric condition immediately after delivery are at a much higher risk of suicide during the first year after delivery.
In the US, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists suggests healthcare providers consider depression screening for perinatal women. Additionally, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends pediatricians screen mothers for PPD at 1-month, 2-month and 4-month visits. However, many providers do not consistently provide screening and appropriate follow-up. For example, in Canada, Alberta is the only province with universal PPD screening. This screening is carried out by Public Health nurses with the baby's immunization schedule.
The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, a standardized self-reported questionnaire, may be used to identify women who have postpartum depression. If the new mother scores 13 or more, she likely has PPD and further assessment should follow.
A 2013 Cochrane review found evidence that psychosocial or psychological intervention after childbirth helped reduce the risk of postnatal depression. These interventions included home visits, telephone-based peer support, and interpersonal psychotherapy. Support is an important aspect of prevention, as depressed mothers commonly state that their feelings of depression were brought on by "lack of support" and "feeling isolated."
In couples, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis of 2015, emotional closeness and global support by the partner protect against both perinatal depression and anxiety. Further factors such as communication between the couple and relationship satisfaction have a protective effect against anxiety alone.
A major part of prevention is being informed about the risk factors. The medical community can play a key role in identifying and treating postpartum depression. Women should be screened by their physician to determine their risk for acquiring postpartum depression. Also, proper exercise and nutrition appear to play a role in preventing postpartum depression and depressed mood in general.
In 2018, 24% of areas in the UK have no access to perinatal mental health specialist services.
Treatment for mild to moderate PPD includes psychological interventions or antidepressants. Women with moderate to severe PPD would likely experience a greater benefit with a combination of psychological and medical interventions. Exercise has been found to be useful for mild and moderate cases.
Both individual social and psychological interventions appear equally effective in the treatment of PPD. Social interventions include individual counseling and peer support, while psychological interventions include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT). Other forms of therapy, such as group therapy and home visits, are also effective treatments.
Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) has shown promising results with lower negative parenting behavior scores and lower rates of anxiety, stress, and depression. iCBT may be beneficial for mothers who have limitations in accessing in person CBT. However, the long term benefits have not been determined.
There have been a few studies of medications for treating PPD, however, the sample sizes were small, thus evidence is generally weak. Some evidence suggests that mothers with PPD will respond similarly to people with major depressive disorder. There is evidence which suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective treatment for PPD. However, a recent study has found that adding sertraline, an SSRI, to psychotherapy does not appear to confer any additional benefit. Therefore, it is not completely clear which antidepressants, if any, are most effective for treatment of PPD, and for whom antidepressants would be a better option than non-pharmacotherapy.
Some studies show that hormone therapy may be effective in women with PPD, supported by the idea that the drop in estrogen and progesterone levels post-delivery contribute to depressive symptoms. However, there is some controversy with this form of treatment because estrogen should not be given to people who are at higher risk of blood clots, which include women up to 12 weeks after delivery. Additionally, none of the existing studies included women who were breastfeeding.
There are currently no antidepressants that are FDA approved for use during lactation. Most antidepressants are excreted in breast milk. However, there are limited studies showing the effects and safety of these antidepressants on breastfed babies.
Postpartum depression is found across the globe, with rates varying from 11% to 42%. Around 3% to 6% of women will experience depression during pregnancy or shortly after giving birth. About 1 in 750 mothers will have postpartum depression with psychosis and their risk is higher if they have had postpartum episodes in the past.
Society and cultureEdit
Malay culture holds a belief in Hantu Meroyan; a spirit that resides in the placenta and amniotic fluid. When this spirit is unsatisfied and venting resentment, it causes the mother to experience frequent crying, loss of appetite, and trouble sleeping, known collectively as "sakit meroyan". The mother can be cured with the help of a shaman, who performs a séance to force the spirits to leave.
Some cultures believe that the symptoms of postpartum depression or similar illnesses can be avoided through protective rituals in the period after birth. Chinese women participate in a ritual that is known as "doing the month" (confinement) in which they spend the first 30 days after giving birth resting in bed, while the mother or mother-in-law takes care of domestic duties and childcare. In addition, the new mother is not allowed to bathe or shower, wash her hair, clean her teeth, leave the house, or be blown by the wind.
In the US, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act included a section focusing on research into postpartum conditions including postpartum depression. Some argue that more resources in the form of policies, programs, and health objectives need to be directed to the care of those with PPD.
The stigma of mental health - with or without support from family members and health professionals - often deters women from seeking help for their PPD. When medical help is achieved, some women find the diagnosis helpful and encourage a higher profile for PPD amongst the health professional community.
- "Postpartum Depression Facts". NIMH. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- Pearlstein, T; Howard, M; Salisbury, A; Zlotnick, C (April 2009). "Postpartum depression". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 200 (4): 357–64. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2008.11.033. PMC 3918890. PMID 19318144.
- Paulson, James F. (2010). "Focusing on depression in expectant and new fathers: prenatal and postpartum depression not limited to mothers". Psychiatry Times. 27 (2). Archived from the original on 2012-08-05.
- "Perinatal Depression: Prevalence, Screening Accuracy, and Screening Outcomes". Agency for Health Care Research and Quality. Archived from the original on 2013-11-11.
- Seyfried, LS; Marcus, SM (August 2003). "Postpartum mood disorders". International review of psychiatry (Abingdon, England). 15 (3): 231–42. doi:10.1080/09540260305196. PMID 15276962.
- Spinelli, MG (September 2004). "Maternal infanticide associated with mental illness: prevention and the promise of saved lives". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 161 (9): 1548–57. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.161.9.1548. PMID 15337641.
- The Boston Women's Health Book Collective: Our Bodies Ourselves, pages 489–491, New York: Touchstone Book, 2005
- WebMD: Understanding Post Partum Depression "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Depression Among Women | Depression | Reproductive Health | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
- Morof D, Barrett G, Peacock J, Victor CR, Manyonda I (December 2003). "Postnatal depression and sexual health after childbirth". Obstet Gynecol. 102 (6): 1318–25. doi:10.1016/j.obstetgynecol.2003.08.020. PMID 14662221.
- Postpartum Depression Archived 2012-02-25 at the Wayback Machine. from Pregnancy Guide, by Peter J. Chen, at Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Reviewed last on: 10/22/2008
- Yonkers, KA; Ramin, SM; Rush, AJ; Navarrete, CA; Carmody, T; March, D; Heartwell, SF; Leveno, KJ (November 2001). "Onset and persistence of postpartum depression in an inner-city maternal health clinic system". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 158 (11): 1856–63. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.11.1856. PMID 11691692.
- Canadian Mental Health Association > Post Partum Depression Archived 2010-10-21 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on June 13, 2010
- Miller LJ (February 2002). "Postpartum depression". JAMA. 287 (6): 762–5. doi:10.1001/jama.287.6.762. PMID 11851544.
- Paulson, J.F. (2010). "Prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers and its association with maternal depression: A metaanalysis". Journal of the American Medical Association. 303: 1961–1969.
- Field, T (Feb 2010). "Postpartum depression effects on early interactions, parenting, and safety practices: A review". Infant Behavior and Development. 33: 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.10.005. PMC 2819576.
- Laursen, TM; Munk-Olsen, T; Mortensen, PB; Abel, KM; Appleby, L; Webb, RT (May 2011). "Filicide in offspring of parents with severe psychiatric disorders: a population-based cohort study of child homicide". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 72 (5): 698–703. doi:10.4088/jcp.09m05508gre. PMID 21034682.
- Soares CN, Zitek B (July 2008). "Reproductive hormone sensitivity and risk for depression across the female life cycle: a continuum of vulnerability?" (PDF). J Psychiatry Neurosci. 33 (4): 331–43. PMC 2440795. PMID 18592034. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-17.
- Goodman JH (January 2004). "Paternal postpartum depression, its relationship to maternal postpartum depression, and implications for family health". J Adv Nurs. 45 (1): 26–35. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02857.x. PMID 14675298.
- Nielsen Forman D, Videbech P, Hedegaard M, Dalby Salvig J, Secher NJ (October 2000). "Postpartum depression: identification of women at risk". BJOG. 107 (10): 1210–7. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2000.tb11609.x. PMID 11028570.
- Paschetta, Elena; Berrisford, Giles; Coccia, Floriana; Whitmore, Jennifer; Wood, Amanda G.; Pretlove, Sam; Ismail, Khaled M.K. (2014). "Perinatal psychiatric disorders: an overview". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 210 (6): 501–509.e6. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2013.10.009.
- Howard, Louise M; Molyneaux, Emma; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Rochat, Tamsen; Stein, Alan; Milgrom, Jeannette (2014). "Non-psychotic mental disorders in the perinatal period". The Lancet. 384 (9956): 1775–1788. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(14)61276-9.
- Beck CT (1996). "A meta-analysis of the relationship between postpartum depression and infant temperament". Nurs Res. 45 (4): 225–30. doi:10.1097/00006199-199607000-00006. PMID 8700656.
- McCoy SJ, Beal JM, Shipman SB, Payton ME, Watson GH (April 2006). "Risk factors for postpartum depression: a retrospective investigation at 4-weeks postnatal and a review of the literature". J Am Osteopath Assoc. 106 (4): 193–8. PMID 16627773.
- Stuart-Parrigon, K; Stuart, S (September 2014). "Perinatal depression: an update and overview". Current Psychiatry Reports. 16 (9): 468. doi:10.1007/s11920-014-0468-6. PMC 4920261. PMID 25034859.
- Mukherjee, Soumyadeep; Coxe, Stefany; Fennie, Kristopher; Madhivanan, Purnima; Trepka, Mary Jo (January 2017). "Stressful Life Event Experiences of Pregnant Women in the United States: A Latent Class Analysis". Women's Health Issues. 27 (1): 83–92. doi:10.1016/j.whi.2016.09.007. ISSN 1049-3867.
- Mukherjee, Soumyadeep; Coxe, Stefany; Fennie, Kristopher; Madhivanan, Purnima; Trepka, Mary Jo (March 2017). "Antenatal Stressful Life Events and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms in the United States: The Role of Women's Socioeconomic Status Indices at the State Level". Journal of Women's Health. 26 (3): 276–285. doi:10.1089/jwh.2016.5872. ISSN 1540-9996.
- Howell EA, Mora P, Leventhal H (March 2006). "Correlates of early postpartum depressive symptoms". Matern Child Health J. 10 (2): 149–57. doi:10.1007/s10995-005-0048-9. PMC 1592250. PMID 16341910.
- "Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers' milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis". Journal of Affective Disorders. 69 (1–3): 15–29. 2002-05-01. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(01)00374-3. ISSN 0165-0327.
- The causal role of lack of social support in PPD is strongly suggested by several studies, including O'Hara 1985, Field et al. 1985; and Gotlib et al. 1991.
- Segre, Lisa S.; O'Hara, Michael W.; Losch, Mary E. (2006). "Race/ethnicity and perinatal depressed mood". Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. 24 (2): 99–106. doi:10.1080/02646830600643908.
- Singley, Daniel (2015). "Men's Perinatal Mental Health in the Transition to Fatherhood". Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 46: 309–319.
- Ross LE, Steele L, Goldfinger C, Strike C (2007). "Perinatal depressive symptomatology among lesbian and bisexual women". Arch Womens Ment Health. 10 (2): 53–9. doi:10.1007/s00737-007-0168-x. PMID 17262172.
- Ross, Lori E.; Dennis, Cindy-Lee (2009). "The Prevalence of Postpartum Depression among Women with Substance Use, an Abuse History, or Chronic Illness: A Systematic Review". Journal of Women's Health. 18 (4): 475–486. doi:10.1089/jwh.2008.0953.
- Ross LE (2005). "Perinatal mental health in lesbian mothers: a review of potential risk and protective factors". Women Health. 41 (3): 113–28. doi:10.1300/J013v41n03_07. PMID 15970579.
- Williams Obstetrics. ISBN 9780071793278.
- Wu, Qian; Chen, Hong-Lin; Xu, Xu-Juan (2014-04-01). "Violence as a Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression in Mothers: A Meta-Analysis". Archives of Women's Mental Health. 15 (2): 107–114. doi:10.1007/s00737-011-0248-9.
- Western, Deborah (2013-01-01). A Conceptual and Contextual Background for Gender-Based Violence and Depression in Women. New York: Springer New York. pp. 13–22. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-7532-3_3. ISBN 978-1-4614-7531-6.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association. 2013.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- Wisner, KL; Parry, BL; Piontek, CM (18 July 2002). "Clinical practice. Postpartum depression". The New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (3): 194–9. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp011542. PMID 12124409.
- American Psychiatric Association (2013), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing, p. 186, ISBN 0890425558, archived from the original on 2017-10-25
- Jones, I; Chandra, PS; Dazzan, P; Howard, LM (15 November 2014). "Bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, and schizophrenia in pregnancy and the post-partum period". Lancet. 384 (9956): 1789–99. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(14)61278-2. PMID 25455249.
- "Postpartum Psychosis". Royal College of Psychiatrists. 2014. Archived from the original on 24 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- Wesseloo, R; Kamperman, AM; Munk-Olsen, T; Pop, VJ; Kushner, SA; Bergink, V (1 February 2016). "Risk of Postpartum Relapse in Bipolar Disorder and Postpartum Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 173 (2): 117–27. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.15010124. PMID 26514657.
- Orsolini, L; et al. (12 August 2016). "Suicide during Perinatal Period: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Correlates". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 7: 138. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00138. PMC 4981602. PMID 27570512.
- "Screening for Depression During and After Pregnancy". American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Committee Opinion. February 2010. Archived from the original on 2014-11-02.
- Earls, MF; Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health American Academy of, Pediatrics (November 2010). "Incorporating recognition and management of perinatal and postpartum depression into pediatric practice". Pediatrics. 126 (5): 1032–9. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-2348. PMID 20974776.
- Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R (June 1987). "Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale". Br J Psychiatry. 150 (6): 782–6. doi:10.1192/bjp.150.6.782. PMID 3651732.
- Dennis CL, Dowswell T (2013). Dennis, Cindy-Lee, ed. "Psychosocial and psychological interventions for preventing postpartum depression". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2: CD001134. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001134.pub3. PMID 23450532.
- PubMed Health. "Preventing postnatal depression". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- Dennis, C.-L.; Hodnett, E.; Kenton, L.; Weston, J.; Zupancic, J.; Stewart, D. E.; Kiss, A. (2009-01-16). "Effect of peer support on prevention of postnatal depression among high risk women: multisite randomised controlled trial". BMJ. 338: a3064. doi:10.1136/bmj.a3064. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 2628301. PMID 19147637. Archived from the original on 2016-04-10.
- Pilkington PD, Milne LC, Cairns KE, Lewis J, Whelan TA (2015). "Modifiable partner factors associated with perinatal depression and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Affective Disorders (Systematic review and meta-analysis). 178: 165–80. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2015.02.023. PMID 25837550.
- "Most of UK doesn't provide vital perinatal mental healthcare". OnMedica. 20 April 2018. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
- Langan, Robert C.; Goodbred, Andrew J. (2016-05-15). "Identification and Management of Peripartum Depression". American Family Physician. 93 (10). ISSN 0002-838X. Archived from the original on 2017-10-25.
- McCurdy, AP; Boulé, NG; Sivak, A; Davenport, MH (June 2017). "Effects of Exercise on Mild-to-Moderate Depressive Symptoms in the Postpartum Period: A Meta-analysis". Obstetrics and gynecology. 129 (6): 1087–1097. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000002053. PMID 28486363.
- Pritchett, RV; Daley, AJ; Jolly, K (October 2017). "Does aerobic exercise reduce postpartum depressive symptoms? a systematic review and meta-analysis". The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners. 67 (663): e684–e691. doi:10.3399/bjgp17X692525. PMC 5604832. PMID 28855163.
- Dennis, CL; Hodnett, E (Oct 17, 2007). "Psychosocial and psychological interventions for treating postpartum depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD006116. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006116.pub2. PMID 17943888.
- Fitelson, Elizabeth; Kim, Sarah; Baker, Allison Scott; Leight, Kristin (2010-12-30). "Treatment of postpartum depression: clinical, psychological and pharmacological options". International Journal of Women's Health. 3: 1–14. doi:10.2147/IJWH.S6938. ISSN 1179-1411. PMC 3039003. PMID 21339932.
- Lau, Ying; Htun, Tha Pyai; Wong, Suei Nee; Tam, Wai San Wilson; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee (2017-04-28). "Therapist-Supported Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Stress, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms Among Postpartum Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 19 (4): e138. doi:10.2196/jmir.6712. ISSN 1439-4456. PMC 5429436. PMID 28455276.
- Molyneaux, E; Howard, LM; McGeown, HR; Karia, AM; Trevillion, K (Sep 11, 2014). "Antidepressant treatment for postnatal depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9: CD002018. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002018.pub2. PMID 25211400.
- McDonagh, MS; Matthews, A; Phillipi, C; Romm, J; Peterson, K; Thakurta, S; Guise, JM (September 2014). "Depression drug treatment outcomes in pregnancy and the postpartum period: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Obstetrics and gynecology. 124 (3): 526–34. doi:10.1097/aog.0000000000000410. PMID 25004304.
- "Medscape Log In". www.medscape.com. Archived from the original on 2017-02-06. Retrieved 2017-10-31.
- O'Connor, Elizabeth; Rossom, Rebecca C.; Henninger, Michelle; Groom, Holly C.; Burda, Brittany U.; Henderson, Jillian T.; Bigler, Keshia D.; Whitlock, Evelyn P. (January 2016). "FDA Antidepressant Drug Labels for Pregnant and Postpartum Women". PubMed Health. Archived from the original on 2017-11-05.
- Dennis, CL; Dowswell, T (Jul 31, 2013). "Interventions (other than pharmacological, psychosocial or psychological) for treating antenatal depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 7: CD006795. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006795.pub3. PMID 23904069.
- Ali NS, Ali BS, Azam IS (2009). "Post partum anxiety and depression in peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study". BMC Public Health. 9: 384. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-384. PMC 2768706. PMID 19821971.
- Laderman, Carol (1987). Wives and midwives : childbirth and nutrition in rural Malaysia (1st pbk. ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 202. ISBN 9780520060364.
- McElroy, Ann; Townsend, Patricia K., eds. (2009). "Culture, Ecology, and Reproduction". Medical Anthropology in Ecological Perspective. pp. 217–66. ISBN 978-0-7867-2740-7.
- Klainin P, Arthur DG (October 2009). "Postpartum depression in Asian cultures: a literature review". Int J Nurs Stud. 46 (10): 1355–73. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.02.012. PMID 19327773.
- Rhodes, Ann M.; Segre, Lisa S. (6 June 2013). "Perinatal depression: a review of US legislation and law". Archives of Women's Mental Health. 16 (4): 259–270. doi:10.1007/s00737-013-0359-6. PMC 3725295. PMID 23740222.
- Cheng, Ching-Yu; Fowles, Eileen R.; Walker, Lorraine O. (2006). "Postpartum Maternal Health Care in the United States: A Critical Review". The Journal of Perinatal Education. 15 (3): 34–42. doi:10.1624/105812406X119002. ISSN 1058-1243. PMC 1595301. PMID 17541458.
- Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Chung-Lee, Leinic (December 2006). "Postpartum depression help-seeking barriers and maternal treatment preferences: a qualitative systematic review". Birth (Berkeley, Calif.). 33 (4): 323–331. doi:10.1111/j.1523-536X.2006.00130.x. ISSN 0730-7659. PMID 17150072.
- Edwards, Elizabeth; Timmons, Stephen (2005-01-01). "A qualitative study of stigma among women suffering postnatal illness". Journal of Mental Health. 14 (5): 471–481. doi:10.1080/09638230500271097. ISSN 0963-8237.
- Postpartum depression at Curlie
- "Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet". Womenshealth.gov. 6 March 2009. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012.
- Postnatal Depression, information from the mental health charity The Royal College of Psychiatrists
- NHS Choices Health A-Z: Postnatal depression