Positive real numbers
In mathematics, the set of positive real numbers, , is the subset of those real numbers that are greater than zero. The non-negative real numbers, , also include zero. Although the symbols and are ambiguously used for either of these, the notation or for and or for has also been widely employed, is aligned with the practice in algebra of denoting the exclusion of the zero element with a star, and should be understandable to most practicing mathematicians.
In a complex plane, is identified with the positive real axis, and is usually drawn as a horizontal ray. This ray is used as reference in the polar form of a complex number. The real positive axis corresponds to complex numbers , with argument .
The set is closed under addition, multiplication, and division. It inherits a topology from the real line and, thus, has the structure of a multiplicative topological group or of an additive topological semigroup.
and the multiplicative inverse function exchanges the intervals. The functions floor, , and excess, , have been used to describe an element as a continued fraction , which is a sequence of integers obtained from the floor function after the excess has been reciprocated. For rational , the sequence terminates with an exact fractional expression of , and for quadratic irrational , the sequence becomes a periodic continued fraction.
The ordered set ( , >) forms a total order but is not a well-ordered set. The doubly infinite geometric progression 10n, where n is an integer, lies entirely in ( , >) and serves to section it for access. forms a ratio scale, the highest level of measurement. Elements may be written in scientific notation as a × 10n, where 1 ≤ a < 10 and b is the integer in the doubly infinite progression, and is called the decade. In the study of physical magnitudes, the order of decades provides positive and negative ordinals referring to an ordinal scale implicit in the ratio scale.
In the study of classical groups, for every , the determinant gives a map from matrices over the reals to the real numbers: Restricting to invertible matrices gives a map from the general linear group to non-zero real numbers: . Restricting to matrices with a positive determinant gives the map ; interpreting the image as a quotient group by the normal subgroup, relation SL(n,ℝ) ◁ GL+(n,ℝ) expresses the positive reals as a Lie group.
If is an interval, then determines a measure on certain subsets of , corresponding to the pullback of the usual Lebesgue measure on the real numbers under the logarithm: it is the length on the logarithmic scale. In fact, it is an invariant measure with respect to multiplication by a , just as the Lebesgue measure is invariant under addition. In the context of topological groups, this measure is an example of a Haar measure.
The utility of this measure is shown in its use for describing stellar magnitudes and noise levels in decibels, among other applications of the logarithmic scale. For purposes of international standards ISO 80000-3, the dimensionless quantities are referred to as levels.
Including 0, the set has a semiring structure (0 being the additive identity), known as the probability semiring; taking logarithms (with a choice of base giving a logarithmic unit) gives an isomorphism with the log semiring (with 0 corresponding to −∞), and its units (the finite numbers, excluding −∞) correspond to the positive real numbers.
Let the first quadrant of the Cartesian plane. The quadrant itself is divided into four parts by the line and the standard hyperbola
The L ∪ H forms a trident while L ∩ H = (1,1) is the central point. It is the identity element of two one-parameter groups that intersect there:
- on L and on H.
The realms of business and science abound in ratios, and any change in ratios draws attention. The study refers to hyperbolic coordinates in Q. Motion against the L axis indicates a change in the geometric mean √, while a change along H indicates a new hyperbolic angle.