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WEIMAR REPUBLIC


Wappen Deutsches Reich (Weimarer Republik).svg
The Weimar Republic (German: Weimarer Republik [ˈvaɪmaʁɐ ʁepuˈbliːk] (About this soundlisten)) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the state remained Deutsches Reich (English: German Realm), unchanged since 1871. In English, the country was usually known simply as Germany.

A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism (with paramilitaries—both left- and right-wing) as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War.

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Beer Hall Putsch

The Marienplatz in Munich during the Beer Hall Putsch.

The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch, and, in German, as the Hitlerputsch or Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch, was a failed coup attempt by the Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler — along with Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff and other Kampfbund leaders — to seize power in Munich, Bavaria, during 8–9 November 1923. About two thousand Nazis marched to the centre of Munich, where they confronted the police, which resulted in the death of 16 Nazis and four police officers. Hitler himself was not wounded during the clash, although he locked his left arm with the right arm of Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter who, when he was shot and killed, pulled Hitler to the pavement with him. Hitler escaped immediate arrest and was spirited off to safety in the countryside. After two days, Hitler was arrested and charged with treason. (more...)

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Sketch of a woman in a café, 1925
Sketch of a woman in a café by Lesser Ury for a Berlin newspaper, 1925.

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Anita Berber

Anita Berber in 1918

Anita Berber (10 June 1899 – 10 November 1928) was a German dancer, actress, and writer who was the subject of an Otto Dix painting. She lived during the Weimar period.

Born in Leipzig to Felix Berber, First Violinist with the Municipal Orchestra, and Lucie Berber, an aspiring actress and singer, who later divorced, she was raised mainly by her grandmother in Dresden. By the age of 16, she had moved to Berlin and made her debut as a cabaret dancer. By 1918 she was working in film, and she began dancing nude in 1919. Scandalously androgynous, she quickly made a name for herself. She wore heavy dancer's make-up, which on the black-and-white photos and films of the time came across as jet black lipstick painted across the heart-shaped part of her skinny lips, and charcoaled eyes. (more...)

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Paul von Hindenburg
You know what the answer [to signing the Treaty of Versailles] must be. I am going for a walk… You have taken upon yourself a heavy responsibility.
Paul von Hindenburg, to General Wilhelm Groener, May 1919

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TOPICS

Chronologie of the Weimar Republic
Genesis (1918-1919) :
Formation (1919-1920) :
Normalization :

500,000,000 marks, Dresden, 1923

Demise (1933) :
Armed Forces

War Ensign of the Reichswehr

Politics
Weimar National Assembly • (Weimar Constitution) • Reichstag (Reichstag building), Reichsrat • President of Germany
  • Political parties
Communists : KPD (Young Communist League of Germany, Die Rote Fahne) • KAPD • KPO
Social democratic : USPD • SPD • SAPD
Political Catholic : BVP • Zentrum
Liberal : DDP • DVP • DFP • FVP • NLP
Conservative : DNVP
Right-wing : DFVP
Far-right : DAP • NSDAP
Weimar Coalition
Arts and Culture

1927's Metropolis by Fritz Lang was the first feature length science fiction film in history. It was produced at Studio Babelsberg, Germany.

Scientists (Nobel Prize)

Albert Einstein, official 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics photograph.

Physics : Johannes Stark (1919) • Albert Einstein (1921) • James Franck (1925) • Gustav Hertz (1925) • Werner Karl Heisenberg (1932)
Chemistry : Walther Hermann Nernst (1920)  • Heinrich Otto Wieland (1927) • Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (1928) • Hans Fischer (1930) • Carl Bosch (1931)  • Friedrich Bergius (1931)
Medicine : Otto Fritz Meyerhof (1922) • Otto Heinrich Warburg (1931)
Economy
Reichsmark • Papiermark • Rentenmark • Hyperinflation
Reichsbank
Symbols
Flag of the Weimar Republic • Das Lied der Deutschen

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