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Wales (Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəmri] (About this soundlisten)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2 (8,023 sq mi). Wales has over 1,680 miles (2,700 km) of coastline and is largely mountainous with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa), its highest summit. The country lies within the north temperate zone and has a changeable, maritime climate.

Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, and Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr briefly restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century. The whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party. Welsh national feeling grew over the century; Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and the Welsh Language Society in 1962. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters.

Selected article/Erthygl ddethol

A two-lane dual carriageway in a cutting.
The A4232, known as the Peripheral Distributor Road (Welsh: Ffordd Ddosbarthu Ymylol) or Cardiff Link Road (Ffordd Gyswllt Caerdydd), is a distributor road in Cardiff. The first section to be completed was the Southern Way Link Road in 1978 and the last section was the Butetown Link Road in 1995. The final section, the Eastern Bay Link Road, is yet to be built, with no date when construction may start. When fully completed, the road will form part of the Cardiff ring road system. The A4232 runs west, south and east of Cardiff, with the M4 motorway between junction 30 and junction 33 completing the northern section. The A4232 is dual carriageway for its entire length except for the East Moors Viaduct, which is a single carriageway.

The A4232 has been constructed in separate link roads of between 1.61 km (1.00 mi) and 5.47 km (3.40 mi) around Cardiff and to date 22 km (14 mi) including spurs have been opened to traffic, with plans for a further 5.53 km (3.44 mi). It has four large viaducts (Ely Viaduct, Grangetown Viaduct, Taff Viaduct and the East Moors Viaduct), one tunnel (Queen's Gate Tunnel) and two spur roads (Cogan Spur and Central Link Road). The road also has many smaller bridges over or under most of the interchanges on the road. The entire length of the road has clearway restrictions on it.

Selected image/Delwedd ddethol

Cardiff City Hall
Credit: Oliwan

A view from the headland of Cardiff City Hall.

Did you know...?/A wyddwch...?

Selected biography/Bywgraffiad dethol

William Cragh (born c. 1262, died some time after 1307), or William the Scabby (cragh means "scabby" in Welsh), or William ap Rhys, was a medieval Welsh warrior and supporter of Rhys ap Maredudd, lord of the lands of Ystrad Tywi, in his rebellion against King Edward I of England. Captured in 1290 by the son of William de Briouze, the Cambro-Norman Lord of Gower, he was tried and found guilty of having killed thirteen men. Cragh was executed just outside Swansea within sight of de Briouze's Swansea Castle, twice, as the gallows collapsed during his first hanging. Lady Mary de Briouze decided for reasons unknown to intercede on Cragh's behalf, and prayed to the deceased Bishop of Hereford, Thomas de Cantilupe, asking him to ask God to bring Cragh back from the dead. Cragh began to show signs of life the day after his execution, and over the subsequent few weeks made a full recovery, living for at least another eighteen years.

The main primary source for Cragh's story is the record of the investigation into the canonisation of Thomas de Cantilupe, which is held in the Vatican Library. Cragh's resurrection was one of thirty-eight miracles presented to the papal commissioners who in 1307 were charged with examining the evidence for Cantilupe's saintliness. The hanged man himself gave evidence to the commission, after which nothing more is known of him. Cantilupe was formally canonised by Pope John XXII on 17 April 1320.

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Selected quote/Dyfyniad dethol

Roald Dahl, photographed by Carl Van Vechten
The Bristol Channel was always my guide, and I was always able to draw an imaginary line from my bed to our house over in Wales. It was a great comfort.
Roald Dahl, speaking during the mid 1950s

Wales topics/Topigau Cymru

Featured content/Prif gynnwys

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Featured articles: King Arthur · Asser · William Cragh · Russell T Davies · John Dee · Rhys ap Gruffydd · Tom Pryce · Sasha (DJ) · Senghenydd colliery disaster · Slate industry in Wales · Talyllyn Railway · Wales national rugby union team · Alfred Russel Wallace

Featured lists: List of alumni of Jesus College, Oxford: Clergy · List of alumni of Jesus College, Oxford: Law and government · List of alumni of Jesus College, Oxford: Mathematics, medicine and science · List of alumni of Jesus College, Oxford · Friends of Friendless Churches · List of Honorary Fellows of Jesus College, Oxford · List of founding Fellows, Scholars and Commissioners of Jesus College, Oxford · List of County Court venues in England and Wales · List of former county courts in Wales · List of Principals and Fellows of Jesus College, Oxford · List of Wales international footballers · List of Wales national football team hat-tricks


Good articles: A4232 road · Aberdaron · Anglesey Central Railway · Rakie Ayola · Norman Biggs · Bullet for My Valentine · Caernarfon Castle · Caernarfon town walls · Caffo · Capel Lligwy · Cardiff Arms Park · Cardiff Castle · Conwy town walls · Andrew Crofts (footballer) · (Drawing) Rings Around the World · Ebbw Valley Railway · Timothy Everest · Flat Holm · Golden Retriever (song) · Arthur Gould (rugby player) · Hello Sunshine · The Holy Bible (album) · It's Not the End of the World? · Herbert Armitage James · Barry John · Gethin Jones · Juxtapozed with U · Kidwelly and Llanelly Canal · Llanishen Reservoir · Llantwit Major · John McFall (athlete) · Milford Haven · Millennium Stadium · Neath and Tennant Canal · Old Bridge, Pontypridd · Old Church of St Gwenllwyfo, Llanwenllwyfo · Our Lady Star of the Sea and St Winefride, Amlwch · Parc Cwm long cairn · Penmon · Phantom Phorce · Phantom Power (Super Furry Animals album) · Pont-y-Cafnau · Guto Puw · Raglan Castle · Rhondda · Rings Around the World · Senedd · Sibyl de Neufmarché · Slow Life · Snowdon · St Caian's Church, Tregaian · St Beuno's Church, Trefdraeth · St Ceidio's Church, Rhodogeidio · St Cristiolus's Church, Llangristiolus · St Cwyllog's Church, Llangwyllog · St Deiniol's Church, Llanddaniel Fab · St Eleth's Church, Amlwch · St Fflewin's Church, Llanfflewin · St Gallgo's Church, Llanallgo · St Gwenllwyfo's Church, Llanwenllwyfo · St Iestyn's Church, Llaniestyn · St Llibio's Church, Llanllibio · St Mary's Church, Bodewryd · St Mary's Church, Llanfair Mathafarn Eithaf · St Mary's Church, Pentraeth · St Mary's Church, Rhodogeidio · St Mary's Church, Tal-y-llyn · St Pabo's Church, Llanbabo · St Peirio's Church, Rhosbeirio · St Peulan's Church, Llanbeulan · St Twrog's Church, Bodwrog · St Tyfrydog's Church, Llandyfrydog · The Tale of The Flopsy Bunnies · Wales · Wales Millennium Centre · David Watts Morgan · Welsh Springer Spaniel · Y Gododdin

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