Krummholz or Krumholtz formation (German: krumm, "crooked, bent, twisted" and Holz, "wood") — also called Knieholz ("knee timber") — is a particular feature of subarctic and subalpine tree line landscapes. Continual exposure to fierce, freezing winds causes vegetation to become stunted and deformed. Under these conditions, trees can only survive where they are sheltered by rock formations or snow cover. As the lower portion of these trees continue to grow, the coverage becomes extremely dense near the ground.
Common trees showing Krumholtz formation include Balsam Fir, Red Spruce, Black Spruce, Subalpine Fir, Subalpine Larch, Engelmann Spruce, Limber Pine, and Lodgepole Pine. Instances of the Krumholtz form of Black Spruce, Picea mariana, are found in the northern Canadian Boreal forests. Krumholtz-form Black Spruce and Balsam Fir are abundant in the Alpine Transition Zone of the White Mountains of New Hampshire.
Krubsack pictured in 1919 sitting in the chair that he grew himself.
John Krubsack (1858-1941) was a banker and naturalist from Embarrass, Wisconsin. He conceived, planted and shaped living trees to create the first known grown chair. He started his chair in 1903 and harvested 11 years later in 1914.
In addition to banking, Krubsack was a prominent naturalist who farmed, made cheese, and landscaped his property long before these were common practice.Read more...
His house was the first in his region to have running water. He also was skilled at piecing together furniture from found branches. He’d scour the local river flats with a yardstick and a saw, looking for just the right shaped piece of blue beech, a hardwood tree with a smooth, wavy bark and a beautiful blue color when varnished. John took his youngest son, Hugo, on these weekend wood-hunting excursions, and it was during one of his trips that the idea first came to him to grow his own chair.