The Terrorism portal
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a religious or political aim. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence against peacetime targets or in war against non-combatants. The terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but gained mainstream popularity during the U.S. presidency of Ronald Reagan (1981–89) after the 1983 Beirut barracks bombings and again after the 2001 September 11 attacks and the 2002 Bali bombings.
There is no commonly accepted definition of "terrorism". Being a charged term, with the connotation of something "morally wrong", it is often used, both by governments and non-state groups, to abuse or denounce opposing groups. Broad categories of political organisations have been claimed to have been involved in terrorism to further their objectives, including right-wing and left-wing political organisations, nationalist groups, religious groups, revolutionaries and ruling governments. Terrorism-related legislation has been adopted in various states, regarding "terrorism" as a crime. There is no universal agreement as to whether or not "terrorism", in some definition, should be regarded as a war crime.
According to the Global Terrorism Database maintained by the University of Maryland, College Park, more than 61,000 incidents of non-state terrorism, resulting in at least 140,000 deaths, have been recorded from 2000 to 2014.
The World Trade Center
) was a complex in Lower Manhattan
in New York City
whose seven buildings were destroyed in 2001
in the September 11 terrorist attacks
. The site is currently being rebuilt with six new skyscrapers and a memorial to the casualties of the attacks. The original World Trade Center was designed by Minoru Yamasaki
in the early 1960s using a tube-frame structural design
for the twin 110-story towers. In gaining approval for the project, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
agreed to take over the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad
which became the Port Authority Trans-Hudson
(PATH). Groundbreaking for the World Trade Center took place on August 5, 1966. The North Tower (1) was completed in December 1970 and the South Tower (2) was finished in July 1971. Construction of the World Trade Center
involved excavating a large amount of material which was used in making Battery Park City
on the west side of Lower Manhattan. The complex was located in the heart of New York City
's downtown financial district and contained 13.4 million square feet (1.24 million m2
) of office space. The Windows on the World
restaurant was located on the 106th and 107th floors of the North Tower
, while the Top of the World
observation deck was located on the 107th floor of the South Tower
. Other World Trade Center buildings included the Marriott World Trade Center
; 4 World Trade Center
; 5 World Trade Center
; 6 World Trade Center
, which housed the United States Customs
; and 7 World Trade Center
, which was built in 1985. The World Trade Center experienced a fire on February 13, 1975 and a bombing
on February 26, 1993. In 1998, the Port Authority decided to privatize the World Trade Center, leasing the buildings to a private company to manage, and awarded the lease to Silverstein Properties
in July 2001. On the morning of September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda
-affiliated hijackers flew two 767
jets into the complex, one into each tower, in a coordinated suicide attack - resulting in 2,750 deaths. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation
(LMDC), established in November 2001 to oversee the rebuilding process, organized competitions to select a site plan
and memorial design. Memory Foundations
, designed by Daniel Libeskind
, was selected as the master plan, which included the 1,776-foot (541 m) 1 World Trade Center
, three office towers along Church Street and a memorial designed by Michael Arad
USS Arizona (BB-39) burning during the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941.
There is speculation that anthrax mailed inside letters to U.S. politicians was the work of a lone wolf.
How terrorist groups end (n = 268): The most common ending for a terrorist group is to convert to nonviolence via negotiations (43 percent), with most of the rest terminated by routine policing (40 percent). Groups that were ended by military force constituted only 7 percent.
Number of failed, foiled or successful terrorist attacks by year and type within the European Union. Source: Europol.
Sign notifying shoppers of increased surveillance due to a perceived increased risk of terrorism
Seal of the Jacobin Club: 'Society of the Jacobins, Friends of Freedom and Equality'.
Terrorist incidents, 1970–2015. A total of 157,520 incidents are plotted. Orange: 1970–1999, Red: 2000–2015
Infant crying in Shanghai's South Station after the Japanese bombing, 28 August 1937.
The Wall Street bombing at noon on September 16, 1920 killed thirty-eight people and injured several hundred. The perpetrators were never caught.
Top 10 Countries (2000–2014)
Worldwide non-state terrorist incidents 1970–2015
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Idi Amin Dada
(c.1925 – 16 August 2003) was the military dictator
and President of Uganda
from 1971 to 1979. Amin joined the British colonial
regiment, the King's African Rifles
, in 1946, and eventually held the rank of Major General
of the Ugandan Army
. He took power in a military coup of January 1971
, deposing Milton Obote
. Amin's rule was characterised by human rights
abuses, political repression
, ethnic persecution
, extrajudicial killings
and gross economic mismanagement. The number of people killed as a result of his regime is estimated by international observers and human rights groups to range from 100,000 to 500,000. Notable backers of Amin included Muammar al-Gaddafi
, the Soviet Union
and East Germany
, with early support for his regime coming from Great Britain
, and Apartheid South Africa
. In 1975–1976, Amin became the Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity
, a pan-Africanist
group designed to promote solidarity of the African states. During the 1977–1979 period, Uganda was appointed to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights
. From 1977 to 1979, Amin titled himself as "His Excellency
, President for Life
, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor
Idi Amin Dada, VC
, DSO, MC
, Conqueror of the British Empire
in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular". Dissent within Uganda and Amin's attempt to annex
province of Tanzania
in 1978 led to the Uganda-Tanzania War
and the demise of his regime. Amin fled first to Libya
, then to Saudi Arabia
, where he died in 2003.
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