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Sufism

Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (Arabic: الْتَّصَوُّف‎; personal noun: صُوفِيّṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, مُتَصَوّفmutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism", "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam", is mysticism in Islam, "characterized ... [by particular] values, ritual practices, doctrines and institutions" which began very early in Islamic history and represents "the main manifestation and the most important and central crystallization of" mystical practice in Islam. Practitioners of Sufism have been referred to as "Sufis" (Arabic plurals: صُوفِيَّةṣūfiyyah; صُوفِيُّونṣūfiyyūn; مُتَصَوُّفََةmutaṣawwufah; مُتَصَوُّفُونmutaṣawwufūn).

Historically, Sufis have often belonged to different ṭuruq, or "orders" – congregations formed around a grand master referred to as a wali who traces a direct chain of successive teachers back to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. These orders meet for spiritual sessions (majalis) in meeting places known as zawiyas, khanqahs or tekke. They strive for ihsan (perfection of worship), as detailed in a hadith: "Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him; if you can't see Him, surely He sees you." Rumi stated: "The Sufi is hanging on to Muhammad, like Abu Bakr." Sufis regard Muhammad as al-Insān al-Kāmil, the primary perfect man who exemplifies the morality of God, and see him as their leader and prime spiritual guide.

All Sufi orders trace many of their original precepts from Muhammad through his son-in-law Ali, with the notable exception of the Naqshbandi, who claim to trace their origins from Muhammad through the first Rashid Caliph, Abu Bakr. Although the overwhelming majority of Sufis, both pre-modern and modern, were and are adherents of Sunni Islam, there also developed certain strands of Sufi practice within the ambit of Shia Islam during the late medieval period. Although Sufis were opposed to dry legalism, they strictly observed Islamic law and belonged to various schools of Islamic jurisprudence and theology.

Sufis have been characterized by their asceticism, especially by their attachment to dhikr, the practice of remembrance of God, often performed after prayers. They gained adherents among a number of Muslims as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) and have spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium, initially expressing their beliefs in Arabic and later expanding into Persian, Turkish, and Urdu, among others. Sufis played an important role in the formation of Muslim societies through their missionary and educational activities. According to William Chittick, "In a broad sense, Sufism can be described as the interiorization, and intensification of Islamic faith and practice."

Selected article

Ab'ul Hasan Yamīn ud-Dīn Khusrau (1253–1325 CE) Hindi अमीर ख़ुसरौ, (Urdu: ابوالحسن یمین‌الدین خسرو‎;, better known as Amīr Khusraw (also Khusrow, Hazrat Khusrow, Ameer Khusru) Dehlawī (meaning Amir Khusrau of Delhi) (امیر خسرو دہلوی‬) was a Sufi musician, poet and scholar. He was an iconic figure in the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent. He was a mystic and a spiritual disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi. Amīr Khusrau is reputed to have invented certain musical instruments like the sitar and tabla. He wrote poetry primarily in Persian, but also in Hindavi. A vocabulary in verse, the Ḳhāliq Bārī, containing Arabic, Persian, and Hindavi terms is often attributed to him.

Selected biography

Ahmed Raza Khan Fazil-e-Barelvi (Urdu: احمد رضاخان‎, Hindi: अहमद रज़ा खान) (1856–1921 CE), popularly known as ala Hazrat, was a Sunni Hanafi scholar who founded the Barelvi movement of South Asia.Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi belonged to the Barech tribe of Durrani Pushtuns. The Barech formed a tribal grouping among the Rohilla Pushtuns of North India who founded the state of Rohilkhand. The ancestors of Ahmed Raza Khan migrated from Qandahar during the Mughal rule and settled in Lahore.Ahmad Raza Khan was born on 14 June 1856 in Muhallah Jasoli, Bareilly Sharif, British India. His birth name is Muhammad, Khan used the appellation "Abdul Mustafa" (slave [or servant] of Mustafa) prior to signing his name in correspondence.

Did you know...

DYK question mark
  • ...that a major population in South Asia, Central Asia, Southern Russia and Indonesia became Muslim solely due to the missionary work of Sufi tariqas.
  • ....murraqba and zikr e qalbi are some of the practices of Sufism.
  • ....Discussing the characteristics of Tassawuf and Sufis, Hazrat Ali Hujwari supports what Hazrat Junaid Baghdadi says about these qualities. Hazrat Junaid attributes the following eight exemplary qualities of a Sufi. A true Sufi possesses:
  • The courage and magnanimity of Prophet Ibrahim.
  • The obedience of Prophet Ismail.
  • The patience and forbearance of Prophet Ayub.
  • The signs of Prophet Zakaria.
  • The poverty of Prophet Yahya.
  • The traveling nature of Prophet Isa (Jesus).
  • The simplicity of dress of Prophet Muss (Moses).
  • The Fuqr (contentment and renunciation) of Prophet Mohammed.
  • In the Holy Quran LA ILLAHA ILLAL LA HO WAHDAHO LASHARIQA LAHO Allah revealed:

Behold! Verily on the friends Of Allah (GOD) there is no fear, nor shall they grieve; those who believe and (Constantly) guard against evil. For them is Glad Tiding, in the life of the Present, And in the Hereafter: No change can there be in the Words of Allah (GOD). This is indeed the supreme Felicity. [10:62]

  • In another words Allah TA'ALA have revealed in the Holy Quran:-

None one can be its guardian except Al-Muttagun (The pious, Saints) But most of them know not. [8:34]

  • Allah TA'ALA declares that:

Verily, he who has purified the Nafs has attained victory, and he who has despoiled it has lost.

  • Allah TA'ALA also states that:

That day of Qiyamat (the day of doom) neither wealth nor sons will benefit anyone, but that person who comes to Allah with a reformed hearts.

Sufism topics

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Tomb of Bu Ali Shah Qalandar

Tomb of Bu Ali Shah Qalandar

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"Don't the arrow in the bow aim,
In order, O friend, my life to claim
Within me none but a Human reside
Shooting me would be your own suicide.

"

- Shah Abdul latif Bhittai

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