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Introduction

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South Sudan (/sˈdɑːn, -ˈdæn/ (About this soundlisten)), officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.It gained independence from the Republic of the Sudan in 2011, making it the most recently recognized sovereign state. Its capital and largest city is Juba.

South Sudan is bordered by Sudan to the north, Ethiopia to the east, Kenya to the southeast, Uganda to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest and the Central African Republic to the west. It includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal (Arabic: بحر ال جبل), meaning "Mountain Sea". Sudan was occupied by Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty and was governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon broke out, ending in 2005 with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Later that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following 98.83% support for independence in a January 2011 referendum. It has suffered ethnic violence and endured a civil war since 2013.

Selected panorama

Mount Kinyeti
Credit: AIMikhin

Panoramic from the top of Mount Kinyeti

Selected article

Oil Sudan & South Sudan as of 2004. Block 3 (Adar) in the east.

The Adar oilfield, also known as the Adar Yale, Adar Yeil or Adaril field, is an oilfield situated in the Melut Basin in South Sudan estimated to contain about 276 million barrels (43,900,000 m3) of oil. The Chevron Corporation discovered the Adar Yale field in 1981, shortly before the start of the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005). Soon after Chevron had suspended operations in 1984, Sudanese government troops began attacking civilian settlements in the area, burning the houses and driving the people away, and in the late 1990s, Nuer militias from Nasir helped the army in clearing away the people to make way for the roads and infrastructure of the oilfield.

President Omar al-Bashir inaugurated the site in March 1997, and it initially produced just 5,000 barrels (790 m3) a day. Production from this oilfield, which lies close to the borders with Sudan and Ethiopia, has the potential to bring significant economic benefits to the region. However, until recently the focus has been on clearing the population away from the oilfield rather than on a longer term strategy for developing the region. China has provided a large investment in the Adar oilfield and others in South Sudan and Sudan and has made plans to make extensive further investments. Read more...

Selected biography

John Garang waving to the people

Guor Marial (born 15 April 1984) is a South Sudanese track and field athlete. He is a Dinka tribesman.

Marial competed in the men's marathon at the 2012 Summer Olympics. Because South Sudan did not yet have a recognized national Olympic committee (NOC), Marial competed under the Olympic Flag at the 2012 Olympics, rather than the South Sudanese flag. He is one of four athletes competing in the 2012 Summer Olympics under the Olympic flag rather than that of an individual country.

The National Olympic Committee of Sudan offered to allow Marial to compete as a member of the Sudanese team. Marial rejected this offer, saying, "It's not right for me to do that. It's not right for me to represent the country I refuged from." He went on to say, "If I ran for Sudan, I would be betraying my people. I would be dishonoring the two million people who died for our freedom."

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