Saskatchewan: Saskatchewan and Alberta, the twin provinces were both formed (1 Sept., 1905), by an Act of the Dominion Parliament, which gave them an identical constitution. Saskatchewan derives its name from the important river, Kissiskatchiwan, or Swift Current, now better known under the abbreviation of Saskatchewan, whose two branches drain it from west to east.
Saskatchewan was made up of the unorganized districts of Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, and Eastern Athabasca. The southern and northern boundaries (49 deg. and 60 deg. N. lat.). Saskatchewan lies between 102 deg. and 110 deg. W. long. The greatest length is 760 miles. Saskatchewan is 393 miles wide in the south, and 277 in the north, thus forming an immense quadrangle of 250,650 sq. miles, of which 8318 are water.
Saskatchewan may be described as a vast plain, quite treeless in the south, with an average elevation of 1500 feet above the sea-level. Its northernmost part is considerably lower, since Lake Athabasca, in the extreme north-east is only 690 feet above sea-level. The climate is exceedingly healthful, though the cold is at times intense on the treeless prairies of Saskatchewan. This immense region is traversed by the River Saskatchewan which has its source in the Rocky Mountains, and after winding its way for some 1200 miles, empties into Lake Winnipeg. There is also in the Province of Saskatchewan proper the Beaver River which, after passing through a long chain of more or less important lakes, becomes the Churchill, and pursues its course in an easterly direction until it empties itself into Hudson Bay, at the trading post of the same name. Saskatchewan counts such bodies of water as Cree Lake, 407 square miles; Wollaston Lake, 906 square miles; Reindeer or Caribou Lake, 2437 square miles, and a host of smaller ones, which lie mostly in the north. There are in either province few mountains, none of which are important.
Saskatchewan is par excellence the wheat-growing region of Canada. Its plains are famous for their fertility. They extend from the international boundary, practically to Prince Albert, 53 deg. 15 min. N. lat., where the northern forest, which itself contains important stretches of agricultural land, commences. Adapted from Catholic Encyclopedia (1913) (Saskatchewan and Alberta)