Portal:Puerto Rico/Did you know-Puerto Rico?

Did you know-Puerto Rico?
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Coat of arms of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.svg
Flag of Puerto Rico  Coat of arms of Puerto Rico

Do you know an interesting fact about Puerto Rico or its people? Tell us about it in the "talk" page and it will be posted if it is approved!

Did You Know - Puerto Rico? is a list that contains interesting but little known facts about Puerto Rico and its people. Each addition to the list must provide a reliable verifiable source otherwise it will be removed.

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A Puerto Rican Cuatro
Young girl eating a "piragua" in Puerto Rico
Baile (Bomba y Plena) De Loíza Aldea by Antonio Broccoli Porto
External audio
  You may view a newsreel of Rivero in the world's first "Walk-A-Thon" here
  1. That... the Cuatro is the national instrument of Puerto Rico?
  2. That... Telemundo, the second largest Spanish-language television station in the United States, was founded by the Puerto Rican industrialist Ángel Ramos in Puerto Rico?
  3. That... one of Café Rico's products, "San Carlos Selection", was the official coffee of the Vatican City?[1][2]
  4. That... the old lighthouse on Isla de Mona was designed by Gustave Eiffel?[3]
  5. That... the world-famous drink, the Piña Colada was invented in a house on Fortaleza Street in Old San Juan, Puerto Rico and that its main ingredient Coco López was invented by Ramón López Irizarry?
  6. That... San Juan is the largest home-based cruise port in the world?
  7. That... Puerto Rico is not an independent country,[4] but is rather a territory of the United States?
  8. That... Puerto Rico has never been an independent country?[4]
  9. That... there are more Puerto Ricans living in the rest of the United States than in the island of Puerto Rico itself?
  10. That... travel within the United States includes Puerto Rico, and no U.S. passport is necessary?
  11. That... by mutual agreement with the United States Congress, Puerto Rico is an independent taxation authority, and therefore Puerto Rico residents do not pay federal income taxes? Puerto Ricans living on the island instead pay income taxes to the local taxation authority.[5]
  12. That... as of 2003, twenty-five percent of all pharmaceutical products manufactured in the United States were shipped from Puerto Rico, and sixteen of the top twenty best selling prescription drugs in the United States were produced on the island?[6]
  13. That... Puerto Rico enjoys one of the planet's highest productivity ratios? That value-added in manufacturing on the island totals $10.02 for every dollar of production worker wages, more than double the mainland US average of $4.64?[7]
  14. That... the zip code 00601 is the lowest assigned to any geographic place in the United States or its territories and belongs to Adjuntas, Puerto Rico?[8]
  15. That... Puerto Rico's Tren Urbano is the Caribbean's first rapid transit system
  16. That... the Plaza Las Américas mall in San Juan is the most profitable mall per square foot in the world?[9]
  17. That... the biggest J. C. Penney in the world is located in Plaza Las Américas mall in Puerto Rico?[9]
  18. That... the world's first known Walk-A-Thon took place in Puerto Rico in 1953, and that it was organized by Puerto Rican comedian Ramón "Diplo" Rivero? "Diplo" walked 80 miles from the capital city of San Juan, crossing Puerto Rico up and down the treacherous mountain roads of Cayey, known as "La Piquiña", to Ponce, on the other side of the island, to raise money for the Liga Puertorriqueña Contra el Cáncer (the Puerto Rican League Against Cancer).[10]
  19. That... the Tibes Indigenous Ceremonial Center is the oldest Antillean Indian ceremonial and sports complex yet uncovered in Puerto Rico? Within its boundaries is also the largest indigenous cemetery yet discovered – consisting of 186 human skeletons, most from the Igneri and the rest from the pre-Taino cultures.[11] Based on the orientation of the ceremonial plazas, this is also believed to be the oldest astronomical observatory in the Antilles.[12]
  20. That... the Bomba is a music, rhythm and dance that was brought by West African slaves to the island of Puerto Rico.[13] and that the Plena was brought to Ponce by blacks who immigrated north from the English-speaking islands south of Puerto Rico?
  21. That... J. C. Penney's, Home Depot's, Kmart's, Sears' and Macy's highest sales per square foot are all in Puerto Rico?[14]
  22. That... the word Piragua (pi·ra·güa) in most Spanish-speaking countries means pirogue, a small, flat-bottomed boat?[15] However, that in Puerto Rico the word piragua refers to a frozen treat made of shaved ice and covered with fruit flavored syrup? The piragua is pointy and shaped like a pyramid. The word piragua is derived from the combination of the Spanish words "pirámide" (pyramid) and "agua" (water).[16] In Latin America, frozen treats similar to the piragua are known by many different names.[17]
  23. That... the holder of the current Guinness Record for the World's Smallest Jet, the Bede BD-5J Microjet is a native of Puerto Rico?[18]


Coat of Arms of Puerto Rico
Statue of Juan Ponce de León
Puerto Rican Flag (1892 version)
The Revolutionary flag of Lares
"The first Puerto Rican Flag"
Jamestown route in a marker in Puerto Rico
Puerto Rican flag removed by a member of the National Guard after the 1950 Nationalist Party uprising in the town of Jayuya, the Jayuya Uprising, part of an island-wide revolt against United States colonial control.
  1. That... In 1509, Juan Garrido, a conquistador in Juan Ponce de León's entourage, became the first African to set foot on the island?[19]
  2. That... the island of Puerto Rico was originally christened as "San Juan Bautista" (St. John the Baptist), whose capital was called Puerto Rico? That over the years, the names of the island and the capital were exchanged, and San Juan Bautista became the name of the capital while Puerto Rico became the name of the island?
  3. That... the state of Florida was discovered by Puerto Rico's first governor, Don Juan Ponce de León?
  4. That... slaves in Puerto Rico were branded on the forehead with a stamp so people would know they were brought in legally and it prevented them from being kidnapped? The method of hot branding was no longer used after 1784. See: African immigration to Puerto Rico[20]
  5. That... La Fortaleza in San Juan is the oldest executive mansion in the New World?
  6. That... the Puerto Rican coat of arms is the oldest official national seal still used in the Americas?
  7. That... in 1596, Sir Francis Drake, the famed British Admiral who defeated the Spanish Armada, was defeated twice in his attempts to take San Juan and that he died of dysentery while attacking the island?
  8. That... the English settlers who established Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in America, first stopped in Puerto Rico for provisions before heading towards Virginia? Yes, from April 5-10, 1607 the ships Godspeed, Susan Constant and Discovery made stops in Vieques, southern Puerto Rico, and Mona and Monito Islands on their way to Virginia.
  9. That... Puerto Rico met the requirements to be defined as a nation well before the Pilgrims came to the United States?
  10. That... on February 17, 1797, the Spanish-appointed governor of Puerto Rico, Brigadier Ramón de Castro believed that the local residents and foreigners of English and Irish descent supported the anti-Spanish military campaign and ordered to place them under surveillance, plus that many were given eight days to leave the island and those who did not leave were imprisoned?[21] Many of the people in Puerto Rico, among them Treasury official Felipe Antonio Mejía, were outraged at Castro's actions and came to the defense of the Irish. See: Irish immigration to Puerto Rico
  11. That... the bronze statue of Juan Ponce de León in the center of the Plaza de San Juan was made from British cannons captured during Sir Ralph Abercromby's attack in 1797?
  12. That... in 1821, Marcos Xiorro, a bozal slave, planned and conspired to lead a slave revolt against the sugar plantation owners and the Spanish Colonial government in Puerto Rico?[22]
  13. That... in 1822, there was an attempt, known as the Ducoudray Holstein Expedition, conceived, carefully planned and organized by General Henri La Fayette Villaume Ducoudray Holstein to invade Puerto Rico and declare it the "República Boricua"[23] and that General Ducoudray Holstein intended to make the city of Mayagüez the capital of the island?[23] The plans of the invasion were soon disclosed to the Spanish authorities and the plot never materialized.
  14. That... Old San Juan has more than four hundred carefully restored 16th and 17th century Spanish colonial buildings?
  15. That... Corsicans and those of Corsican descent have played an instrumental role in the development of the economy of the island, especially in the coffee industry? See: Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico[24]
  16. That... in 1858, wired communication in Puerto Rico began in the town of Arroyo, the first in Latin America, when Samuel Morse introduced the telegraph into the island?[25]
  17. That... when the United States enacted the Chinese Exclusion Act on May 6, 1882, many Chinese in the United States fled to Puerto Rico? They established small niches and worked in restaurants and laundries.[26]
  18. That... the "first Puerto Rican Flag" was the "Revolutionary flag of Lares"?. The flag was knitted by Mariana Bracetti and used in the short-lived rebellion against Spain known as the Grito de Lares (The Cry of Lares).[27]
  19. That... Puerto Rico once had a President? Francisco Ramírez Medina, who participated in the Grito de Lares, was temporarily named President of the "Republic of Puerto Rico" on September 28, 1868 until the revolt was ended by the Spanish Colonial Government?.
  20. That... Puerto Rico had an official currency (coins) minted and in circulation in 1898, and that extant samples of these coins in pristine condition are extremely valuable?
  21. That... Puerto Rico had an its own postage stamps and that the first stamps inscribed "Puerto Rico" were issued in 1873?[28]
  22. That... the Intentona de Yauco of March 26, 1897, was the last major uprising against Spanish Colonial rule in the island?[29]
  23. That... the Baños de Coamo, a popular resort, was damaged by artillery bombardments during the Puerto Rican Campaign of the Spanish–American War?[30]
  24. That... Puerto Rico has been a territory of the United States since 1898?
  25. That... after the Spanish–American War and up to 1904, Puerto Ricans were considered as "aliens" in the United States?[31]
  26. That... the public display of the Puerto Rican Flag was once considered a felony (from 1892 to 1954) and that anyone who did so could end up in jail?
  27. That... in 1906, Theodore Roosevelt, the first US President to travel outside the United States, made a stop in Puerto Rico (thus, becoming the first president to visit the island) and that he stayed overnight in Ponce?[32]
  28. That... in 1914, the Revenue Cutter Algonquin, which was stationed in the Caribbean, set sail with a crew of fifteen Hispanic-Americans (a fourth of the cutter's complement) to San Juan, Puerto Rico to assist the Puerto Ricans battling fires that threatened to destroy parts of that city? In 1915, the City of San Juan, Puerto Rico, paid tribute to the crew of the cutter Algonquin and presented them with an Official Resolution of Thanks.[33]
  29. That... Fort San Felipe del Morro was designated a World Heritage Site (a list that includes sites such as the Taj Mahal) by the United Nations in 1983, and a National Historical site by the United States?
  30. That... Puerto Rico has never had a civil war?
  31. That... even though Puerto Rico has never been an independent country, there is a Puerto Rican citizenship? Puerto Rican citizenship was first legislated by the U.S. Congress in Article 7 of the Foraker Act of 1900 and later recognized by the Puerto Rican constitution.[34][35]
  32. That .... on October 29, 1950, the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party revolted against US rule in Puerto Rico and that uprisings were held in various cities and towns in the island in what is known as the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party revolts of the 1950s?[36]
  33. That ... in 1948, Luis Muñoz Marín presided over the Puerto Rican legislature which was controlled by the PPD and that they approved the infamous "Ley de la Mordaza" known as Puerto Rico's Gag Law and that it became law with the signature of the United States-appointed governor Jesús T. Piñero? Did you also know that the law made it a crime to own or display a Puerto Rican flag, to sing a patriotic tune, to speak or write of independence, or to meet with anyone, or hold any assembly, with regard to the political status of Puerto Rico, violating the First Amendment of the US Constitution?[37]
  34. That ... according to the United States Supreme Court, Puerto Rico belongs to but is not part of the United States?[38]
  35. That ... the first commercial silent film was presented in the "Teatro La Perla" in Ponce in 1901?[39]

Law enforcementEdit

Sonia Sotomayor – U.S. Supreme Court Justice
  1. That... in 1950, the authorities in Puerto Rico placed a US$10,000 bounty on the head of outlaw Antonio Correa Cotto , either dead or alive, which was a first in the crime annals of the island?..[40]
  2. That... José A. Cabranes, Circuit Judge - is the first Puerto Rican to serve as a federal judge in the continental United States and that he was mentioned as possible Associate Justice?[41]
  3. That...Nicholas Estavillo, NYPD Chief of Patrol (Ret.) - is the first Puerto Rican and the first Hispanic in the history of the NYPD to reach the three-star rank of Chief of Patrol?[42]
  4. That... Faith Evans, was the first woman to be named U.S. Marshal?
  5. That... Dora Irizarry - was the first female Hispanic state judge in New York?
  6. That... Irma Lozada - was the first female police officer to die in action in New York?[43]
  7. That... Roberto Rivera-Soto - is the first Puerto Rican and Latino New Jersey State Supreme Court Justice?
  8. That... Joe Sánchez - is a former New York City police officer who is the author of "Ture Blue" and "Latin Blues", books which give an insight as to the corruption within the NYPD Department?[44]
  9. That... Sonia Sotomayor - is the first Puerto Rican woman and Hispanic to serve as a U.S. Circuit Court judge and to be nominated and confirmed as U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice?


Casing of the shell fired at the Odenwald
Luis R. Esteves
Antonio Valero Bernabé
Carmen Contreras Bozak
Soldiers of the 65th Infantry training in Salinas, Puerto Rico. August 1941.
María Rodríguez Denton
U.S. Schooner Grampus (1821-1843)
Flag flown by Fidel Vélez and his men during the "Intentona de Yauco" revolt
Augusto Rodríguez
Fernando Luis García
Puerto Rican Army nurses, 296th Station Hospital, Camp Tortuguero, Vega Baja, PR.
The first USMC plane: a Curtiss C-3 in Culebra, Puerto Rico.
José Antonio Muñiz
The burned out hulk of the SS Antonio López
Soldiers of the 65th, North of the Han River, Korea, June 1951.
Design of the Congressional Gold Medal which was awarded to the Borinqueneers of the 65th Infantry Regiment
Brigadier General Irene M. Zoppi
  1. That... the first shot fired by the United States in World War I was in Puerto Rico and not in Europe? The first shot was made by Sergeant Encarnación Correa, upon orders of Lt. Teófilo Marxuach, against the "Odenwald", an armed German supply ship which tried to force its way out of San Juan Bay and deliver supplies to the German submarines waiting in the Atlantic Ocean.
  2. That... Major General Luis R. Esteves, the first Puerto Rican to graduate from West Point, graduated first in his class, which included Dwight D. Eisenhower and Omar Bradley?
  3. That... Puerto Ricans commanded by Brigadier General Ramón de Castro fought alongside the Continental Army during the American Revolution as part of the troops under the command of General Bernardo de Gálvez?
  4. That... Lt. General Pedro del Valle played an instrumental role in World War II when he and the Marines under his command defeated the Japanese forces in Okinawa and that he was in charge of the reorganization of the island?
  5. That... Sergeant Alexander Joseph Foley (U.S.M.C.), born in Hackersville, Pa. in 1866 and recipient of the Medal of Honor during the Boxer Rebellion is buried in the island municipality of Culebra?
  6. That... the Commander of the Cuban Liberation Army, General Juan Ríus Rivera, was a Puerto Rican who also participated in the Grito de Lares revolt?
  7. That... Brigadier General Antonio Valero de Bernabé "The Puerto Rican Liberator", who fought against Napoleon Bonaparte in Spain and later for Mexico's independence against Spain, helped liberate South America from Spanish Colonial rule alongside Simón Bolívar?
  8. That... Sergeant First Class Agustín Ramos Calero born in Isabela, with 22 decorations was the most decorated Hispanic soldier in the United States military during World War II?
  9. That... Capt. Humbert Roque Versace, was the first Army P.O.W. to receive the Medal of Honor for his actions in Southeast Asia during captivity?
  10. That... Tech4 Carmen Contreras-Bozak, was the first Hispanic to join the Women's Army Corps and that she served in Algiers during World War II?
  11. That... In 1980, Linda García Cubero, Class of 1980 United States Air Force Academy, was the first Hispanic woman to graduate from a military academy?[45]
  12. That... In 1984, Colonel Michelle Fraley, Class of 1984, West Point Academy, became the first Puerto Rican woman to graduate from West Point? Fraley (née Hernández) eventually served as chief of staff of the Army Network Enterprise Technology Command.[46][47]
  13. That... during the Korean War, the Battle of Outpost Kelly accounted for seventy-three of the men missing in action from the total of 121 men reported MIAs of Puerto Rico's 65th Infantry Regiment[48] and that out of the seventy-three MIAs suffered by the regiment in the month of September, fifty of them occurred on the same day September 18? See: Puerto Ricans Missing in Action in the Korean War[49]
  14. That... ninety-five members of Puerto Rico's 65th Infantry Regiment were court-martialed in what is considered the largest mass court-martial of the Korean War?
  15. That... the 65th Infantry Regiment was the only unit ever transferred from active component Army to the National Guard?
  16. That... Admiral Horacio Rivero, Jr., was the first Puerto Rican and second Hispanic to become a four-star Admiral in the U.S. Navy? The first Hispanic full Admiral was David Farragut during the American Civil War.
  17. That... over 53,000 Puerto Ricans served in World War II?
  18. That... Colonel Virgil R. Miller, a native of San Germán, Puerto Rico, was the Regimental Commander of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, the most decorated unit in the U.S. military history, a unit which was composed of "Nisei" (second generation Americans of Japanese descent), during World War II?[50][51]
  19. That... Staff Sgt. Modesto Cartagena, U.S. Army, is the most decorated Hispanic in history?
  20. That... Brigadier General Mihiel "Mike" Gilormini, who together with Brig. Gen. Alberto A. Nido and Col. José Antonio Muñiz co-founded the Puerto Rico Air National Guard, served with the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces during World War II?
  21. That... Capt. Miguel Enríquez, was a pirate in the latter part of the 17th century who fought and defeated the British Navy in Vieques and was granted the privileges of privateer by the Spanish Crown?[52]
  22. That... Brigadier General Antonio Maldonado in 1965 became the youngest person to pilot a B-52 aircraft?
  23. That... Colonel Héctor Andrés Negroni was the first Puerto Rican graduate of the United States Air Force Academy?
  24. That... Capt. María Inés Ortiz was the first Puerto Rican nurse to die in combat and the first Army nurse to die in Iraq?
  25. That... Rear Admiral Frederick Lois Riefkohl was the first Puerto Rican to graduate from the United States Naval Academy and the first Puerto Rican to be awarded the Navy Cross, a military decoration second only to the Medal of honor?
  26. That... Capt. Ángel Rivero Méndez fired the first shot against the Americans in the Spanish–American War in Puerto Rico and later invented the "Kola Champagne"?
  27. That... Master Sgt. Pedro Rodríguez, was awarded two Silver Stars in one week?
  28. That... General Manuel Goded Llopis was a high ranking Puerto Rican in the Spanish Army, who was one of the first generales to join Spanish General Francisco Franco in the revolt against the Spanish Republican government in what is known as the Spanish Civil War?[53]
  29. That... Lieutenant Carmelo Delgado Delgado a member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, was amongst the first U.S. citizens to die in the Spanish Civil War?[54]
  30. That... the U.S. Naval Station Roosevelt Roads was meant to be the Pearl Harbor of the Atlantic and that it was the largest naval installation in the world? Yes, in 1940, when Germany attacked Great Britain, the United States feared that if Germany controlled Great Britain, Mexico and the U.S. would be next. In 1940, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt ordered the construction of a naval base in the Atlantic similar to Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. The site was meant to provide anchorage, docking, repair facilities, fuel, and supplies for 60% of the Atlantic Fleet. The naval base, which was named U.S. Naval Station Roosevelt Roads, became the largest naval installation in the world in land mass. The fate of the base was changed after the Germans were defeated and the Navy's attention shifted from the Atlantic to the Pacific.[55]
  31. That... in April 1944, Captain Marion Frederic Ramírez de Arellano, a native of San Juan, Puerto Rico, was the first Hispanic submarine commander in the United States Navy?[56]
  32. That... Colonel Raúl G. Villaronga (Ret.) was the first Puerto Rican to be elected as Mayor of a Texas city (Killeen)?[57]
  33. That... the ship which captured Roberto Cofresí and his crew in 1825, the U.S. Grampus, was lost at sea with all its crew in 1843?[58]
  34. That... on October 1918, Dr. Dolores Piñero, a native of San Juan, became the first Puerto Rican woman doctor to serve in the United States Army under contract during World War I?[59]
  35. That... Sergeant First Class Jorge Otero Barreto (Ret.) a.k.a. "The Puerto Rican Rambo", was the most decorated Hispanic American soldier in the Vietnam War with a total of thirty-eight military decorations?[60]
  36. That... Private First Class Domingo Arroyo, Jr., a United States Marine, was the first Puerto Rican and American serviceman to be killed in Operation Restore Hope during the Somalian Civil War?[61]
  37. That... Captain Manuel Rivera, Jr., was the first Puerto Rican and U.S. serviceman to die in Operation Desert Shield?[62]
  38. That... LTJG (Lieutenant Junior Grade) María Rodríguez Denton was the first Puerto Rican female who became an officer in the United States Navy as member of the WAVES and that it was LTJG Rodríguez Denton who forwarded the news (through channels) to President Harry S. Truman that World War II had ended?[63]
  39. That... Captain Juan de Amezquita defended Puerto Rico from an invasion by the Dutch in 1625 and wounded Captain Balduino Enrico (Boudewijn Hendricksz) in a sword fight during the process?[64]
  40. That... in World War II, Private First Class Joseph (José) R. Martínez , born in San Germán, Puerto Rico, became the first Puerto Rican to be awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, second only to the Medal of Honor, when he destroyed a German Infantry unit and tank by providing heavy artillery fire, saving his platoon from being attacked in the process?[65][66]
  41. That... Sergeants José and Francisco Díaz, members of the Toa Alta Militia who helped defeat Sir Ralph Abercromby and defend Puerto Rico from a British invasion in 1797, were cousins?[67]
  42. That... Captain Iván Castro is the only blind officer serving in the United States Special Forces?[68]
  43. That... Captain Félix Arenas Gaspar was a Puerto Rican Captain in the Spanish Army who was posthumously awarded the Cruz Laureada de San Fernando (Spain's version of the Medal of Honor) for his actions in the Rif War?[69]
  44. That... Brigadier General José M. Portela was and still is the youngest C-141 Starlifter aircraft commander and captain in the United States Air Force at age 26?[70]
  45. That... during the Intentona de Yauco of March 26, 1897, the current version of the Flag of Puerto Rico was flown on the island for the first time by Fidel Vélez?[29]
  46. That... Lieutenant Augusto Rodríguez, a Puerto Rican native who joined the 15th Connecticut Regiment (a.k.a. Lyon Regiment) of the United States Union Army, served in the defenses of Washington D.C. and led his men in the Battles of Fredericksburg and Wyse Fork in the American Civil War?[71]
  47. That... Pedro Albizu Campos, who later became the leader of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party, held the rank of lieutenant in the United States Army?
  48. That... CWO2 Joseph B. Avilés, Sr. was the first Hispanic promoted Chief Petty Officer and later the first Hispanic Chief Warrant Officer in the United States Coast Guard?[72]
  49. That... Private First Class Fernando Luis García was the first Puerto Rican, from a total of nine, to be awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously and that his remains were never recovered? There is a headstone with García's name in the Puerto Rico National Cemetery in the city of Bayamón, Puerto Rico.
  50. That... On January 6, 1914, First Lieutenant Bernard L. Smith established the Marine Section of the Navy Flying School in the island municipality of Culebra?[73] As the number of Marine Aviators grew so did the avid desire to separate from Naval Aviation.[74] By doing so, the Marine Aviation was designated as separate from the United States Naval Aviation. The creation of a "Marine Corps Aviation Company" in Puerto Rico consisted of ten officers and forty enlisted men.[75]
  51. That... when the United States entered World War II, the military was in need of nurses and that Puerto Rican nurses wanted to volunteer for service, however they were not accepted into the Army or Navy Nurse Corps?[76] In 1944, the Army Nurse Corps (ANC) decided to accept Puerto Rican nurses.
  52. That... during World War II, 200 Puerto Rican women were assigned to Company 6, 2nd Battalion, 21st Regiment of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, a segregated Hispanic unit?[76]
  53. That... In 1963, the Air National Guard Base, at the San Juan International airport in Puerto Rico, was renamed "Muñiz Air National Guard Base" in honor of Lieutenant Colonel José Antonio Muñiz, a co-founder of the "PRANG"?[77]
  54. That... nine Puerto Ricans were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor, the highest military decoration in the United States? They were PFC Fernando Luis García, Master Sergeant Juan E. Negrón, Private Demensio Rivera, Private Miguel Armando Vera, Staff Sergeant Félix M. Conde-Falcón, PFC Carlos James Lozada, Capt. Eurípides Rubio, Specialist Four Héctor Santiago Colón and Captain Humbert Roque Versace.
  55. That... Captain Ramón Acha Caamaño was awarded the "Cruz de la Orden de Mérito Naval 1ra clase" (The Cross of the Order of the Naval Merit 1st class) by the Spanish government for his role in the rescue of the cargo of the SS Antonio López, a Spanish transoceanic steamer, during the Spanish–American War?
  56. That... the "SS ANTONIO LÓPEZ Shipwreck Site and Remains" are listed in the National Register of Historic Places #93001593?[78]
  57. That... Lieutenant Colonel Olga E. Custodio made history when she became the first female Hispanic U.S. military pilot and that after retiring from the military she became the first Latina to become a commercial airline captain?[79]
  58. That ... On September 11, 2001, Marc H. Sasseville, now a Brigadier General, was given the mission of finding United Airlines Flight 93 and destroying it, even if it meant ramming the plane. The tactic would be similar to the suicide military tactics known as kamikaze missions used by the military aviators from the Empire of Japan in World War II?[80]
  59. That... Captain Hila Levy, United States Air Force, made history in 2007 when she became the first Puerto Rican Rhodes scholar?[81][82]
  60. That ... On June 10, 2014, the Borinqueneers Congressional Gold Medal Bill was signed by President Barack Obama, thus making the 65th Infantry Regiment the first military unit composed almost entirely of Puerto Ricans to receive such an honor?[83]
  61. That ... Brigadier General Irene M. Zoppi is the first Puerto Rican female to reach the rank of Brigadier General in the United States Armed Forces?[84]
  62. That ... Marta Carcana is the first woman Adjutant General of the Puerto Rican National Guard?[85][86]
  63. That ... President Barrack Obama awarded the Medal of Honor to Juan E. Negrón, Demensio Rivera, Miguel Vera and Félix Conde Falcón bringing the total Puerto Rican recipients of said honor to nine? Prior to the Medal of Honor upgrade, which was made on March 18, 2014, they all had been awarded the Distinguished Service Cross Medal.[87]

Natural sciencesEdit

Common Coquí
  1. That... the Camuy River is the third longest underwater river in the world?
  2. That... the Puerto Rican spindalis is the national bird of Puerto Rico and often participates in mobbing, a behavior in which it attacks predators to defend hatchlings?
  3. That... El Yunque National Forest, is the only tropical rainforest in the U.S. National Forest System and that more than a billion gallons of precipitation fall each year?
  4. That... the Elfin woods warbler, an endemic bird of Puerto Rico first observed in 1968, is the last New World warbler species to be discovered?
  5. That... the world's highest concentrations of Bioluminescent waters are in Puerto Rico?
  6. That... the Puerto Rico Trench, roughly parallel to the island and 75 miles north, is home to the deepest submarine depression in the North Atlantic Ocean, and that the deepest point in the Atlantic Ocean, the Milwaukee Depth (27,493 ft / 8,380 m), lies within the trench?
  7. That... the El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico is one of the oldest protected areas in the Western Hemisphere by virtue of having been set aside by the Spanish Crown in 1876 while Puerto Rico was still part of the Spanish Empire? Was designated a United Nations Biosphere Reserve in 1976.
  8. That... Flamenco Beach located in Culebra was rated the second most beautiful beach in the world?
  9. That... the Guánica State Forest was designated a United Nations Biosphere Reserve in 1981 and is considered the best preserved, most virgin subtropical forest in the Americas?
  10. That... the Baños de Coamo are Puerto Rico's only thermal springs?
  11. That... the Common coquí or Coquí (Eleutherodactylus coqui) a frog native to Puerto Rico, is a very important aspect of Puerto Rican culture and it has become an unofficial territorial symbol of Puerto Rico?[88]
  12. That... Puerto Rico's beaches come in every size, color, and form, from the pure white dunes of Isabela to the black volcanic sands near Punta Santiago?[89]


Antonio Paoli
Cover of The San Juan News announcing the Supreme Court decision in the Isabel González case of 1904.
Marquita Rivera
Dr. Agustín Stahl
Juano Hernández
Lieutenant Pedro Albizu Campos (U.S. Army)
Rita Moreno
External audio
  You may view: Civil Rights- Mendez vs. Westminster; By: Óscar Rosales in which Felícitas Méndez played an instrumental role here.
  1. That... in 1907, Antonio Paoli, born in Ponce, Puerto Rico, recorded the first opera in history "Pagliacci" by Ruggiero Leoncavallo and that Paoli was known as the Tenor of Kings and the King of Tenors?[90]
  2. That... Félix Rigau Carrera was the first Puerto Rican pilot and the first pilot to fly on air mail carrying duties in Puerto Rico?[91]
  3. That... Melliangee Pérez was awarded the Soprano of the Year award by UNESCO?[92]
  4. That... Irem Poventud was the first Puerto Rican to perform in the San Francisco Opera House?[93]
  5. That... Margarita Castro Alberty was the recipient of the prestigious Rockefeller Foundation, Baltimore Opera Guild, Chicago Opera Guide and Metropolitan Opera Guild awards?[94]
  6. That .... In 1909, Elisa Rivera Díaz and Ana Janer became the first Puerto Rican female doctors?[95]
  7. That... in 1919, Luisa Capetillo was the first woman to publicly wear pants in Puerto Rico and that she was sent to jail for it?
  8. That... the Father of Black History in the United States was Arturo Schomburg who was born in Santurce, Puerto Rico in 1874?
  9. That... Antonia Novello, a native of Fajardo, Puerto Rico, was both the first female and the first Hispanic Surgeon General of the United States (1990-1993)?
  10. That... Juan Mari Brás was the first person to receive a Puerto Rican citizenship certificate from the Puerto Rico State Department since the establishment of the Commonwealth in 1952, an action which has been since questioned by the United States Department of State?
  11. That... Jesús María Sanromá earned the position of official pianist of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, becoming the first person ever to receive such an honor?[96]
  12. That... José de Diego was in the audience on January 1916, when Jesús María Sanromá debuted at the Puerto Rican Ateneo and that he was so impressed with Sanromá that he persuaded the government to give Sanromá a grant of 600 dólares?[96]
  13. That... Rafael Alers became the first Puerto Rican to compose the music score for a Hollywood movie, when he was hired for such a task for the 1956 movie "Crowded Paradise", directed by Fred Pressburger?[97]
  14. That... when Benicio del Toro and Joaquín Phoenix were nominated by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for Best Supporting Actor in 2001, it was the first time that two actors born in Puerto Rico were simultaneously nominated for such an honor?[98]
  15. That... Dr. Carlos Albizu Miranda is the first Hispanic Educator to have a North American University renamed in his honor and one of the first Hispanics to earn a PhD. in Psychology in the United States?[99]
  16. That... in 1947, Marquita Rivera became the first Puerto Rican actress to appear in a major Hollywood motion picture when she appeared in Road to Rio, opposite Bob Hope, Bing Crosby and Dorothy Lamour?[100].
  17. That... Samuel A. Ramírez, Sr. made Wall Street history by becoming the first Hispanic to launch a successful investment banking firm?[101]
  18. That... Francisco Oller is considered to be the only Latin American painter to play a role in the development of Impressionism?.[102]
  19. That... José Andino y Amezquita, a direct descendant of Captain Juan de Amezquita and Field Marshal Gaspar Martínez De Andino, a Spaniard who was appointed by the Spanish Crown Governor of Puerto Rico as governor, became the first Puerto Rican journalist in 1814?[103]
  20. That... Julio Vizcarrondo, who played an instrumental role in the abolishment of slavery in Puerto Rico, was also the founder of the Protestantism movement in the Iberian Peninsula in the 19th Century?[104]
  21. That... Dr. Héctor Feliciano, is the author of "The Lost Museum: The Nazi Conspiracy to Steal the World's Greatest Works of Art", a book which proved the corrupt relationship between Europe's art museums and art dealers with the Nazi art looters of World War II and that his book forced the French government to display in public thousands of art works acquired from looters?.[105]
  22. That... Clara Livingston, born in New York but who lived in Dorado, Puerto Rico since she was five years old, in 1927 became the first Puerto Rican female pilot and that at the time that she earned her flying license she was only the eleventh woman pilot to do so?[106]
  23. That... Isabel González a young, pregnant, single Puerto Rican mother challenged the Government of the United States when she was detained in Ellis Island in the groundbreaking case "GONZALES v. WILLIAMS" a case which helped pave the way for Puerto Ricans to be recognized as American citizens?[31]
  24. That... Dr. Agustín Stahl, Puerto Rico's first renowned scientist, was the first person to adorn a Christmas tree in Puerto Rico? It happened in his backyard in Bayamón in 1866.[107]
  25. That... Jaime Fonalledas is the President and CEO of Empresas Fonalledas Inc., which owns Plaza Las Américas, the largest shopping mall in the Caribbean and one of the top retail and entertainment venues in the world?[108]
  26. That... Rafael Carrión, Sr. was a founding father of Banco Popular de Puerto Rico, the largest bank in Puerto Rico and the largest Hispanic bank in the United States?
  27. That... Obed Gómez, a Puerto Rican visual artist, is known as "The Puerto Rican Picasso"?
  28. That... Marie Teresa Ríos, the mother of Medal of Honor recipient Humbert Roque Versace, was the author of the book The Fifteen Pelicans and that popular 1960s television sitcom The Flying Nun was based on her book?
  29. That... Blanca Canales may possibly have been the first woman to have led a revolt against the United States when she led the Jayuya Uprising?[109]
  30. That... Sylvia Méndez at age eight played an instrumental role in the Mendez v. Westminster case, the landmark desegregation case of 1946, which successfully ended de jure segregation in California[110] and paved the way for integration and the American civil rights movement?[111]
  31. That... Dr. Angel Ramos is one of the few deaf Hispanics in the United States to hold a doctorate?
  32. That... Rita Moreno is the first and only Hispanic and one of the few performers who have won an Emmy, a Grammy, an Oscar, and a Tony?[112]
  33. That... José Ferrer was the first Hispanic to win an Academy Award? He won Best Actor for Cyrano de Bergerac in 1950.
  34. That... José Ferrer, Benicio del Toro and Rita Moreno are the only three Puerto Ricans to have won an Academy Award? All three have been for Best Actor/Actress.
  35. That... the mother of Pablo Casals, Pilar Defilló de Casals, was born in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico?[113]
  36. That... Juano Hernández was a pioneering Puerto Rican actor of African descent and the first Puerto Rican star in the African-American film industry?
  37. That... Rafael Cancel Miranda was the only Nationalist out of the four who participated on the March 1, 1954 United States Capitol shooting incident to have been jailed in Alcatraz?
  38. That... both Rafael Carrión, Sr., the founder of Banco Popular de Puerto Rico, the largest bank in Puerto Rico and the largest Hispanic bank in the United States,[114] and Angel Ramos, the founder of Telemundo, the second largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, were orphans born to poor families and neither had college degrees?
  39. That... Augusto Rodríguez, the founder of the Choir of the University of Puerto Rico, was also the founder of the Hebrew Festival Chorus of San Juan's Jewish community?
  40. That... Juan Emilio Viguié, a pioneer in Puerto Rico's film industry, produced "Romance Tropical" the first Puerto Rican film with sound which in itself was also the second Spanish movie in the world with sound?[39]
  41. That... Nine Puerto Ricans have been awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, an award bestowed by the President of the United States and which is the highest civilian award in the United States?
  42. That... Former governor Luis A. Ferré and his sister Isolina Ferré are the only pair of Puerto Rican brothers and sisters to have been awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom?
  43. That... Three Puerto Ricans have been awarded the Presidential Citizens Medal, an award bestowed by the President of the United States and which is the second highest civilian award in the United States?
  44. That... In 2013, the Guinness World Records certified that Guillermo José Torres broke the record of being the anchorman with the longest career in the same station after forty-three years?[115]
  45. That... Felícitas Méndez, a native of Juncos, was an American civil rights pioneer?
    In 1946, Méndez and her Mexican husband took it upon themselves the task of leading a community battle that changed California and set an important legal precedent for ending de jure segregation in the United States. The landmark desegregation case, known as the Mendez v. Westminster case[116] paved the way for integration and the American civil rights movement.[111]
  46. That... Elsa Miranda, a native of Ponce, was a popular vocalist and that she participated in the first "Chiquita Banana" commercial where she sang the jingle? Puls, the she is considered to be the most famous Miss Chiquita?[117]
  47. That.... The Miss Universe Contest of 2003, was the first time in that pageant history that two women of Puerto Rican heritage, Susie Castillo and Carla Tricoli, participated at the same time representing different countries? Castillo represented the United States and Tricoli Puerto Rico.
  48. That.... Deirdre Connelly, a native of San Juan, was recognized by Fortune magazine as one of the 50 most powerful women in business for 8 consecutive years (2007-2014)?[118]
  49. That.... Carlos Contreras Aponte, born in San Lorenzo, Puerto Rico, is the first legally blind person to serve as the Secretary of Transportation and Public Works of Puerto Rico?[119][120]


Juan Ponce de León II
José María Marxuach Echavarría
  1. That... Jesús T. Piñero was not the first native Puerto Rican governor of Puerto Rico? That honor belongs to Juan Ponce de León II, who in 1597 became the first native Puerto Rican to assume, temporarily, the governorship of Puerto Rico.
  2. That... Felisa Rincón de Gautier (also known as Doña Fela) was the first woman to be elected as the mayor of a capital city in any of the Americas?
  3. That... in 1937, Óscar García Rivera, Sr. became the first Puerto Rican to be elected to public office in the continental United States and in 1956 he also became the first Puerto Rican to be nominated as the Republican candidate for Justice of the City Court?[121]
  4. That... Nydia Velázquez was the first Puerto Rican woman to be elected to the U.S. Congress?[122]
  5. That... José María Marxuach Echavarría was the only Puerto Rican to serve as the Mayor of San Juan, Puerto Rico under both Spanish and American rule? He served in 1897 for the Liberal Reformista Party and again from 1900-1901 for the Puerto Rican Republican Party[123]
  6. That... María Luisa Arcelay was the first woman in Puerto Rico and in all of Latin America to be elected to a government legislative body?[124]
  7. That... Carmen E. Arroyo was the first Puerto Rican woman elected to any state assembly and chair of the New York Hispanic Legislative Caucus?
  8. That... Herman Badillo was the first Puerto Rican to serve in U.S. Congress?
  9. That... the father of Joaquín Balaguer, the former president of the Dominican Republic, was Puerto Rican?
  10. That... the mother of Juan Bosch, the former president of Dominican Republic, was Puerto Rican?
  11. That... Dr. Antonio Fernós-Isern, former Resident Commissioner, was the first Puerto Rican cardiologist?
  12. That... María de las Mercedes Barbudo (1773-1849) was a political activist who was the first female "Independentista" meaning that she was the first Puerto Rican woman to become an avid advocate of Puerto Rican Independence,[125] and that she was involved with the Puerto Rican Independence Movement which had ties with the Venezuelan rebels led by Simón Bolívar and who were against Spanish colonial rule in Puerto Rico.?[126]
  13. That... Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, Democratic congresswoman for United States House of Representatives New York District 14, is the youngest woman in history to be elected to congress?[127]

Popular cultureEdit

Teatro Puerto Rico
Casa Amadeo, antigua Casa Hernandez in the Bronx, New York.
  1. That... "Why Do Fools Fall in Love", considered one of the greatest rock and roll songs, was written by Herman Santiago?
  2. That... one of the most popular Christmas songs in the United States "Feliz Navidad" was written by a Puerto Rican, José Feliciano?
  3. That... in 2003 José Miguel Agrelot's radio show, Alegre Despertar (Joyful Awakening), held the world's record for the longest-running still active radio show, running non-stop for fifty-three years?
  4. That... in the classic film West Side Story, an epic Romeo and Juliet tale about the rivalry between a Puerto Rican and Italian-American gang, the only actual Puerto Rican cast was Rita Moreno?
  5. That... the reggaetón was developed in Puerto Rico and has since then spread to other places around the world?
  6. That... aside from a strong presence in music, sports, literature, politics, television, radio, etc., Puerto Rico also has a presence in the voice acting industry with voice actors such as Tony Oliver?
  7. That... the myth of the Chupacabra has its origins in Puerto Rico?
  8. That... after the United States, Puerto Rico is tied with Mexico in hosting the most Miss Universe contests and has the third most titleholders following the United States and Venezuela?
  9. That... the Teatro Puerto Rico, was for the Latino community in the South Bronx what the Apollo Theater was to the African-American community in the Harlem section of Manhattan?[128]
  10. That... Chayanne was the first Puerto Rican musician to reach number-one on Hot Latin Tracks in 1989 for his song, Fuiste un Trozo de Hielo en la Escarcha?[129]
  11. That... Marc Anthony was the first salsa musician to reach number-one on Hot Latin Tracks with his hit, Y Hubo Alguien?[130]
  12. That...Scotty McCreery was the first person of Puerto Rican descent to win an American Idol contest and that he did it in that program's tenth season?[131]
  13. That... the songs "Si Tú Me Besas" and "Ella Lo Que Quiere Es Salsa" helped Víctor Manuelle become the artist with the most number-one singles on the Billboard Tropical Songs chart?[132]
  14. That... the song "Sentimientos" by Ivy Queen combines the Latin styles of reggaetón and bachata?[133]
  15. That... the song "Te Regalo Amores" by R.K.M & Ken-Y reached #1 on both the Billboard Latin Rhythm Airplay and Latin Tropical Airplay charts?[134][135]
  16. That... Tito El Bambino received an American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers award for Latin Song of the Year for "'El Amor"?[136]
  17. That... Ivy Queen's song "Quiero Bailar" is regarded as influential as regards reggaetón's mainstream exposure in 2004?[137]
  18. That... the music video for the song "Menor Que Yo" cost $60,000?[138]
  19. That...Casa Amadeo, antigua Casa Hernandez, located at 786 Prospect Ave., Bronx, New York, is a historic apartment building, listed in the National Register of Historic Places on March 23, 2001 (reference #01000244), which houses the Casa Amadeo music store, the oldest, continuously-occupied Latin music store in the Bronx having opened in 1941? The music shop once belonged to Victoria Hernández, sister of the world-famous Latin composer Rafael Hernandez. Mike Amadeo, a fellow Puerto Rican, purchased the business from Victoria in 1969.[139]
  20. That ... Despacito, a song written by Luis Fonsi, Ramón (Daddy Yankee) Ayala and Erika Ender, received its one billionth view on April 20, 2017 after 97 days, becoming the second-fastest video on the site to reach the milestone behind Adele's "Hello" in "YouTube"? That it received its two billionth view on June 16 after 154 days, making it the fastest video on the site to reach the milestone? And with its 3.3 million certified sales plus track-equivalent streams, "Despacito" is one of the best-selling Latin singles in the United States?[140]
  21. That ... White Tiger a.k.a. Hector Ayala, is the first Puerto Rican superhero in the history of comics,[141] and Marvel's first superhero of Latino descent? The superhero was featured in the edition of "Deadly Hands of Kung Fu #19" which came out on December 1975. Did you know that he is also the uncle of White Tiger Angela del Toro and the brother of White Tiger Ava Ayala who are also Puerto Rican?
  22. That ...Spiderman's mother is Puerto Rican? According to the story Morales was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York City, the then-13-year-old[142] is the son of an African American father and a Puerto Rican mother.[143]


Iglesia Santísima Trinidad of Ponce
Painting of Juan Alejo de Arizmendi by José Campeche
  1. That... the father of St. Rose of Lima (Santa Rosa de Lima), was Puerto Rican?[144]
  2. That... German settlers in Ponce established the first non-Roman Catholic Church in the Spanish Colonies? Yes, the Iglesia Santísima Trinidad, an Lutheran Church founded in 1872, was the first Protestant church in the Spanish Colonies. See: German immigration to Puerto Rico[145]
  3. That... Bavi Edna Rivera is the first Hispanic woman bishop and the 12th woman bishop in the Episcopal Church?[146]
  4. That... Puerto Rico has the largest and richest Jewish community in the Caribbean? and that Puerto Rico is the only place in the Caribbean with the three Jewish denominations of Judaism, the Conservative, Reform and Orthodox? See: Jewish immigration to Puerto Rico[147]
  5. That... Father Francisco Ayerra de Santa María (1630 – 1703) is considered to be Puerto Rico's first native-born poet?[148]
  6. That... Bishop Juan Alejo de Arizmendi (July 17, 1760-October 12, 1814) was a patriot and the first Puerto Rican to be consecrated Bishop and that he was immortalized by Puerto Rican artist José Campeche in a painting in 1803?[149]
  7. That Father Diego de Torres Vargas was the first person to write a book about the history of Puerto Rico?[150]
  8. That... world-renowned religious minister and member of the Honorary Committee of The Presidential Prayer Team, Rev. Nicky Cruz was once the leader of a notorious New York City street gang called The Mau Maus?
  9. That... Gothic churches are rare in the New World, but that Puerto Rico has two: Porta Coeli, built in 1606 in San German, and Iglesia San José, built in the 1530s in Old San Juan?
  10. That ... the Mita Religion founded in 1940 by Juanita García Peraza, is the first Protestant religion of Puerto Rican origin?
  11. That... the Cathedral of San Juan, Puerto Rico, built in the 1520s, is one of the oldest Cathedrals in the Western Hemisphere, and that it contains the marble tomb of the island's first governor and discoverer of Florida Juan Ponce de León?
  12. That... Luis Cardinal Aponte Martínez, Cardinal Archbishop Emeritus of San Juan is the only Puerto Rican to become a Roman Catholic cardinal?
  13. That... Carlos Manuel Rodríguez Santiago is the first Puerto Rican, the first Caribbean-born layperson and the first layperson in the history of the United States to be beatified?[151]


Rosa A. Gonzalez, RN
Arecibo Observatory
Joseph M. Acabá
The "Victor M. Blanco Telescope"
also known as "the Blanco 4m"
School of Tropical Medicine
  1. That... in 1929, Puerto Rican nurse Rosa A. González wrote "Los Hechos Desconocidos" (The Unknown Facts), a book in which she denounced the discrimination against women and nurses in Puerto Rico? The book convinced James R. Beverley, the Interim Governor of Puerto Rico, to sign Ley 77 (Law 77) in May 1930, which established a Nurses Examining Board.[95]
  2. That... the dentist who discovered the bacteria that causes dental caries was Dr. Fernando E. Rodríguez Vargas, a native of Adjuntas?
  3. That... the largest single-aperture telescope ever to be constructed is the Arecibo Observatory located near the city of Arecibo in Puerto Rico?
  4. That... according to an article written by Margarita Santori López for the official newspaper of the University of Puerto Rico's Mayagüez Campus, "Prensa RUM", as of 2003, of the 114 Hispanics working at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, 70 were Puerto Ricans or of Puerto Rican descent?[152]
  5. That... on May 6, 2004, Joseph M. Acabá became the first person of Puerto Rican descent to become an astronaut and that on October 2008, he was the first Puerto Rican to go into space?[153]
  6. That... Dr. Nitza Margarita Cintrón, is the first Hispanic to be named Chief of Space Medicine and Health Care Systems Office at NASA's Johnson Space Center?[154]
  7. That... Dr. Félix Soto Toro is the scientist who developed an electronic 3D measuring system (APTMS) for the Space Shuttle?[155]
  8. That... Dr. Juan R. Cruz, Ph.D., is a Puerto Rican scientist who played an instrumental role in the design and development of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) parachute.[156]
  9. That... Dr. Enectali Figueroa, is a astrophysicist at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)[157] who pioneered the development of position-sensitive detectors, and currently an astronaut applicant?
  10. That... Dr. Orlando Figueroa a.k.a. NASA Mars Czar was the Director for Mars Exploration and the Director for the Solar System Division in the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters?[158]
  11. That... Olga D. González-Sanabria is the highest ranking Hispanic at NASA Glenn Research Center, a member of the Ohio Women's Hall of Fame and that she played an instrumental role in the development of the "Long Cycle-Life Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries" which helps enable the International Space Station power system?[159]
  12. That... Amri Hernández-Pellerano is a scientist who designed the power systems electronics for the WMAP mission. WMAP is a NASA Explorer mission satellite which measures the temperature of the cosmic background radiation over the full sky with unprecedented accuracy?[160]
  13. That... Mercedes Reaves is responsible for the design of a viable full-scale solar sail and the development and testing of a scale model solar sail at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia?[161]
  14. That... Dr. Miriam Rodón-Naveira;is the first Hispanic woman to hold the Deputy Directorship for the Environmental Sciences Division within the National Exposure Research Laboratory and that she is now responsible for developing, coordinating and maintaining research and educational activities in support of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center mission?[162]
  15. That... Dr. Pedro Rodríguez, the Director of a test laboratory at NASA and inventor of a portable, battery-operated lift seat for people suffering from knee arthritis is the son of the late salsa singer Pellín Rodríguez?[163]
  16. That... Monserrate Román, a Puerto Rican scientist in NASA, helped NASA build part of the International Space Station. She is the Chief Microbiologist for the Environmental Control and Life Support System project which determines how microbes will behave under different situations and in different locations, such as the nooks and crannies of the Space Station?[164]
  17. That... Dr. Victor Manuel Blanco, an astronomer, has the distinction of having a galactic cluster and the largest 4-m telescope in the Southern Hemisphere named after him?[165]
  18. That... Fermín Tangüis, developed the Tanguis cotton in Peru and saved that nation's cotton industry?[166]
  19. That... Dr. Pedro Beauchamp, The first Puerto Rican specialist certified by the American Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Board, performed the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) technique in the island in 1985?[167]
  20. That... Dr. María Cordero Hardy's research on vitamin E helped other scientists understand about how the vitamin works in the human body?[168]
  21. That... Dr. Mario R. García Palmieri, a cardiologist, is the first Hispanic to have the distinction of being designated a "Master" by the American College of Cardiology?[169]
  22. That... Dr. Isaac González Martínez, a urologist, was the first Puerto Rican urologist and a pioneer in the fight against cancer in the island?[170]
  23. That... Fernando López Tuero an agricultural scientist and agronomist, discovered the bug (believed at first to be a germ) which was destroying Puerto Rico's sugar canes?[171]
  24. That... Dr. Eduardo Santiago Delpín, a surgeon, wrote the first book in Spanish about organ transplant?[172]
  25. That...Dr. Diego R. Solís, a physician, made Puerto Rican medical history when he performed the first simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant in Puerto Rico?[173]
  26. That... Dr. Ramón M. Suárez Calderón, a scientist, cardiologist, educator and hematologist, carried out investigations that led to the identification of the proper and effective treatment of a type of anemia known as Tropical Espru, the application of complex methods, such as electrocardiography and radioisotope, to be used in clinics and the identification and treatment of the disease which causes heart rheumatism?[171]
  27. That... before Christopher Columbus and the Spanish Conquistadors landed on the island of "Borikén" (Puerto Rico), the Taínos who inhabited the island depended on their astronomical observations for the cultivation of their crops?.[174]
  28. That... the School of Tropical Medicine, was an educational institution created in 1926 by an act of the Puerto Rican Legislature, to further the research initiated by the Anemia Commissions and the Institute of Tropical Medicine on anemia and its causes? Did you also know that the institution existed as an independent entity until 1949, when it was integrated into the School of Medicine of the University of Puerto Rico and its building is in the National Register of Historical Places?
  29. That ... Dr. Yajaira Sierra Sastre is the only Hispanic, selected to participate in a four-month long, Mars analog mission funded by NASA. Sierra Sastre aspires to become the first Puerto Rican woman to travel to outer space?[175]


External audio
  You may watch Roberto Clemente's hit number 3,000 here
View of the Indigenous ballparks in the Tibes, Ponce, Puerto Rico
Olympian Juan Evangelista Venegas
Pedro Montañez
José Juan Barea
The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space.
Monica Puig won the first Olympic gold medal for Puerto Rico
  1. That... before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, the Taínos who lived in the island played a ball game called "Batey" in which the winners were treated like heroes and the losers were sacrificed?.[176]
  2. That... Roberto Clemente's hit number 3,000th was his last hit ever in the Major Leagues?[177]
  3. That... Roberto Clemente is the only Puerto Rican to posthumously be awarded both the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Presidential Citizens Medal? The Presidential Medal of Freedom is the highest civilian award and the Presidential Citizens Medal the second highest civilian award bestowed by the President of the United States.
  4. That... the youngest person ever to have won a world boxing championship is Wilfred Benítez?
  5. That... John Ruiz, a Puerto Rican, was the first Hispanic world Heavyweight boxing champion?
  6. That... Puerto Rico ranks third in the world with the most boxing champions in history, after the United States and Mexico?
  7. That... Dick Versace, who is of Puerto Rican descent is the first Hispanic to become head coach of an NBA team?
  8. That... the winning pitcher in the first ever Major League Baseball game played west of Kansas City was Rubén Gómez?
  9. That... Teófilo Cruz is the first player from the Americas to be inducted to the International basketball Hall of Fame?
  10. That... Carly Colón, known internationally by his ring name Carlito is the first professional wrestler to ever win a title in two separate debuts in WWE history?
  11. That... Carlos Beltrán has the smallest ratio of at-bats between home-runs in playoff contention in Mayor League Baseball's history with a total of eleven homeruns in twenty two games and that he holds the record of consecutive playoff games with a homerun with five consecutive games?
  12. That... Wilfredo Gómez won thirty two straight fights by knockout thus making him the World Champion with the longest knockout streak in boxing history?
  13. That... Jesse Vassallo lost the opportunity to defend his world records (200 and 200 meters individual medley) when the United States boycotted the Olympics in Moscow?
  14. That... Juan Evangelista Venegas was the first Puerto Rican to win an Olympic medal?[178]
  15. That... Ernesto Pastor Lavergne was the first, and so far only, Puerto Rican bullfighter (torero) to gain international fame?[179]
  16. That... Juan "Chi Chi" Rodríguez is a professional golfer and the only Puerto Rican to be inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame?[180]
  17. That... Ángel Cordero, Jr. is one of the leading thoroughbred horse racing jockeys of all time and the only Puerto Rican to be inducted into the United States' Racing Hall of Fame?[181]
  18. That ...Ron Rivera was the first person of Puerto Rican descent to play in the National Football League (NFL), to win a championship as a member of the 1985 Chicago Bears, who won Super Bowl XX, and to become a head coach of an NFL team (Carolina Panthers)?[182]
  19. That... Emilio "Millito" Navarro (born September 26, 1905) was the first Puerto Rican to play baseball in the Negro Leagues and that at 102, was also the oldest living professional baseball player to have played in the Negro Leagues?[183]
  20. That... Orlando Meléndez in 2008, became the first Puerto Rican-born player to ever to play for the Harlem Globetrotters?[184]
  21. That... Orlando Antigua, whose mother is Puerto Rican, in 1995, became the first Hispanic and the first non-black in 52 years to play for the Harlem Globetrotters?[185]
  22. That... Pedro Montañez, also known as El Torito De Cayey (The Little Bull of Cayey), considered by many to be one of the best boxers in history, never won a world title? In his career he was 92-7-4.[186]
  23. That... Professional wrestler Pedro Morales in 1995 became the first and only Puerto Rican inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame?
  24. That... Alfred "Butch" Lee, became the first Puerto Rican to play in the NBA when in 1978 he was drafted by the Atlanta Hawks. Lee was also the first Puerto Rican to play on the NBA play-offs as a member of the 79-80 Los Angeles Lakers. He was awarded an NBA Championship ring, even though he did not participate in the "Finals" because of his injuries.
  25. That... José Juan Barea made history, by becoming the first Puerto Rican to play in the "Finals" for a winning NBA Championship team, when the Dallas Mavericks were crowned the 2011 NBA Finals Champions?
  26. That ... In 1942, Hirám Bithorn became the first Puerto Rican to play in the major leagues?
  27. That ... In 1980 Alberto Mercado was the only Puerto Rican ("American" citizen) to actually participate in the Moscow Olympics?
  28. That ... Herbert Lewis Hardwick a.k.a. "Cocoa Kid" was the only Puerto Rican member of boxings "Black Murderers' Row" and that he was the only Hispanic to win the World Colored Championships in both the welterweight and middleweight divisions? On June 10, 2012 Hardwick was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame[187]
  29. That... Leon Day, a pitcher in the Negro Leagues who played for "Los Tiburones de Aguadilla" (the "Aguadilla Sharks"), loved Puerto Rico so much that when he was inducted into baseball's Hall of Fame in 1995 he was enshrined with a cap on his plaque that depicts him as an "Aguadilla Shark"? He is the only Hall of Famer to be enshrined with a cap of a team outside the mainland United States.[188]
  30. That... Orlando Fernández, a.k.a. "The Puerto Rican Aquaman" is the first Puerto Rican swimmer to cross the Strait of Gibraltar between Spain and Morocco?[189][190]
  31. That... the first time that a Puerto Rican Ski Team was sent to represent the island in an Olympic Winter ski competition was in the 1988 Winter Olympics, officially known as the "XV Olympic Winter Games", celebrated in Calgary, Alberta, Canada?[191]
  32. That... Mary Pat Wilson, who participated in the 1988 Olympics Games, is Puerto Rico's first and only female Olympic skier?[191]
  33. That... On August 13, 2016, Monica Puig won Puerto Rico's first Gold Medal in the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics, exactly 68 years to the day when Juan Evangelista Venegas won the first Olympic Medal (Bronze) for Puerto Rico in the 1948 Olympics celebrated in London, United Kingdom?
  34. That... On October 28, 2018, Alex Cora, became the first Puerto Rican to manage a World Series winning team when the Boston Red Sox defeated the LA Dodgers?[192]

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