Odisha (, ;, pronounced [oɽɪˈsaː] (listen); formerly known as Orissa) is one of the 28 states of India. Located in eastern India, it is surrounded by the states of West Bengal to the northeast, Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and northwest, and Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has 485 kilometres (301 mi) of coastline along the Bay of Bengal on its east, from Balasore to Ganjam. It is the 9th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. The state also has the third largest population of Scheduled Tribes in India. Odia is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by 36.6 million according to the 2016 Census.
The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the borders of modern-day Odisha. The modern state of Odisha was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India, and consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. 1 April is celebrated as Utkala Dibasa. The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948. Thereafter, Bhubaneswar became the capital of Odisha.
The Hathigumpha inscription
("Elephant Cave" inscription), from Udayagiri, near Bhubaneshwar in Odisha
, was written by Kharavela
, the king of Kalinga
, during the 2nd century BCE
. The Hathigumpha inscription consists of seventeen lines incised in deep cut Brahmi letters on the overhanging brow of a natural cavern called Hathigumpha in the southern side of the Udayagiri hill near Bhubaneswar in Odisha. It faces straight towards the rock Edicts of Asoka
situated at a distance of about six miles.
The inscription is written in a type which is considered as one of the most archaic forms of the Kalinga brahmi alphabet, also suggesting a date around 150 BCE.
The inscription is dated to 165th year of the era of the Maurya kings, and the 13th year of Kharavela's reign, which, considering the coronation of Chandragupta in 321 BCE as the probable start of the era, makes a date of 157 BCE for the inscription, a date of 170 BCE for Kharavela's accession, and a date of 162 BCE for the conflict against the Yavana king Demetrius.
Subhas Chandra Bose
: সুভাষচন্দ্র বসু
- ସୁଭାଷ ଚନ୍ଦ୍ର ବୋଷ; born January 23, 1897; presumed to have died
August 18, 1945 although this is disputed
), popularly known as Netaji
(literally "Respected Leader"), was a leader in the Indian independence movement
Bose was born in Cuttack in the then Bengal Presidency on January 23, 1897. He had his schooling in Cuttack and graduated from Ravenshaw College, Cuttack. He topped the province in the university exams. He also topped the Civil services examinations and was appointed mayor of Calcutta.
Bose participated in the Indian independence movement right from the 1930s. He elected president of the Indian National Congress for two consecutive terms but resigned from the post following ideological conflicts with Mahatma Gandhi. Bose believed that Mahatma Gandhi's tactics of non-violence would never be sufficient to secure India's independence, and advocated violent resistance. He established a separate political party, the All India Forward Bloc and continued to call for the full and immediate independence of India from British rule. He was imprisoned by the British authorities 11 times. At the onset of the war, he escaped from house arrest in India and travelled to the Soviet Union, Germany and Japan, seeking help in forming an anti-British alliance. With Japanese assistance, he re-organised and later led the Indian National Army, formed from Indian prisoners-of-war and plantation workers from British Malaysia, Singapore, and other parts of Southeast Asia, against British forces. The Indian National Army, or the INA, as it was popularly known, followed the trail of Japanese soldiers and reached up to Kohima on the Indian border. However, they were stopped at the Indian border by troops of the British Indian army and faced a crushing defeat at the Battle of Imphal.
Bose is believed to have died under mysterious cricumstances on 18 August 1945 in a plane crash over Taiwan while flying on a mission to Japan.
- Jun 16 – Tata Steel Launches Valueabled – a digital platform on Values and Beliefs (Source: odisha360.com)
- Jun 16 – Several trains were delayed due to protest against power cut near Lingaraj Station, Bhubaneswar (Source: odisha360.com)
- Jun 14 – Orissa team bagged 2 medals in the 14th Sub – Junior National Rowing Championship held at Kolkata (Source: odisha360.com)
The traditional costume for Pala
Traditional sari draping style of Cuttack.
Ethnic female and male cloth draping style in Odisha.
Salepur Rasagola.Rasagola, famous throughout India originated from Odisha
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