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Portal:Military history of the Ottoman Empire



Military history of the Ottoman Empire Portal

Introduction

Topcu arma.jpg
Artillery troop image on the Ottoman coat of arms.
The first military unit of the Ottoman Empire was an army that was organized by Osman I from Turkish tribesmen inhabiting western Anatolia in the late 14th century. These horsemen became an irregular force of raiders used as shock troops, armed with simple weapons like bows and spears. They were given fiefs called timars in the conquered lands, and were later called timariots. In addition they acquired booty during campaigns. Orhan I organized a standing army paid by salary rather than booty or fiefs. The infantry were called yayas and the cavalry was known as müsellems. The force was made up of foreign mercenaries for the most part, and only a few Turks were content to accept salaries in place of booty. Foreign mercenaries were not required to convert to Islam as long as they obeyed their Ottoman commanders.
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Monastery Agia Lavra, Peloponnese, 1821. "Germanos blessing the flag".

The Greek War of Independence (1821–1831), also known as the Greek Revolution (Greek: Ελληνική Επανάσταση Elliniki Epanastasi, Ottoman Turkish: يؤنان ئسياني Yunan İsyanı, i.e. "Greek insurgence"), was a successful war waged by the Greeks to win independence for Greece from the Ottoman Empire. Independence was finally granted by the Treaty of Constantinople in July 1832 when Greece (Hellas) was recognized as a free country. The Greeks were the first of the subject peoples of the Ottoman Empire to secure recognition as a sovereign power. Greeks celebrate their Independence Day annually on March 25.

The Ottoman Empire had ruled almost all of Greece, with the exception of the Ionian Islands since its conquest of the Byzantine Empire over the course of the 14th and 15th centuries. However, in the 18th and 19th centuries, as revolutionary nationalism grew across Europe (due, in part, to the influence of the French Revolution), and the power of the Ottoman Empire declined, Greek nationalism began to assert itself and drew support from Western European "philhellenes".

The Greek Revolution was not an isolated event; there were numerous failed attempts at regaining independence throughout the history of the Ottoman occupation of Greece. For example, in 1603 there was an attempt in the Peloponnese to restore the Byzantine Empire, and throughout the 17th century there was great resistance to the Turks in the Peloponnesus.[1] Perhaps the most famous of these is the Orlov Revolt of 1770. The Mani Peninsula of Peloponnesos also continually resisted Turkish rule, defeating several Turkish incursions into the region, the most famous of which was the Ottoman invasion of Mani (1770). (Read more...)

References

  1. ^ Kassis, "Mani's History", 29

Selected biography

Omar Pasha

Omar Pasha Latas (1806-71) was an Ottoman General of Serb origin whose birth name was Mihailo Latas (Michael Latas).

He was born in Janja Gora, municipality of Plaški in present-day Croatia, at the time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Educated at a military school, he joined a frontier regiment. Latas fled to Bosnia in 1823 to escape charges of embezzlment. There he converted to Islam.

His father Petar served in the Austrian Army and in time was appointed military mayor of their home village. Michael was an intelligent and lively if rather sickly child. He developed a passion for military, and on leaving school he was accepted as a cadet in his father's Ogulin Regiment. He had beautiful handwriting, and was assigned to clerical duties. There he might have languished, if his father had not upset someone along the corruption line and suffered a conviction for misappropriation. Michael understandably felt that he couldn't stay with the Regiment, and he took off for Bosnia.

He became writing-master to the Ottoman heir, Abd-ul-Medjid, and on the succession of the latter in 1839 was made a colonel. He was military governor of Lebanon in 1842, won distinction in suppressing rebellions in Albania, Bosnia, and Kurdistan, but his chief services were rendered in the Russian War; he successfully defended Kalafat in 1853, entered Bucharest in 1854, and defeated 40,000 Russians next year at Eupatoria in the Crimea. His capture of Cetinje, Montenegro, in 1862 was a difficult feat.

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So in Europe, we had empires. Everyone had them - France and Spain and Britain and Turkey! The Ottoman Empire, full of furniture for some reason. And the Austro-Hungarian Empire, famous for fuck all! Yes, all they did was slowly collapse like a flan in a cupboard.

Eddie Izzard, British comedian and actor on the Ottoman Empire

Selected event

Map of the battle
The Battle of Vaslui (also referred to as the Battle of Podul Înalt or the Battle of Racova) (January 10, 1475) was fought between Stephen III of Moldavia and the Ottoman Beylerbeyi of Rumelia, Hadân Suleiman Pasha. The battle took place at Podul Înalt (the High Bridge), near the town of Vaslui, in Moldavia (now part of eastern Romania) between Barnaba and Racovica. The Ottoman troops numbered between 60,000 and 120,000, facing about 40,000 Moldavian troops, plus smaller numbers of allied and mercenary troops on both sides.

Stephen inflicted on the Ottomans a decisive defeat that has been described as "the greatest ever secured by the Cross against Islam," with casualties, according to Venetian and Polish records, reaching beyond 40,000 on the Ottoman side. Maraym Khanum (Mara Brankovic), who had formerly been the younger wife of Murad II, told a Venetian envoy that the invasion had been worst ever defeat for the Ottomans. Stephen was later awarded the title "Athleta Christi" (Champion of Christ) by Pope Sixtus IV, who referred to him as "Verus christiane fidei aletha" (The true Christian of the true faith). The Polish chronicler, Jan Długosz, hailed Stephen for his victory in the battle:

According to Długosz, Stephen did not celebrate his victory; instead, he fasted for forty days on bread and water and forbade anyone to attribute the victory to him, insisting that credit be given only to "The Lord."

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Ottoman military band

Ottoman military band - (Mehterhane, Military Band, 1839)

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Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Osmanli-nisani.svg
Military &
political history
Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Time span14 years
Number of Sultans2
See alsoGraphical timeline
1912
1913

Topics

Events
People
Rise of the Ottoman Empire (12991453)


Growth of the Ottoman Empire (14531683)



Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire (16831827)


Decline of the Ottoman Empire (18281908)


Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (19081922)
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From the Ottoman military history task force of the Military history WikiProject:

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Battle of al-Samn3rd Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)4th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)6th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)8th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)11th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)12th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)13th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)14th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)15th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)Ottoman-Turkoman warsGeorgian-Ottoman warsMuhammad Qasim Khan-e Qajar QuyunluHasan Ali MirzaKaikhusru MirzaAbul Husain MirzaJaafar Quli Khan-e Khajar QuyunluMirza Muhammad Khan-e Qajar DevehluMirza Muhammad Taqi Khan-e FarahaniAgha Vali KhanMirza Husain Khan QazviniMirza Muhammad Bakir KhanMuhammed Said of EgyptMuhammed Tawfik of EgyptHasan Ismail PashaMuhammed Ratib PashaIbrahim Hilmi PashaGuido von UsedomSayyid Ahmed Pasha as-SanussiMuhammed Pasha JahangiriMuhammed Said PashaMahmud Adam PashaMahmud Jalal ud-din PashaYahya Mansur Yeghen PashaMuhammed Nuri PashaIbrahim Fahmi Ahmed PashaHasan Ismail PashaMuhammed PashaZulkiful Ahmed PashaAli Khalid PashaAli Nur ud-din PashaMuhammed Kamal ud-din PashaMuhammed Tusun PashaAhmed Ayub PashaArif PashaAhmed Fathi PashaVelip PashaKasim Pasha JalimogluIbrahim Hilmi Ismail PashaHaji Muhammed Ali Pasha AliogluHasan Husni Pasha BozcandaliSiege of Senj
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Battle of KeresztesBattle of MaritsaJajce Castle9th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire)7th Infantry Division (Ottoman Empire); • Deli Fuad Pasha
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