Dame Margaret BlackwoodDBE (26 April 1909 – 1 June 1986) was an Australian botanist and geneticist. She attended the University of Melbourne and lectured there for the majority of her career, becoming deputy chancellor after her academic retirement. She enrolled at the University in 1934 and studied part-time, completing a Bachelor of Science in 1938 and a Master of Science in botany in 1939. Her postgraduate research focused on dieback in the pine species Pinus radiata. From 1939 until 1941, she was a research scholar and demonstrator at the University in the field of plant cytology and genetics. During the Second World War, she enrolled in the Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force (WAAAF) in 1941. She was initially a drill instructor before working on the creation of a cipher for the Royal Australian Air Force. Blackwood returned to the University of Melbourne upon her discharge from the WAAAF in 1946 as a biology lecturer and dean of women. Soon afterwards, she was awarded a scholarship to study at the University of Cambridge's Newnham College from 1948 to 1950. There, she studied the genetics of maize with David Catcheside and received a doctorate for her work in 1954. She returned to the University of Melbourne in 1951 as a senior lecturer in botany and was later promoted to reader (professor). Following her retirement in 1974, she was elected to the council of the University in 1976 and became its first female deputy chancellor in 1980.