# Portal:Logic

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## Logic

Logic (from the Ancient Greek: λογική, romanizedlogikḗ) is the systematic study of the form of valid inference, and the most general laws of truth. A valid inference is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the inference and its conclusion. In ordinary discourse, inferences may be signified by words such as therefore, thus, hence, ergo, and so on.

There is no universal agreement as to the exact scope and subject matter of logic (see § Rival conceptions, below), but it has traditionally included the classification of arguments, the systematic exposition of the 'logical form' common to all valid arguments, the study of proof and inference, including paradoxes and fallacies, and the study of syntax and semantics. Historically, logic has been studied in philosophy (since ancient times) and mathematics (since the mid-19th century), and recently logic has been studied in cognitive science (encompasses computer science, linguistics, philosophy and psychology).

## Selected article

In logic and mathematics, or, also known as logical disjunction or inclusive disjunction is a logical operator that results in true whenever one or more of its operands are true. In grammar, or is a coordinating conjunction.

Logical disjunction is an operation on two logical values, typically the values of two propositions, that produces a value of false if and only if both of its operands are false. More generally a disjunction is a logical formula that can have one or more literals separated only by ORs. A single literal is often considered to be a degenerate disjunction.

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## Selected biography

Ramon Llull (Catalan: [rəˈmoɲ ˈʎuʎ]; ca. 1232[1] – ca. 1315) (Anglicised Raymond Lully, Raymond Lull; in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus or Lullius) was a Majorcan writer and philosopher, logician and a Franciscan tertiary. He wrote the first major work of Catalan literature. Recently-surfaced manuscripts show him to have anticipated by several centuries prominent work on elections theory. He is sometimes considered a pioneer of computation theory, especially given his influence on Gottfried Leibniz. Llull is well known also as a glossator of Roman Law.

Within the Franciscan Order, he is honored as a martyr. He was beatified in 1857 by Pope Pius IX and his feast day was assigned to 30 June and is celebrated by the Third Order of St. Francis.

 ...Archive/Nominations

## Things to do

 Here are some tasks awaiting attention: Article requests : Anonymous authority  • Anti-Procreation Movement  • Appeal to classical allusions  • Archimedean Fulcrum  • Asserting an alternative  • Bad reasons fallacy  • Cartesian logic  • Common thread reasoning  • Conjunctive forks  • Converting a conditional  • Doctrine of Unexpected Consequences  • Dream logic  • Equivocity  • Fallacy of assuming a common cause  • Fallacy of biased generalization  • Conflicting conditions  • Failure to elucidate  • Too broad  • Too narrow  • Fallacies of distraction  • Fallacies of explanation  • Limited depth  • Limited scope  • Non-support  • Subverted support  • Untestability  • Fallacy of personal preference assumptions  • Fallacy of quantificational logic  • Fallacy of reverse causation  • Fallacy of the alternative syllogism  • Fallacy of the disjunctive syllogism  • Fallacy of the propositional logic  • Free time (fallacy)  • Futurist extrapolation  • Heads in the sand critique  • Ignoring common cause  • Illicit process  • Improper disjunctive syllogism  • Improper transposition  • Inferring from a metaphor  • Intuitionistic modal logic  • Jactication  • Kicking the problem upstairs  • Lennon/McCartney fallacy  • Liminocentricity  • List of valid argument forms Done  • List of invalid argument forms  • Logical notation  • Meinongian arguments  • Mereological arguments  • Negating antecedent and consequent  • Neutrality Schmeutrality  • One-sidedness  • Open Block Logic  • Oppositional logic  • Perfectly rigorous  • Physiological Egoism  • Plurivocity  • Postmodern mathematics  • Prejudicial language  • Pseudorefutation  • Quote-name  • Repetition (fallacy)  • Science fiction moralizing  • Significant difference reasoning  • Some are/some are not  • Sublime experience  • Superalternation  • Swiftian logic  • Tendentious appeal to possibilities  • truth-apt  • Truthmapping  • Unwarranted contrast  • Upwards inherited  • Volitive  • Weaseler  • John Arrington WoodwardOther : Add links to this portal by placing {{Portal|Logic}} in the See also sections of relevant articles

## References

1. ^ Born 1232 per Mark D. Johnston in Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. London: Routledge, 1998. Older sources (such as versions of Encyclopædia Britannica at least up to 1955) give 1235; the current Britannica gives 1232/33.

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