The Library and Information Science Portal
Library and information science (LIS) (sometimes given as the plural library and information sciences) or as "library and information studies" is a merging of library science and information science. The joint term is associated with schools of library and information science (abbreviated to "SLIS"). In the last part of the 1960s, schools of librarianship, which generally developed from professional training programs (not academic disciplines) to university institutions during the second half of the 20th century, began to add the term "information science" to their names. The first school to do this was at the University of Pittsburgh in 1964. More schools followed during the 1970s and 1980s, and by the 1990s almost all library schools in the USA had added information science to their names.
Although there are exceptions, similar developments have taken place in other parts of the world. In Denmark, for example, the 'Royal School of Librarianship' changed its English name to The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 1997. Exceptions include Tromsø, Norway, where the term documentation science is the preferred name of the field, France, where information science and communication studies form one interdiscipline, and Sweden, where the fields of Archival science, Library science and Museology have been integrated as Archival, Library and Museum studies.
In spite of various trends to merge the two fields, some consider the two original disciplines, library science and information science, to be separate. However, the tendency today is to use the terms as synonyms or to drop the term "library" and to speak about information departments or I-schools. There have also been attempts to revive the concept of documentation and to speak of Library, information and documentation studies (or science).
, intellectual property
(IP) is an umbrella term
for various legal entitlements
which attach to certain names, written and recorded media, and inventions. The holders of these legal entitlements are generally entitled to exercise various exclusive rights
in relation to the subject matter of the IP. The term intellectual property
reflects the idea that this subject matter is the product of the mind
or the intellect
, though the term is a matter of some controversy.
Intellectual property laws and enforcement vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. There are inter-governmental efforts to harmonise them through international treaties such as the 1994 World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs), while other treaties may facilitate registration in more than one jurisdiction at a time. Enforcement of copyright, as well as disagreements over medical and software patents, have so far prevented the emergence of a cohesive international system.
||Classification, broadly defined, is the act of organizing the universe of knowledge into some systematic order. It has been considered the most fundamental activity of the human mind.
||— Lois Mai Chan, Cataloguing and Classification: An Introduction
(January 17 [O.S. January 6
] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the best-known Founding Fathers
of the United States
. He was a leading author
, civic activist
, and diplomat
. He founded the United States
' earliest libraries
, including The Library Company of Philadelphia
and those found at the University of Pennsylvania
, Harvard University
, Brown University
, Dartmouth College
, and many others. As a scientist he was a major figure in the history of physics
for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity
. As a political writer and activist he, more than anyone, invented the idea of an American nation, and as a diplomat during the American Revolution
, he secured the French alliance
that helped to make independence possible.
Franklin was noted for his curiosity, his writings (popular, political and scientific), and his diversity of interests. As a leader of the Enlightenment, he gained the recognition of scientists and intellectuals across Europe. An agent in London before the Revolution, and Minister to France during it, he more than anyone defined the new nation in the minds of Europe. His success in securing French military and financial aid was a great contributor to the American victory over Britain. He invented the lightning rod; he was an early proponent of colonial unity; historians hail him as the "First American."
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In the news
- March,2012, Muhammad Shahid Soroya elected as President Punjab University Library & Information Science Alumni Association (PULISAA) in Pakistan
- September 21, 2011 - Library vendor OverDrive, Inc. adds Amazon Kindle compatible E-books to public and school libraries, allowing library lending over Amazon's Whispernet technology.(OverDrive)
Prior to the adoption of automated systems, the card catalog was the primary means of accessing a library's collection.
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Topics in library and information science
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to library science:
Library science – study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. This includes academic studies regarding how library resources are used and how people interact with library systems. The organization of knowledge for efficient retrieval of relevant information is also a major research goal of library science. Being interdisciplinary, it overlaps with computer science, various social sciences, statistics, and systems analysis. It is also called "library and information science", abbreviated "LIS".
Essence of library science
Branches of library science
Types of library-science professionals
History of library science
History of library science
Types of libraries
Types of publications
Catalogs and indexes
Organization of information
Electronic information storage and retrieval
Scientometrics – studies quantitative aspects of science
Information and society
Library operations and management
Library management –
Organizing and searching Wikipedia
Selection and acquisition of library materials
Other library services and processes
Politics of library science
Education and training
Education for librarianship –
Academic courses in library science
Notable people in library science