The British Library
) is the national library
of the United Kingdom
. It is based in London
and Boston Spa
and is one of the world's most significant research libraries
, holding over 150 million items. The Library's collections include around 25 million books, along with substantial additional collection of manuscripts and historical items dating back as far as 300 BC
. As of March 2004 the Library held 11.2 million monographs
and received more than 41,500 regular serials
. As a legal deposit
library, the BL receives copies of nearly all books produced in the United Kingdom, including all foreign books distributed in the UK. It also purchases many items which are only printed abroad. The British Library adds some 3 million items every year.
(April 28, 1898-April 5, 2003) was a major cataloging
theorist and a prominent librarian. Born in Belarus
as Shmaryahu Lubetzky
, he worked for years at the Library of Congress
. He worked as a teacher before he immigrated to the United States in 1927. He earned his BA from UCLA
in 1931, and his MA from UC Berkeley
in 1932. Lubetzky also taught at the UCLA Graduate School of Education and Information Studies
, then the School of Library Service.
Fluent in six languages, Lubetzky published three groundbreaking books that greatly advanced the discipline of cataloging, the organization of knowledge, and modern research methods, still influential in areas of information technology. Cataloging Rules and Principles and Principles of Cataloging, as well as several periodical articles, solidified Lubetzky as one of the most significant influences in his field.
His unfinished book, Code of Cataloging Rules... unfinished draft (1960), was the basis for modern cataloging adopted by the first International Conference on Cataloging Principles (1961) held in Paris, France, called the "Paris Principles." The code which eventually emerged from the conference was a landmark in the history of universal bibliographic control. In 1967 it developed into the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, which subsequently has been revised over the years.