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Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. IT is considered to be a subset of information and communications technology (ICT). An information technology system (IT system) is generally an information system, a communications system or, more specifically speaking, a computer system – including all hardware, software and peripheral equipment – operated by a limited group of users.

Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing in about 3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)." Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.

The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, and e-commerce.

Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical (3000 BC – 1450 AD), mechanical (1450–1840), electromechanical (1840–1940), and electronic (1940–present). This article focuses on the most recent period (electronic), which began in about 1940.

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Ethernet RJ45 connector p1160054.jpg

Ethernet /ˈθərnɛt/ is a family of computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). Ethernet was commercially introduced in 1980 and standardized in 1985 as IEEE 802.3. Ethernet has largely replaced competing wired LAN technologies.

The Ethernet standards comprise several wiring and signaling variants of the OSI physical layer in use with Ethernet. The original 10BASE5 Ethernet used coaxial cable as a shared medium. Later the coaxial cables were replaced by twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with hubs or switches. Data rates were periodically increased from the original 10 megabits per second to 100 gigabits per second.

Systems communicating over Ethernet divide a stream of data into shorter pieces called frames. Each frame contains source and destination addresses and error-checking data so that damaged data can be detected and re-transmitted. As per the OSI model Ethernet provides services up to and including the data link layer.

Since its commercial release, Ethernet has retained a good degree of compatibility. Features such as the 48-bit MAC address and Ethernet frame format have influenced other networking protocols.

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Subcategories of Computing:
Computer architecture - Computer benchmarks - Bioinformatics - Engineering Informatics  - Computer books - Computer companies - Computer engineering - Computer conferences - Computing mascots - Information privacy - Computer-aided design - Distributed computing - Embedded systems - Fictional computers - Computer graphics - Computer hardware - Human–computer interaction - Information systems - Information technology - Computer humor - Computer languages - Computer law - Legacy systems - Computational linguistics - Computer magazines - Multimedia - Computer networks - Parallel computing - Computing platforms - Computer science - Computer security - Software - Software engineering - Computing stubs - Technical communication - Coding theory - Underground computer groups

Subcategories of Information technology:
Data management - Information architects - Internet - Technical communication - Computer network security - System administration

Subcategories of Computer science:
Algorithms - Anti-patterns - Artificial intelligence - Compilers - Theory of computation - Computer science awards - Computer scientists - Computer vision - Cryptography - Data compression - Data structures - Information theory - Inter-process communication - Lambda calculus - Logic in computer science - Machine translation - Programming - Theoretical computer science - Type theory

Subcategories of Computer networking:
Internet - Internet protocols - Network management - Virtual private networks - Wireless networking


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