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Introduction

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Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county and combined authority area in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan, and the cities of Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, and designated a functional city region on 1 April 2011.

Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles (1,277 km2), which roughly covers the territory of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populous urban area in the UK. It is landlocked and borders Cheshire (to the south-west and south), Derbyshire (to the south-east), West Yorkshire (to the north-east), Lancashire (to the north) and Merseyside (to the west). There is a mix of high-density urban areas, suburbs, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but land use is mostly urban—the product of concentric urbanisation and industrialisation which occurred mostly during the 19th century when the region flourished as the global centre of the cotton industry. It has a focused central business district, formed by Manchester city centre and the adjoining parts of Salford and Trafford, but Greater Manchester is also a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs.

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Shaw and Crompton is a town and civil parish within the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, in Greater Manchester, and is regularly referred to as Shaw. Crompton (as it was originally known) has provided evidence of ancient British and Anglian activity in the area. During the Middle Ages, Crompton formed a small township with weak local lordship, and so it failed to emerge as a manor with its own lord and court. Farming was the main industry of this area, with locals supplementing their incomes by hand-loom woollen weaving in the domestic system.

The introduction of textile manufacture initiated a process of rapid and unplanned urbanisation. A building boom began in Crompton during the mid-19th century, when suitable land in Oldham was becoming scarce. By the late-19th century Crompton had emerged as a densely populated mill town. At its spinning zenith, Shaw and Crompton was reported to have had more millionaires per capita than any other town in the world. Imports of foreign cotton goods began the decline in the region's textile industry during the mid-20th century; Shaw and Crompton's last mill closed in 1989. Today, Shaw and Crompton is a predominantly residential area of mixed affluence with a population of 21,721.

Selected biography

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Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician and cryptographer.

Turing is often considered to be the father of modern computer science. Turing provided an influential formalisation of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine. With the Turing test, he made a significant and characteristically provocative contribution to the debate regarding artificial intelligence: whether it will ever be possible to say that a machine is conscious and can think. He later worked at the National Physical Laboratory, creating one of the first designs for a stored-program computer, the ACE although it was never actually built in its full form. In 1948 he moved to the University of Manchester to work on the Manchester Mark I, then emerging as one of the world's earliest true computers.

During the Second World War Turing worked at Bletchley Park, the UK's codebreaking centre, and was for a time head of Hut 8, the section responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. He devised a number of techniques for breaking German ciphers, including the method of the bombe, an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the Enigma machine.

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Featured articles: AltrinchamBert TrautmannChat MossCity of Manchester StadiumDuncan EdwardsEmmeline PankhurstGreater ManchesterJoy DivisionM62 motorwayManchesterManchester, Bolton and Bury CanalManchester City F.C.Manchester Small-Scale Experimental MachinePeterloo MassacreOldhamScout Moor Wind FarmShaw and CromptonStretfordTrafford

Featured lists: Castles in Greater ManchesterGrade I listed buildings in Greater ManchesterList of Manchester City F.C. managersList of Manchester United F.C. managersList of Manchester United F.C. records and statisticsList of Manchester United F.C. seasonsList of Manchester United F.C. playersList of Manchester United F.C. players (25–99 appearances)List of Manchester United F.C. players (fewer than 25 appearances)List of railway stations in Greater ManchesterList of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Greater ManchesterList of tallest buildings and structures in ManchesterList of tallest buildings and structures in SalfordManchester City F.C. seasons

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Good articles: 1990 Strangeways Prison riotAlan TuringAshton-under-LyneB of the BangBank Street (stadium)Bridgewater CanalBuckton CastleCastleshaw Roman fortChaddertonCine City, WithingtonCity of SalfordControversy over the usage of Manchester Cathedral in Resistance: Fall of ManDavid BeckhamDidsburyDunham MasseyHale BarnsHenry Taylor (swimmer)Hugh MasonHulme Arch BridgeHyde RoadMamuciumManchester and Bolton RailwayManchester LinersManchester MummyManchester Small-Scale Experimental MachineManchester United F.C.MilnrowMurrays' MillsNico DitchNoel GallagherNorth Road (stadium)Ordsall HallOld TraffordOasis (band)Radcliffe, Greater ManchesterRiver IrwellRonnie WallworkRoytonSale, Greater ManchesterTamesideTrafford ParkUpper Brook Street Chapel, ManchesterUrmstonWarburton, Greater Manchester

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