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Forestry

Pine forest in Sweden.jpg

A pine forest in Sweden

Forestry is the science, art, and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and restoring forests and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human benefit. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands. The main goal of forestry is to create and implement systems that manage forests to provide environmental supplies and services. The challenge of forestry is to create systems that are socially accepted while sustaining the resource and any other resources that might be affected.

Forests cover approximately 9.4 percent of the Earth's surface (or 30 percent of total land area), though they once covered much more (about 50 percent of total land area), in many different regions and function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the biosphere. Forests are present in many biomes:

Selected article

The Daintree Rainforest near Cairns, in Queensland, Australia
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with definitions based on a minimum normal annual rainfall of 1750–2000 mm (68–78 inches). The monsoon trough, part of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, plays a significant role in creating the climatic conditions necessary for the Earth's tropical rainforests.

Around 40% to 75% of all biotic species are indigenous to the rainforests. It has been estimated that there may be many millions of species of plants, insects and microorganisms still undiscovered in tropical rainforests. Tropical rainforests have been called the "jewels of the Earth" and the "world's largest pharmacy", because over one quarter of natural medicines have been discovered there. Rainforests are also responsible for 28% of the world's oxygen turnover, sometimes misnamed oxygen production, processing it through photosynthesis from carbon dioxide and consuming it through respiration.

The undergrowth in some areas of a rainforest can be restricted by poor penetration of sunlight to ground level. If the leaf canopy is destroyed or thinned, the ground beneath is soon colonized by a dense, tangled growth of vines, shrubs and small trees, called a jungle[citation needed]. There are two types of rainforest, tropical rainforest and temperate rainforest.


Selected biography

Sakari Pinomäki (1933–2011) was a Finnish systems engineer, who pioneered the mechanized forestry industry. He was the founder of PIKA Forest Machines which produced the first purpose-built forest machine in 1964. Sakari Pinomäki's first company, PIKA Forest Machines, is credited with designing the first self-propelled tree length timber processor, the PIKA Model 60, in 1968, and the first fully mobile timber "harvester", the PIKA Model 75, in 1974. These machines differed significantly from other "retro-fitted" forestry machines in that they were designed from inception to be timber harvesting and processing equipment, and were not conventional farming or earth moving equipment with additional apparatus welded onto them to allow timber processing work to be possible.


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