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Introduction

Benito Mussolini (left) and Adolf Hitler (right), the fascist leaders of Italy and Nazi Germany, respectively

Fascism (/ˈfæʃɪzəm/) is a form of radical right-wing, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and strong regimentation of society and of the economy which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I, before spreading to other European countries. Opposed to liberalism, Marxism and anarchism, fascism is placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.

Fascists saw World War I as a revolution that brought massive changes to the nature of war, society, the state and technology. The advent of total war and the total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilians and combatants. A "military citizenship" arose in which all citizens were involved with the military in some manner during the war. The war had resulted in the rise of a powerful state capable of mobilizing millions of people to serve on the front lines and providing economic production and logistics to support them, as well as having unprecedented authority to intervene in the lives of citizens.

Fascists believe that liberal democracy is obsolete and regard the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state as necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and to respond effectively to economic difficulties. Such a state is led by a strong leader—such as a dictator and a martial government composed of the members of the governing fascist party—to forge national unity and maintain a stable and orderly society. Fascism rejects assertions that violence is automatically negative in nature and views political violence, war and imperialism as means that can achieve national rejuvenation. Fascists advocate a mixed economy, with the principal goal of achieving autarky (national economic self-sufficiency) through protectionist and interventionist economic policies.

Since the end of World War II in 1945, few parties have openly described themselves as fascist, and the term is instead now usually used pejoratively by political opponents. The descriptions neo-fascist or post-fascist are sometimes applied more formally to describe parties of the far-right with ideologies similar to, or rooted in, 20th-century fascist movements.

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António de Oliveira Salazar
António de Oliveira Salazar (April 28, 1889—July 27, 1970) was the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He headed the "Estado Novo" (literally, New State) which advocated authoritarianism based on Roman Catholic social doctrine and corporatism as an economic system. Originally a professor of political economics at the University of Coimbra he became finance minister in 1928 before becoming Prime Minister. During World War II he kept Portugal neutral although he provided aid to the Allies by letting them use an island in the Azores as a military base.

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Benito Mussolini

Mussolini on a horse, 1929.

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Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini, "Diuturna"

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13 July 2019 – Terrorism in the United States
Four policemen kill anarchist Willem van Spronsen attempting to attack an ICE immigrant detention center in Tacoma, Washington. Willem van Spronsen was a member of the John Brown Gun Club and Puget Sound Anarchists and was armed with a rifle and incendiary devices, and had left a three-page manifesto advocating violence against fascism and identified himself as being Antifa. (BBC) (Heavy)

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