(AAR reporting marks BCOL
), known as the British Columbia Railway
between 1972 and 1984 and as the Pacific Great Eastern Railway
; AAR reporting marks PGE
) before 1972, was a railway
that operated in the Canadian
province of British Columbia
between 1912 and 2004. It was a class II
regional railway and the third-largest in Canada, operating 2 320 km (1,441 miles) of mainline track
. It was owned by the provincial government from 1918 until 2004, when the operations were sold to Canadian National Railway
Chartered in 1912, the railway was acquired by the provincial government in 1918 after running into financial difficulties. A railway that ran "from nowhere, to nowhere" for over 30 years, neither passing through any major city nor interchanging with any other railway, it expanded significantly between 1949 and 1984. Primarily a freight railway, it also offered passenger service, as well as some excursion services, most notably the Royal Hudson excursion train. The railway's operations were not always profitable, and its debts, at times, made it the centre of political controversy.
Quesalid was a First Nations shaman who lived on Vancouver Island, Canada. He wrote an autobiography in Kwak'wala, the Kwakiutl language, discovered by Franz Boas and well-known by anthropologists, in which he recounted his experiences as a shaman from an authentic view.
Quesalid started to be interested in shamanism because he was suspicious that shamanism was not true. Then, he enter in a "shamanism school", learned how to play the role.