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Babylonian approximation to the square root of 2
Babylonian mathematics refers to the mathematics developed by the ancient Mesopotamians. The earliest writing developed by the Sumerians (ca. 3500 BC) was in fact not words, but numbers — accounting records and tokens. From ca. 3000 BC they developed a complex system of metrology, a move from purely concrete accounting to abstract mathematics. From 2600 BC onwards, we find multiplication tables on clay tablets, geometrical exercises, and division problems. The sexagesimal (base-60) numeral system also comes from this period. This is the source of our modern day usage of 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, and 360 (60×6) degrees in a circle.

During the First Babylonian Dynasty (ca. 1700 – 1531 BC (short chronology)), Babylonian mathematicians were able to make great advances for two reasons — firstly, the number 60 is a highly composite number, facilitating calculations with fractions, and second, unlike the Egyptians and Romans, the Babylonians had a true place-value system, where digits written in the left column represented larger values (much as in our modern base-ten system). They worked with fractions, algebra, quadratic and cubic equations, the Pythagorean theorem, Pythagorean triples, and possibly trigonometric functions.

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Assur and Mesopotamia
Tiglath-Pileser I (Akkadian, Tukultī-apil-Ešarra, "my trust is in the son of Eshara", reigned c. 1115 – 1076 BC (short chronology)) was the most notable Assyrian ruler between the Old and Neo-Assyrian kingdoms. In the wake of the Bronze Age collapse, he conquered all the lands in northern Mesopotamia. From his surviving inscriptions, he seems to have carefully cultivated a fear of himself in his subjects and enemies alike. Ultimately, his kingdom did not survive long after his death.

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Tatchara
Credit: Elnaz Sarbar
Tatchara
Darius I's palace, Persepolis, 522 – 486 BC

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Did you know...

[[Image:|100x100px|right|Earliest known pictographic writing c. 3500 BC]]...that c. 5300 BC Eridu was the first settlement in what would become the cradle of civilization?

...that the first writing system was developed in the late 4th millennium BC in Sumer? It was a logographic script which is still incompletely deciphered.

...that the Sumerian language, the Kassite language, and the Hattic language are all language isolates, unrelated to any other known language?

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