Adelaide ( ( listen) AD-ə-layd) is the capital city of the state of South Australia, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia.
Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km (12 mi) from the coast to the foothills, and 94 to 104 km (58 to 65 mi) from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south.
Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area originally inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, and entirely surrounded by parklands. Early Adelaide was shaped by prosperity and wealth—until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history. It has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens. The demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to the city and its residents.
As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, and its large defence and manufacturing sectors. It ranks highly in terms of quality of life, being consistently listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit. It was also ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013.
is an eastern suburb
of the South Australian
capital city of Adelaide
. It is located in the foothills
of the Mount Lofty Ranges
around 5 km (3.1 mi) east-south-east of the Adelaide city centre
. For the most part, the suburb encompasses one long gully
with First Creek at its centre and Waterfall Gully Road running adjacent to the creek. At the southern end of the gully is First Falls, the waterfall
for which the suburb was named. Part of the City of Burnside
, Waterfall Gully is bounded to the north by the suburb of Burnside
, from the north-east to south-east by Cleland Conservation Park
(part of the suburb of Cleland
), to the south by Crafers West
, and to the west by Leawood Gardens
and Mount Osmond
Historically, Waterfall Gully was first explored by European settlers in the early-to-mid-19th century, and quickly became a popular location for tourists and picnickers. The government chose to retain control over portions of Waterfall Gully until 1884, when they agreed to place the land under the auspices of the City of Burnside. 28 years later the government took back the management of the southern part of Waterfall Gully, designating it as South Australia's first National Pleasure Resort. Today this area remains under State Government control, and in 1972 the Waterfall Gully Reserve, as it was then known, became part of the larger Cleland Conservation Park.
Over the years Waterfall Gully has been extensively logged, and early agricultural interests saw the cultivation of a variety of introduced species as crops, along with the development of local market gardens and nurseries. Attempts to mine the area were largely unsuccessful, but the region housed one of the state's earliest water-powered mills, and a weir erected in the early 1880s provided for part of the City of Burnside's water supply. Today the suburb consists primarily of private residences and parks.
The Honourable Dr John Jefferson Bray, AC QC (16 September 1912 – 26 June 1995) was an Australian lawyer, academic and published poet, and from 1967-1978 served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of South Australia. He was born in Adelaide, the elder son of Harry Midwinter Bray (1879–1965), an Adelaide stockbroker, and his wife, Gertrude Eleanore Stow (members of whose family were Congregationalist missionaries in South Australia).
Bray's father's family had a history of involvement in South Australian politics and current affairs: Bray's grandfather was the Honourable Sir John Cox Bray, a former Premier of South Australia. On his mother's side, Bray claimed a collateral relationship to the third U.S. president, Thomas Jefferson. Bray was educated at Sevenhill, a state school in the Clare Valley; St Peter's College, Adelaide; and at the University of Adelaide, where he earned a BA in 1932, an LL.B.(Hons.) in 1933 and an LL.D. in 1937.
Bray trained as a lawyer and was admitted to the South Australian Bar in 1933. He was acting lecturer in jurisprudence at the University of Adelaide for the years 1941, 1943, 1945 and 1951. He was created a Q.C. in 1957. He served as a lecturer in Legal History at the University of Adelaide from 1957-1958, and then as a lecturer in Roman Law from 1959 until 1966. He was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of South Australia on 28 February 1967 and served until his retirement from the judiciary on 28 November 1978. He was appointed Chancellor of the University of Adelaide in 1968, and also served as Deputy to the Lieutenant-Governor of South Australia from 1968 until retirement.
Bray was made a Companion of the Order of Australia in 1979, and was granted an Honorary Doctorate by the University of Adelaide in 1983. He is said, by his brother, to have refused a knighthood. He described his views as "æsthetic - traditional; social - emancipated; political - fluctuating" and his philosophies as "sceptical, some tendencies to Platonism".