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The Port of Hueneme in the city of Port Hueneme, California, United States, is the only deep water harbor between Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay area. Located in Ventura County on the Santa Barbara Channel, the port complex not only serves international shipping businesses but is an operating facility of Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC).[5][6][7]

Port of Hueneme
Location
CountryUnited States
LocationPort Hueneme, California
Coordinates34°8′50″N 119°12′30″W / 34.14722°N 119.20833°W / 34.14722; -119.20833Coordinates: 34°8′50″N 119°12′30″W / 34.14722°N 119.20833°W / 34.14722; -119.20833
Details
OpenedJuly 4, 1940; 78 years ago (July 4, 1940)
Operated byOxnard Harbor District
Owned byOxnard Harbor District
Type of harborArtificial
Land area120 acres (49 ha)[1]
Port CEO and DirectorKristin Decas[2]
MottoWe make cargo move.[3]
Statistics
Annual cargo tonnage1.6 million[4]
Value of cargo$9 billion[4]
Website
www.portofh.org

The original wharf was built to serve the new farmers on the Oxnard Plain and became the largest grain-shipping port south of San Francisco. The modern port continues this legacy as a dominant port for agribusiness (fruit and other produce), liquids, fresh seafood and vehicles.[3] Bulk cargo and automobiles are specialties of the port and distinguishes it from much larger ports.[8] General cargo includes household goods and oversized cargo. This includes providing support services for the offshore oil industry in the Santa Barbara Channel.

The port has a direct highway connection to the nationwide freight network which raises the status of the port and gives it access to more federal funding resulting in a competitive advantage.[9] The port owns a railroad line through Port Hueneme and south Oxnard that is operated by the Ventura County Railroad and connects nationally to the Coast Route of Union Pacific.[10] The District does not perform any cargo handling operations as the companies shipping through the port take responsibility in cooperation with the port district.[10]

The Navy owns and operates the port. The port has five deep-water berths.[11] As a shared port between NBVC and the Oxnard Harbor District, the U.S. Navy has over 4,500 feet (1,400 m) of berthing space for various ship platforms for use by tenant commands of NBVC: Port Hueneme and transient government contract/military shipping.[12]

1857 U.S. Coast Survey Map has inset of Point Hueneme before the harbor was built

Contents

HistoryEdit

European immigrants began farming on the Oxnard Plain in the 1860s but the area was isolated due to the difficult overland routes. Thomas R. Bard chose Point Hueneme[13] as the site of a wharf to take advantage of the naturally occurring depth of a submarine canyon.[14] The extra depth meant there was less surge while the boats were loading or unloading than there would be at other locations.[15] Before the construction of a 900-foot-long wharf (270 m) in 1872, goods had been shuttled through the surf zone to reach offshore vessels.[16] Hueneme soon became the largest grain-shipping port south of San Francisco and the wharf was extended to 1,500 feet (460 m) in 1897.[17] Three and four-masted wooden schooners brought lumber from the north and carried grain, lima beans and sheep to markets in San Francisco.[18] Teams of horses pulling wagons waited for the load of grain to be weighed in lines that stretched six blocks. Hoping to connect the new wharf with ore mines in Inyo County, Bard launched a campaign to build a road through the Santa Clara River Valley.[19] Bard also platted the townsite of Hueneme to support the activity at the port and build a family home.

In 1898, the railroad line that had connected Ventura to Los Angeles crossed the Santa Clara River at El Rio on a new bridge. The line continued due south to where the town of Oxnard was being established at the site of the American Beet Sugar Company factory being built by the Oxnard Brothers in the middle portion of the plain. Passenger and freight traffic declined as they shifted to the railroad.[20] Traffic was drastically reduced when the coast route was finished and became the most direct route between Los Angeles and San Francisco.[21]

The Harbor District was formed April 29, 1937 with an area of about 321 acres (130 ha).[22][1] Building the port became even more important when a storm destroyed the wharf in 1938.[18] On February 4, 1939, the groundbreaking ceremony drew hundreds of people. This great endeavor was front-page news in Ventura County as the United States emerged from the Great Depression.[1] The U.S. military took control of the entire harbor after the outbreak of World War II and significantly enlarged the deep water port. Bard's 62-acre estate (25 ha) was leased by the Navy during World War II and acquired by the government in 1951.[23] His home, Berylwood mansion, remains within the military base and is used as a conference center.[24] Several other large properties adjacent to port were also acquired to establish the Advance Base Depot which began operating May 18, 1942 to provide support for the Naval Construction Force, commonly called the Seabees. Massive amounts of equipment and material were shipped from here to the war efforts in the Pacific. The base was renamed the Naval Construction Battalion Center in 1945 and became an operating facility of Naval Base Ventura County in 2000.[6]

 
Various vehicles are shipped in and out of the Port on large ships.

The District has regained control over 120 acres (49 ha) and an additional 600 acres (240 ha) of private and public land serve support functions for the port.[1] This has come about due to the gradual realignment and reduction in the nation's defense forces. For example, 33 acres (13 ha) were added to the port's existing 75 acres (30 ha) in 1997 as obsolete military facilities were demolished.[25] Commercial shipping activities have consistently expanded and taken advantage of the additional space.[6] Both the port and military base are within the corporate limits of the city of Port Hueneme.[26]

In 2008 the port repaired the 3,050-foot seawall (930 m) on the south side of the entrance that protects the shoreline and marine terminals from coastal erosion. The project included construction of the Waterfront Promenade, also known as the Lighthouse Promenade. The path is wide enough to accommodate emergency or service vehicles and is lighted. The path provides paved public access along the shore by replacing a dirt path and connecting with the pathways at Hueneme Beach. The old seawall material was recycled by crushing the rock and using it as base material for the pathway.[27]

In January 2019, cocaine was found under the floorboards of two ships. The largest drug seizure at the port in decades was the result of a joint investigation by officers from Homeland Security Investigations, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Office of Field Operations.[28][29]

Cargo volume grew 44% between 2009 and 2018. In 2019, the annual volume of cargo was 1.6 million tons in 2019 worth an estimated $9 billion dollars.[30][4]

Port operationEdit

The ability to handle a diverse breadth of business is one way the port distinguishes itself from the much larger nearby ports such as Long Beach and Los Angeles.[31][32][7] The Port has five deep-water berths and two cranes but does not have the infrastructure to handle large container ships.[33]

The port imports and exports over 313,000,000-short-ton of cargo annually to Guatemala (284,000,000-metric-ton) through the port of Puerto Quetzal. The cargo consists mainly of bananas and various fresh produce.[34] Bananas were the port's largest volume product in 2014 and were continuing to increase. Chiquita Brands International Inc. was importing 7,500-pound of bananas a week (3,400 kg) making the port No. 2 in the nation for the company. The port’s goal is to be “the nation’s No. 1 port of choice for food production."[2] Chiquita bananas arriving at the port are distributed to 13 western states.[34]

The port and Ecuador’s Port Bolivar agreed to become “sister ports” in 2014 and promote the banana industry together. Forty percent of the Ecuador's banana exports go through Port Bolivar and 650,600-short-ton of fruit (590,200-metric-ton) were imported through the Port of Hueneme in 2013. The ports want to be more competitive and more attractive by sharing knowledge, policies and best practices on training, facilities development, engineering and technical services, security, supply chain logistics and environmental protection. The ports expect a mutual benefit for their customers through these cooperative arrangements in technology and policy.[2]

Automobiles and other roll-on/roll-off, high-and-heavy and project cargo are specialties of the port.[35] General cargo can include household goods and oversized cargo, such as cryogenic tanks for Vandenberg Air Force Base and a Tunnel boring machine that was delivered to Las Vegas have come though the port. The port installed pumps to suck up squid from the holds of fishing vessels when the larger ports did not have the room and were not ready to provide this service.[36]

Three auto processors are located less than 2 miles (3.2 km) from the port. The new vehicles are inspect and accessories installed before they are delivered to dealers in the western United States. While importing automobiles has long been a staple of the port, exporting them internationally began in 1996. This resulted from foreign automakers starting to build factories on U.S. soil in the early 1980s and domestic manufacturers seeking expansion in the international market.[37] The import and export of automobiles uses both the rail line and the easy access by truck to the nationwide freight network.[38]

Military operationsEdit

 
USS Pinckney (DDG-91) guided missile destroyer

NBVC Port Operations controls all vessels entering and exiting the harbor. NBVC:Port Hueneme and OHD have a Joint Use Agreement that provides up to 25 acres (10 ha) of secondary parcels for staging. There is more than 300 acres (120 ha) of lay-down space with portside access for 16 miles (26 km) of rail for on- and off-loading military freight for the various branches of service.[6] Response to any "on water" hazardous materials spill is provided by Navy Port Operations personnel as they are first responder qualified.[39]

The deep water port at NBVC:Port Hueneme is one of the few military ports on the West Coast[12] and has been the site of a centuries-old naval tradition of ship commissioning. A ceremony at the harbor placed the following ships into active service

Infrastructure and facilitiesEdit

The five deep-water berths are equipped with shore-side power capacity for vessels to plug in.[41] The system was installed to comply with a California Air Resources Board rule requiring land-based power systems to reduce pollution coming from ships by shutting down diesel engines in order to prevent the emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter into the air.[11]

Land transportation networkEdit

The Oxnard Harbor District acquired the Ventura County Railway Company LLC, a 12.9-mile (20.8 km) short line railroad, in 2003.[42][10] Ventura County Railroad operates the lines which connect the port, the military base, and other facilities in south Oxnard with the Union Pacific Coast route near the Oxnard Transit Center in downtown Oxnard. The port would also benefit if the rail corridor from the Port of Hueneme through the Highway 126 corridor to Santa Clarita was reestablished to carry Central Valley and Santa Clara River Valley citrus and other products to the port and on to foreign markets.[43]

The Hueneme Road/Rice Avenue intermodal corridor was established by the district along with the cities of Oxnard and Port Hueneme, the County of Ventura, and approved by the state transportation commission in 1998 to deal with the truck traffic.[44][45] This direct route connects the port to the nationwide freight network and raises the status of the port to give it access to more federal funding resulting in a competitive advantage.[9] Funding was put in place in 2000 to improved the dedicated freight corridor by extending Rice Road southerly to connect Hueneme Road (Port Hueneme Road within Port Hueneme city limits) and totally rebuilding the interchange for State Route 1 at Pleasant Valley Road.[46][47] The new interchange at Highway 101 and Rice Avenue was dedicated in 2014 after being improved and expanded from a two-lane overpass with narrow freeway ramps that required sharp difficult turns for trucks.[9] The interchange and road improvements also made Rice Avenue, rather than Oxnard Boulevard, the main thoroughfare between the Ventura Freeway and the Pacific Coast Highway (State Route 1).[48] An overpass has been planned for almost two decades along this route at the Rice Avenue intersection with Fifth Street (State Route 34). In February 2015, a Metrolink passenger train collided with a truck at this on-grade crossing. Funding is being allocated for design with a desire by local officials to eventually get the estimated $35 million need for this grade separation project.[49]

Historic sitesEdit

Three historic sites are highlighted at viewing points on the Promenade: the 1872 Wharf, the Oxnard Packing House, and extant Point Hueneme Light. The Ventura County Cultural Heritage Board designated the "Original Hueneme Wharf Site" as County Landmark #24 in 1972.[18]

District governanceEdit

The Oxnard Harbor District is an independent special district formed in 1937. The district is governed by a five-member commission elected at-large to staggered four year terms by the voters within the district boundary. The port is one of the five of the deep water ports governed by special districts in the state of California. The state's other six deep water ports are a function of the city in which the port is located. The District boundary includes the City of Port Hueneme, most of the City of Oxnard, and the unincorporated communities of El Rio, Nyeland Acres, Silver Strand, Hollywood Beach and Hollywood by the Sea.[10] The district formed using the existing boundary of the Oxnard Union High School District which also encompassed Camarillo, a portion of Thousand Oaks and additional unincorporated areas of the county. At the time, this seemed like the best arrangement to provide a bond measure that would provide for construction of the port. Dissatisfaction with the boundary grew over the years and the Local Agency Formation Commission (LAFCO) recommended in 1972 and 1985 that the boundaries be changed to encompass the entire county.[50] Oxnard and Port Hueneme officials requested that the boundaries be dramatically reduced in 1989 after a report showed that these two cities experienced a high percentage of the economic benefits of the port and suffered from heavy truck traffic on city streets, noise and congestion. LAFCO approved and changed the boundary to the current configuration in January, 1991.[51] The commissioners must live within the district and LAFCO agreed with the cities that the boundary should match the area that is most influenced by actions taken by the port.[52]

In 1983, the district and the City of Port Hueneme developed an agreement that provided a payment to the city of 3.33 percent of the port's gross revenues for improvements and services. The agreement recognized that city roads need maintenance due to the port truck traffic and provided for improvements such as road widening. After 9/11, security was increased and the entrance to the port was moved to another street. Some improvements were no longer needed and the port no longer used additional police services from the city. By 2009, the city and port officials were at odds over the need to renegotiate the agreement. The disagreement became particularly heated as the port resolved in 2013 to stop paying a percentage of gross revenues and to only pay for the actual costs of road repair. They also accused the city of using the funds for other municipal purposes.[53] While claiming it was unrelated to the dispute, the city council put a new tax before voters in the November 2014 election that reworks the city’s business tax code to collect more money from maritime businesses at the Port and from the military contractors at Naval Base Ventura County.[54][55][56] Voters rejected the measure and elected two new city council members who were on good terms with harbor district leaders.[57]

Community impactsEdit

Much of the car storage is off-site in south Oxnard where several vehicle processing centers are located. Imported cars are frequently driven out of the port on public streets to these facilities.[58]

A volunteer group has special permission to feed feral cats that take care of rats at the port. The group manages the cat population to keep it at about 250 and feeds them three times a week at different locations around the port property. Once a month, volunteers trap cats that are new to the colony, take them to a spay and neuter clinic to be sterilized, given shots to prevent feline diseases, and get their right ears clipped so they can be identified. The cats are then returned to where they were found and allowed to live out their lives. Many of these cats were dumped by owners.[59] The biggest problem with the colony is that other people feed the animals and throw the population out of balance with the harbor rodents the cats are there to control.[60]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Hoops, Stephanie (April 28, 2012) "Port of Hueneme celebrates 75 years" Ventura County Star
  2. ^ a b c Lawrence, Carol (May 22, 2014) "Business development trip puts Port of Hueneme on exporters' radar" Ventura County Star
  3. ^ a b Dubroff, Henry (July 26, 2013) "With new leaders and branding, Port of Hueneme's ship comes in" Pacific Coast Business Times
  4. ^ a b c Orozco, Lance (October 25, 2018). "South Coast Port Has Biggest Year In Its History; Bananas Top Banana For Imports". KCLU-News. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  5. ^ "Welcome to Naval Base Ventura County" U.S. Navy Accessed 27 May 2014
  6. ^ a b c d "Naval Base Ventura County: About" U.S. Navy Accessed 27 May 2014
  7. ^ a b "Port of Hueneme celebrates California ports day with deepening project groundbreaking". Ports and Terminals. www.ajot.com. February 22, 2019. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  8. ^ Office of System and Freight Planning (3 July 2012) "Freight Planning Fact Sheet:Port of Hueneme/Oxnard Harbor District" Caltrans
  9. ^ a b c Biasotti, Tony (August 27, 2014). "Rice Avenue interchange a turning point for Oxnard". Ventura County Star.
  10. ^ a b c d "Municipal Service Review: Oxnard Harbor District" Ventura Local Agency Formation Commission (September 19, 2007)
  11. ^ a b Hoops, Stephanie (April 4, 2014) "Port of Hueneme flips switch on shore power system for ships" Ventura County Star
  12. ^ a b Commanding Officer, Naval Base Ventura County (2011) "NAVAL BASE VENTURA COUNTY ECONOMIC IMPACT AND COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT" U.S. Navy
  13. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Point Hueneme
  14. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Hueneme Canyon
  15. ^ (February 25, 1916) "Ventura Harbor, CAL" House of Representatives 64th Congress, 1st Session, Document NO. 792
  16. ^ Waters, Mark E., Publisher "Port of Hueneme" World Port Source
  17. ^ Ventura County: Hueneme Los Angeles Herald 25 September 1897 Volume 26, Number 360, Page 7
  18. ^ a b c Cultural Heritage Board. "Ventura County Landmark Map" County of Ventura Planning Division Accessed 5 April 2014
  19. ^ Lima, Christina (February 18, 1996) "Collision Course : Scenic but Dangerous California 126 Throws Drivers a Curve" Los Angeles Times
  20. ^ Chase, J. Smeaton (1913). "California Coast Trails: a Horseback Ride from Mexico to Oregon" Chapter VI. Reprinted in The Double Cone Register, the online journal of the Ventana Wilderness Alliance, Volume VIII, No. 1, Fall 2005
  21. ^ "CHATSWORTH PARK CUTOFF LINE OPENS TODAY" Los Angeles Herald 20 March 1904. Volume 21, Number 173, Page 2
  22. ^ Tash, Debra (May 4, 2019). "Happy Birthday Port of Hueneme/Oxnard Harbor District". Citizens Journal. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
  23. ^ Julie F. Streets (1975(?)). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Bard, Thomas R., Estate / Berylwood". National Park Service. Check date values in: |date= (help) and accompanying photos
  24. ^ The Bard Mansion webpage. "Berylwood, Historic Home and Gardens". Friends of the Bard Mansion website. Accessed 27, September, 2013
  25. ^ Green, Nick (March 26, 1997) "Navy Transfers 33 Acres to Harbor District" Los Angeles Times
  26. ^ The Port of Hueneme: About Us: History Archived 2014-04-14 at the Wayback Machine The Port of Hueneme
  27. ^ Klampe, Michelle L. (March 21, 2008) "Waterfront Promenade officially opens today" Ventura County Star
  28. ^ Mai-Duc, Christine (February 15, 2019). "Federal officials seize more than 200 pounds of cocaine in Port Hueneme". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
  29. ^ "Why landmark cocaine bust at Port of Hueneme was 'a big shock'". Ventura County Star. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  30. ^ Orozco, Lance. "Jobs, Cargo Tonnage, Tax Revenue All Up At South Coast Port". KCLU-News. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  31. ^ Hoops, Stephanie (September 23, 2014) "Port's cargo processing numbers remain steady" Ventura County Star
  32. ^ Leung, Wendy (February 22, 2019). "Construction to begin to deepen Port of Hueneme channel by 5 feet". Ventura County Star. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
  33. ^ Hoops, Stephanie (November 10, 2014) "Amid labor strife, Port of Hueneme safe for now"Ventura County Star
  34. ^ a b D'Angelo, Alexa (December 25, 2018). "Container leaves Port Hueneme, heads to Guatemala with donations for children in need". Ventura County Star. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  35. ^ Buyers' Guide "The Port of Hueneme" Archived 2015-02-17 at the Wayback Machine Automotive Logistics retrieved 16 February 2015
  36. ^ White, Ronald D. (October 28, 2009) "Tiny Port of Hueneme is hit by a perfect storm" Los Angeles Times
  37. ^ Hoops, Stephanie (December 22, 2012) "Vehicle exports expected to rise at Port of Hueneme" Ventura County Star
  38. ^ Leung, Wendy (February 17, 2019). "Port of Hueneme requesting Oxnard permit to use 34 acres as parking lot". Ventura County Star. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
  39. ^ "Naval Base Ventura County: Port Operations" U.S. Navy Accessed 27 May 2014
  40. ^ "William Pinckney". United States Navy. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  41. ^ Hoops, Stephanie (July 23, 2013). "Consultant tells Port of Hueneme its growth is tied to better rail service". Ventura County Star.
  42. ^ City of Port Hueneme v. Oxnard Harbor District (Court of Appeal, Second District, Division 6, California 2006). Text
  43. ^ Dubroff, Henry (January 9, 2015). "Commuter rail on the Central Coast may put bullet train on track". Pacific Coast Business Times. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  44. ^ Green, Nick (January 26, 1996). "City, County to Jointly Seek U.S. Funds for Freeway Link". Los Angeles Times.
  45. ^ Alvarez, Fred (August 8, 2001). "Farm Advocate Has Tough Row to Hoe". Los Angeles Times.
  46. ^ Blake, Catherine (June 4, 2000). "Pact Reached on Truck Link to Port of Hueneme". Los Angeles Times.
  47. ^ Plisky, Mike (May 8, 2010). "Long road to improve interchange". Ventura County Star.
  48. ^ Chi, Chris (April 2, 1998). "House Approves $41 Million for Roads in County". Los Angeles Times.
  49. ^ Weikel, Dan; Nelson, Laura J. (March 1, 2015). "Spending on rail crossing safety upgrades varies widely across Southland". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
  50. ^ Watson, Carol (January 18, 1990) "More Cities Enter Fray Over Port of Hueneme" Los Angeles Times
  51. ^ "Oxnard Harbor District". CountyView GIS Map. County of Ventura. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  52. ^ Murphy, Barbara (June 03, 1993) "District's New Boundaries Are Upheld" Los Angeles Times
  53. ^ Hoops, Stephanie (June 24, 2014) "Port considers cut in funding the city of Port Hueneme" Ventura County Star
  54. ^ Hoops, Stephanie (August 6, 2014) "Port of Hueneme to oppose proposed city taxes" Ventura County Star
  55. ^ Wenzke, Marissa (September 12, 2014). "Port of Hueneme and city are at odds over Measure M". Pacific Coast Business Times.
  56. ^ Hoops, Stephanie (September 14, 2014) "Effects of Port Hueneme's Measure M unclear" Ventura County Star
  57. ^ Hoops, Stephanie (November 5, 2014) "Optimism reigns in wake of Measure M defeat" Ventura County Star
  58. ^ Leung, Wendy (February 18, 2019). "Port of Hueneme request to park 5,000 cars in south Oxnard raises pollution worries". Ventura County Star. Retrieved 2019-06-16.
  59. ^ Kallas, Anne (September 7, 2016). "Cats Cradle watches over Port of Hueneme's feral felines". Ventura County Star. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  60. ^ Kallas, Anne (July 31, 2016). "Too many cats spoil the port, Hueneme residents say". Ventura County Star. Retrieved September 10, 2016.