Pontifical universities are higher education ecclesiastical schools established or approved directly by the Holy See, composed of three main ecclesiastical faculties (Theology, Philosophy and Canon Law) and at least one other faculty. These academic institutes deal specifically with the Christian revelation and related disciplines, and the Church's mission of spreading the Gospel, as proclaimed in the Apostolic Constitution both "Sapientia christiana". Many of them, on the other hand, have most of their students studying secular topics. They are governed by the apostolic constitution Veritatis gaudium issued by Pope Francis.
Quality and rankingEdit
Pontifical universities follow a European system of study hour calculation, granting the baccalaureate, the licentiate, and the ecclesiastical doctorate. These ecclesiastical degrees are prerequisites to certain offices in the Roman Catholic Church, especially considering that bishop candidates are selected mainly from priests who are doctors of sacred theology (S.T.D.) or canon law (J.C.D.) and that ecclesiastical judges and canon lawyers must have at least the Licentiate of Canon Law (J.C.L.).
Pontifical colleges and universities are generally nondenominational, in that they accept anyone regardless of academic merit, religion or denominational affiliation, race or ethnicity, nationality, or civil status, provided the admission or enrollment requirements and legal documents are submitted, and rules & regulations are obeyed for a fruitful life on campus. However, some faculties or degrees and disciplines may be for Catholics only, and non-Catholics, whether Christian or not, may be exempted from participating in otherwise required campus activities, particularly those of a religious nature.
Pontifical universities are not ranked by International quality ranking services and student research thesis' are not published in the academic mainstream. It is therefore impossible to have information about the student assessment methods or transparency in nominating degrees. In 2003 the Holy See took part in the Bologna Process, a series of meetings and agreements between European states designed to foster comparable quality standards in higher education, and in the "Bologna Follow-up Group". Pope Benedict XVI established the Agency for the Evaluation and Promotion of Quality in Ecclesiastical Universities and Faculties (AVEPRO), an attempt to promote and develop a culture of quality within the ecclesiastical institutions and enable them to aim in developing internationally valid quality criteria."
Compared to secular universities, which are academic institutions for the study and teaching of a broad range of disciplines, ecclesiastical or Pontifical universities are "usually composed of three principal ecclesiastical faculties, theology, philosophy, and canon law, and at least one other faculty. A Pontifical university specifically addresses Christian revelation and disciplines correlative to the evangelical mission of the Church as set out in the apostolic constitution Sapientia christiana".
List of pontifical universitiesEdit
- Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina (Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina), Buenos Aires
- Catholic Institute of Sydney, Sydney
- International Theological Institute; for studies of marriage and family, near Vienna
- Pontifical Athenaeum, Heiligenkreuz Abbey, Heiligenkreuz
- Theological Faculty, Catholic-Theological Private University Linz, Linz
- Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven
- Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve
- Belgian Pontifical College
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas, Campinas
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Goiás, Goiânia
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, São Paulo
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre
- Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, Toronto; postdoctoral research
- Regis College, Toronto
- Saint Paul University, Ottawa
- Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago
- Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso, Valparaiso
- Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra, Santiago de Los Caballeros
- Catholic University of Lyon, Lyon
- Catholic University of Toulouse, Toulouse
- Catholic University of the West, Angers
- Institut Catholique de Paris, Paris
- Université Catholique de Lille, Lille
- Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Eichstätt & Ingolstadt
- Munich University of Philosophy, Munich
- Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Guatemala City
- Wedabhakti Pontifical Faculty of Theology, Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta
- St Patrick's College, Maynooth, Maynooth; Pontifical University charter 1896
- Marianum Theological Faculty, Rome
- Pontifical Atheneum of St. Anselm (Sant'Anselmo), Rome
- Pontifical Athenaeum Regina Apostolorum, Rome
- Pontifical Gregorian University (Gregorianum), Rome
- Pontifical Lateran University, Rome
- Pontifical University of the Holy Cross, Rome
- Pontifical University of St. Anthony, Rome
- Pontifical University of St. Bonaventure (Seraphicum), Rome
- Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas (Angelicum), Rome
- Pontifical Urbaniana University, Rome
- Salesian Pontifical University, Rome
- Pontifical University of Mexico, Mexico City
- Universidad Católica Santa María La Antigua, Panama City
- Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Peru), Lima
- Catholic University of Portugal, Lisbon
- Comillas Pontifical University, Madrid
- Pontifical University of Salamanca, Salamanca
- University of Deusto, Bilbao
- University of Navarra, Pamplona
- Facoltà di Teologia di Lugano, Lugano
- Boston College School of Theology, Boston, MA
- The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC
- International Marian Research Institute at the University of Dayton, Dayton, OH
- Jesuit School of Theology of Santa Clara University, Berkeley, CA
- John Paul II Institute, Washington, DC
- Pontifical College Josephinum, Columbus, OH
- Pontifical Faculty at the University of Saint Mary of the Lake (Mundelein Seminary), Mundelein, IL
- Pontifical Faculty of the Immaculate Conception (PFIC), Dominican House of Studies, Washington, DC
- St. Mary's Seminary and University, Baltimore, MD
Additionally, numerous other United States institutions have arrangements by which they may grant pontifical degrees, including:
- Sacred Heart Major Seminary, Detroit, MI; offers the Baccalaureate in Sacred Theology (S.T.B.) which is conferred by the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas in Rome (Angelicum) through the faculty of SHMS.
- Saint Patrick's Seminary and University, Menlo Park, CA; offers the STB through the Pontifical Faculty of the Immaculate Conception.
- Kenrick–Glennon Seminary, Shrewsbury, MO; offers the STB through the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome.
- Mount St. Mary's University Seminary, Emmitsburg, MD; offers the STB through the Pontifical Faculty of the Immaculate Conception.
- Mount Angel Abbey's Seminary, Saint Benedict, OR; offers the STB through the Pontifical Athenaeum of Sant’ Anselmo in Rome.
- St. Bernard's Seminary, Rochester, NY; was granted by Pope Leo XIII the ability to award pontifical degrees up to and including the Doctorate in Theology and Philosophy.
Cf. Former pontifical universities
- Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany, until the German Reformation
- Heythrop College, University of London; Bellarmine Institute, London, United Kingdom.
- Lund Studium Generale, Lund, Sweden, until the Danish Reformation
- Royal and Pontifical University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina, until 1856, during the presidency of Justo José de Urquiza
- Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico, until the Mexican War of Independence
- Universidad Católica de Santo Tomás de Villanueva, Havana, Cuba, until 1961, after the Cuban Revolution
- Universidad de San Ignacio, Manila, Philippines, until 1768, after the Expulsion of the Jesuits
- Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (then in Haiti), until 1823, during the Unification of Hispaniola
- University of Aberdeen, Old Aberdeen, Scotland, until the Scottish Reformation
- University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, until the English Reformation
- University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany, until the French Revolutionary Wars
- University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, until the Danish Reformation
- University of Erfurt, until the German Reformation
- University of Freiburg, until the Suppression of the Society of Jesus
- University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, until the Scottish Reformation
- University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, until the German Reformation
- University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany, until the German Reformation
- University of Mainz, until the French Revolutionary Wars
- University of Oxford, Oxford, England, until the English Reformation
- University of Paris, Paris, France, until the French Revolution
- University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany, until the German Reformation
- University of Saint Andrews, Saint Andrews, Scotland, until the Scottish Reformation
- University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru, until the Peruvian War of Independence
- University of Tübingen, until the German Reformation
- University of Wittenberg, until the German Reformation
- University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany, until the Napoleonic Wars
- Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, until the Swedish Reformation
- Matthew Bunson, ed. (2010). Catholic Almanac 2010. Our Sunday Visitor. pp. 546–550.
- "AVEPRO". avepro.va. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Agenzia della Santa Sede per la Valutazione e la Promozione della Qualità delle Università e Facoltà Ecclesiastiche (AVEPRO), http://www.avepro.va/ Archived 8 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Accessed 1 November. 2012
- "Sapientia Christiana (April 15, 1979) | John Paul II". www.vatican.va. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2011.
- Offers the S.T.B., according to "Gradi accademici" (in Italian). Lugano, Switzerland: Faculty of Theology. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- "Baccalaureate in Sacred Theology (S.T.B.) – Sacred Heart Major Seminary". shms.edu. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- University, St. Patrick's Seminary & (30 July 2018). "St. Patrick's Seminary – St. Patrick's Seminary & University". St. Patrick's Seminary & University. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "STB". kenrick.edu. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- User, Administrative. "Bachelor of Sacred Theology – Mount St. Mary's University". Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2018.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Zwierlein, Frederick. The Life and Letters of Bishop McQuaid: Prefaced with the History of Catholic Rochester Before His Episcopate, Volume 3 (Rochester, 1927), p. 454–455.
- Denmark ruled Lund till the Great Northern War; Andrina Stiles (1992), Sweden and the Baltic, 1523–1721, London: Hodder & Stoughton.