Pohnpeic languages

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Pohnpeic, also rendered Ponapeic, is a subgroup of the Chuukic–Pohnpeic branch of Micronesian in the Austronesian language family.[1] The languages are primarily spoken in Pohnpei State of the Federated States of Micronesia.

Pohnpeic
Ponapeic
Geographic
distribution
Micronesia
Linguistic classificationAustronesian
Glottologpona1248

LanguagesEdit

InnovationsEdit

Pohnpeic languages are distinct from the closely related Chuukic languages as a result of uniquely developed innovations. One such innovation is nasal substitution, where the first element in a consonant geminate becomes a homorganic nasal consonant.[3] An example of this change is seen where Proto Chuukic-Pohnpeic */kkaŋ/ 'sharp' became Mokilese /iŋkɔŋ/, whereas in Chuukese it is /kken/.[4]

PhonologyEdit

Proto-Pohnpeic reflexes of Proto Oceanic consonants[5]
Proto Oceanic *mp *mp,ŋp *p *m *m,ŋm *k *ŋk *y *w *t *s,nj *ns,j *j *nt,nd *d,R *l *n
Proto-Micronesian *p *pʷ *f *m *mʷ *k *x *y *w *t *T *s *S *Z *c *r *l *n
Proto Chuukic-Pohnpeic *p *pʷ *f *m *mʷ *k *∅,r3 *y *w *t *j *t *t *∅ *c *r *l *n
Proto-Pohnpeic *p1 *pʷ *p, ∅2 *m *mʷ *k *∅,r3 *y *w *j,∅1{_i,u,e4} *j *t̻ *t̻ *∅ *c *r *l *n *∅,n{high V_}

1 In the Pohnpeic languages, geminate obstruents are realized as homorganic nasal-obstruent clusters.
2 Often before /i/.
3 Before /a/.
4 The reflex is *∅ sporadically before PMc *e.

Reconstructed vocabularyEdit

Reconstructed Proto Pohnpeic Vocabulary [6]
Proto Pohnpeic English Gloss Modern Language Reflexes
*cana-k,cana-ko be hung up, to hang up PON tɛnɛ-k, MOK sɔnɔ
*palia day after tomorrow PON pali, MOK pali
*payipayi sea urchin PON pɛypɛy, MOK pɔypɔy
*wara neck PON wɛrɛ 'his/her neck', MOK wɔr

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lynch, John; Malcolm Ross; Terry Crowley (2002). The Oceanic languages. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon. ISBN 978-0-7007-1128-4. OCLC 48929366.
  2. ^ "Ngatikese". Retrieved 2015-02-11.
  3. ^ Blevins, Juliette; Garrett, Andrew (1993). "The Evolution of Ponapeic Nasal Substitution". Oceanic Linguistics. 32 (2): 199–236. doi:10.2307/3623193. JSTOR 3623193.
  4. ^ Blevins, Juliette; Garrett, Andrew (1993). "The Evolution of Ponapeic Nasal Substitution". Oceanic Linguistics. 32 (2): 206. doi:10.2307/3623193. JSTOR 3623193.
  5. ^ Bender, Byron W. (2003). "Proto-Micronesian Reconstructions: 1". Oceanic Linguistics. 42 (1): 4, 5. doi:10.2307/3623449. JSTOR 3623449.
  6. ^ Bender, Byron W. (2003). "Proto-Micronesian Reconstructions: 2". Oceanic Linguistics. 42 (2): 282. doi:10.1353/ol.2003.0014.