Polygalaceae

The Polygalaceae or the milkwort family are made up of flowering plants in the order Fabales. They have a near-cosmopolitan range, with about 21 genera and ca. 900 known species[2] of herbs, shrubs and trees. Over half of the species are in one genus, Polygala, the milkworts.

Polygalaceae
Securidaca longipedunculata MS 1933.JPG
Securidaca longipedunculata
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Polygalaceae
Hoffmanns. & Link[1]
Type genus
Polygala
Tribes

See text.

Polygaleae distribution.svg
Distribution of the Polygalaceae
Synonyms
  • Diclidantheraceae J. Agardh
  • Moutabeaceae Pfeiffer
  • Xanthophyllaceae Reveal & Hoogland

The family was first described in 1809 by Johann Hoffmansegg and Johann Link.[3] In 1896, Robert Chodat split it into 3 tribes. A fourth tribe was split off from the tribe Polygaleae in 1992.[4] Under the Cronquist classification system, Polygalaceae were treated in a separate order of their own, Polygalales. Currently, according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, the family belongs in Fabales.

DescriptionEdit

Polygalaceae are annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, shrublets, and small trees. Its zygomorphic, hermaphrodite, bisexual flowers have 3-5 petals and 5 sepals.[5][6] Its leaves are usually alternate, but may be opposite, fascicled, or verticillate.[5] Each flower usually contains 8 stamens, though this may range from 3 to 10. They are usually in 2 series.[6] The fruits of each plant can be a capsule, samara, or drupe.[5]

Tribes and generaEdit

The Polygalaceae comprise the following genera,[5] with tribes based on various sources.[7][8][9][10][11][12]

FossilsEdit

SystematicsEdit

Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships:[12][13][14][15][16][17]

Surianaceae (outgroup)

Polygalaceae
Xanthophylleae

Xanthophyllum

Moutabeae

Moutabea

Balgoya (now included in Moutabea)

Eriandra

Barnhartia

Diclidanthera

Carpolobieae

Atroxima

Carpolobia

Polygaleae
Clade I

Bredemeyera

Acanthocladus

Gymnospora

Hebecarpa

Badiera

Clade II

Securidaca

Phlebotaenia

Rhinotropis

Comesperma

Ancylotropis

Monnina

Asemeia

Caamembeca

Hualania

Heterosamara

Polygaloides

Polygala subgen. Chodatia

Salomonia

Epirixanthes

Polygala subgen. Polygala (Old World Clade)

Polygala subgen. Polygala (New World Clade)

Muraltia

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
  2. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
  3. ^ Harvard University; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew; Australian National Herbarium. "Polygalaceae". International Plant Names Index. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  4. ^ Eriksen, Bente (1993). "Phylogeny of the Polygalaceae and its taxonomic implications". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 186 (1/2): 33–55. ISSN 0378-2697. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d "Polygalaceae Hoffmanns. & Link". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2020-04-14.
  6. ^ a b "Polygalaceae". Flora of Victoria. Government of Victoria, Australia. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  7. ^ Abbott JR. (2011). "Notes on the disintegration of Polygala (Polygalaceae), with four new genera for the flora of North America". Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 5 (1): 125–137. JSTOR 41972495.
  8. ^ Pastore JFB. (2012). "Caamembeca: Generic status and new name for Polygala subgenus Ligustrina (Polygalaceae)". Kew Bull. 67 (3): 435–442. doi:10.1007/s12225-012-9360-x.
  9. ^ Pastore JF, Rodrigues de Moraes PL (2013). "Generic status and lectotypifications for Gymnospora (Polygalaceae)". Novon. 22 (3): 304–306. doi:10.3417/2010113.
  10. ^ Abbott JR, Pastore JF (2015). "Preliminary synopsis of the genus Hebecarpa (Polygalaceae)". Kew Bull. 70 (3): 39. doi:10.1007/s12225-015-9589-2.
  11. ^ Freire-Fierro A. (2015). Systematics of Monnina (Polygalaceae) (Ph.D.). Drexel University. Archived from the original on 2017-03-19. Retrieved 2017-03-19.
  12. ^ a b Pastore JF, Abbott JR, Neubig KM, Whitten WM, Mascarenhas RB, Almeida Mota MC, van den Berg C (2017). "A molecular phylogeny and taxonomic notes in Caamembeca (Polygalaceae)". Syst Bot. 42 (1): 54–62. doi:10.1600/036364417X694935.
  13. ^ Persson C. (2001). "Phylogenetic relationships in Polygalaceae based on plastid DNA sequences from the trnLF region". Taxon. 50 (3 (Golden Jubilee Part 5)): 763–779. doi:10.2307/1223706. JSTOR 1223706.
  14. ^ Forest F, Chase MW, Persson C, Crane PR, Hawkins JA (2007). "The role of biotic and abiotic factors in evolution of ant dispersal in the milkwort family (Polygalaceae)". Evolution. 61 (7): 1675–1694. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00138.x. PMID 17598748.
  15. ^ Bello MA, Bruneau A, Forest F, Hawkins JA (2009). "Elusive relationships within order Fabales: Phylogenetic analyses using matK and rbcL sequence data". Syst Bot. 34 (1): 102–114. doi:10.1600/036364409787602348.
  16. ^ Abbott JR. (2009). Phylogeny of the Polygalaceae and a revision of Badiera (PDF) (Ph.D.). University of Florida.
  17. ^ Mennes CB, Moerland MS, Rath M, Smets EF, Merckx VS (2015). "Evolution of mycoheterotrophy in Polygalaceae: The case of Epirixanthes". Am J Bot. 102 (4): 598–608. doi:10.3732/ajb.1400549. PMID 25878092.