Polybius (c. 203 BC – 120 BC) was an ancient Greek historian.
Polybius may also refer to:
- Polybius (crab), a genus of swimming crabs
- Polybius (crater), a lunar impact crater
- Polybius (urban legend), a fictitious video game featured in urban legend
- Polybius (2017 video game), released for the PlayStation 4
- Polybius square, a cipher key technique
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