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Political party strength in U.S. states

HistoryEdit

Throughout most of the 20th century, although the Republican and Democratic parties alternated in power at a national level, some states were so overwhelmingly dominated by one party that nomination was usually tantamount to election. This was especially true in the Solid South, where the Democratic Party was dominant for the better part of a century, from the end of Reconstruction in the late 1870s, through the period of Jim Crow Laws into the 1960s. Conversely, the New England states of Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire were dominated by the Republican Party, as were some Midwestern states like Iowa and North Dakota.

However, in the 1970s and 1980s the increasingly conservative Republican Party gradually overtook the Democrats in the southeast. The Democrats' support in the formerly Solid South had been eroded during the vast cultural, political and economic upheaval that surrounded the 1960s. By the 1990s, the Republican Party had completed the transition into the southeast's dominant political party, despite typically having fewer members due to the prevalence of Republican voting generational Democrats. In New England, the opposite trend took place; the former Republican strongholds of Maine and Vermont became solidly Democratic, as did formerly Republican areas of New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut.

Currently, the majority of the overall number of seats held in the state legislatures has been switching between the two parties every few years. As of the U.S. gubernatorial elections of 2010, the Republican party holds an outright majority of approximately 440 with 3,890 seats (53% of total) compared to the Democratic party's number of 3,450 (47% of total) seats elected on a partisan ballot.[1] Of the 7,382 seats in all of the state legislatures combined, independents and third parties account for only 16 members, not counting the 49 members of the Nebraska Legislature, which is the only legislature in the nation to hold non-partisan elections to determine its members. Due to the results of the 2010 elections, Republicans took control of an additional 19 state legislative chambers, giving them majority control of both chambers in 25 states versus the Democrats' majority control of both chambers in only 16 states, with 8 states having split or inconclusive control of both chambers (not including Nebraska); previous to the 2010 elections, it was Democrats who controlled both chambers in 27 states versus the Republican party having total control in only 14 states, with eight states divided and Nebraska being nonpartisan.[2]

Current party strengthEdit

GallupEdit

As of September 2019, Gallup polling found that 31% of Americans identified as Democrat, 29% identified as Republican, and 38% as Independent.[3] Additionally, polling showed that 49% are either "Democrats or Democratic leaners" and 44% are either "Republicans or Republican leaners" when Independents are asked "do you lean more to the Democratic Party or the Republican Party?"[3]

In 2018, the number of competitive states dropped down to 10, the lowest number since 2008. From 2017 to 2018, New Hampshire, Nevada, and Pennsylvania moved from competitive to lean Democratic, while West Virginia, Louisiana, and Indiana moved from competitive to lean Republican, and Nebraska moved from lean Republican to competitive.[4]

As of 2018, Massachusetts was the most Democratic state, with 56% of residents identifying as Democrat, while only 27% of residents identified as Republican. Wyoming was the most Republican state, with 59% of residents identifying as Republican, and only 25% of residents identifying as Democrat.[4]

Partisan lean of U.S. states according to Gallup polling[4]
  Number of U.S. States
Year Solid Dem Lean Dem Competitive Lean GOP Solid GOP Net Dem
2008 29 6 10 1 4 +30
2009 23 10 12 1 4 +28
2010 13 9 18 5 5 +12
2011 11 7 15 7 10 +1
2012 13 6 19 3 9 +7
2013 12 5 19 2 12 +3
2014 11 6 18 5 10 +2
2015 11 3 16 8 12 −6
2016 13 1 15 7 14 −7
2017 15 4 15 3 13 +3
2018 14 8 10 5 13 +4

Cook Partisan Voting Index (PVI)Edit

 
Cook PVI by state after the 2016 election. The darker the shade of red or blue, the more Republican or Democratic the state; in states shaded gray (New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin), the parties are evenly strong.[5]

Another metric to measure how much a state leans towards one party or the other is the Cook Partisan Voting Index (PVI). Cook PVIs are calculated by comparing a state's average Democratic Party or Republican Party share of the two-party presidential vote in the past two presidential elections to the nation's average share of the same. PVIs for the states over time can be used to show the trends of U.S. states towards, or away from, one party or the other.[6]

Elections and voter registrationsEdit

The following table shows all the U.S. states and to what party (Democratic or Republican) their state governors belong. Also indicated is the majority party of the state legislatures' upper and lower houses as well as U.S. Senate representation. Nebraska's legislature is unicameral, i.e., it has only one legislative house and is officially non-partisan, though party affiliation still has an unofficial influence on the legislative process.

The simplest measure of the party strength in a state's voting population is the breakdown-by-party totals from its voter registration figures (figures that can easily be obtained from the websites of the Secretaries of State or the Boards of Elections of the various states). As of 2019, 28 states and the District of Columbia allow registered voters to indicate a party preference when registering to vote; the following 20 states (mostly in the South and the Midwest) do not provide for party preferences in voter registration: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin. The partisan breakdown "demographics" provided in the following table are obtained from that state's party registration figures (from late 2014 whenever possible) where indicated.[7] Only Wyoming has a majority of registered voters identifying themselves as Republicans; two states have a majority of registered voters identifying themselves as Democrats: Maryland and Kentucky (since 2010, Louisiana, Pennsylvania and West Virginia have all seen their Democratic-majority registrations slip to just Democratic-pluralities).

For those states that do not allow for registration by party, Gallup's annual polling of voter party identification by state is the next best metric of party strength in the U.S. states. The partisan figures in the table below for the 22 states that don't register voters by party come from Gallup's 2017 polling of voter party identification by state.

Table of U.S. state party statistics as of November 2019Edit

State 2016 Presidential
Election
Governor State Senate State House Senior
U.S. Senator
Junior
U.S. Senator
U.S. House of Representatives Partisan Split (as of 2017)
Alabama Republican Republican Republican 27-8 Republican 77-28 Republican Democratic Republican 6-1 Republican
50-35(e)
Alaska Republican Republican Republican 13-7 Coalition 23-17(a) Republican Republican Republican Republican
26.7-13.8(d)[8]
Arizona Republican Republican Republican 17-13 Republican 31-29 Democratic Republican Democratic 5-4 Republican
34.4-28.9(d)[9]
Arkansas Republican Republican Republican 26-9 Republican 76-24 Republican Republican Republican 4 Republican
45-36(e)
California Democratic Democratic Democratic 29-11 Democratic 61-19 Democratic Democratic Democratic 46-7 Democratic
43.3-28.1(d)[10]
Colorado Democratic Democratic Democratic 19-16 Democratic 41-24 Democratic Republican Democratic 4-3 Republican
32.9-30.9(d)[11]
Connecticut Democratic Democratic Democratic 22-14 Democratic 91-60 Democratic Democratic Democratic 5 Democratic
36.4-20.8(d)[12]
Delaware Democratic Democratic Democratic 12-9 Democratic 26-15 Democratic Democratic Democratic Democratic
47.5-28.0(d)[13]
Florida Republican Republican Republican 23-17 Republican 73-47 Republican Republican Republican 14-13 Democratic
38.8-35.0(d)[14]
Georgia Republican Republican Republican 35-21 Republican 105-75 Republican Republican Republican 9-5 Democratic
42-40(e)
Hawaii Democratic Democratic Democratic 24-1 Democratic 46-5 Democratic Democratic Democratic 2 Democratic
50-28(e)
Idaho Republican Republican Republican 28-7 Republican 56-14 Republican Republican Republican 2 Republican
53-31(e)
Illinois Democratic Democratic Democratic 40-19 Democratic 74-44 Democratic Democratic Democratic 13-5 Democratic
50-33(e)
Indiana Republican Republican Republican 40-10 Republican 67-33 Republican Republican Republican 7-2 Republican
41-43(e)
Iowa Republican Republican Republican 32-18 Republican 53-47 Republican Republican Democratic 3-1 Republican
32.0-31.1(d)[15]
Kansas Republican Democratic Republican 28-11-1(a) Republican 84-41 Republican Republican Republican 3-1 Republican
44.1-24.3(d)[16]
Kentucky Republican Democratic(h) Republican 29-9 Republican 61-39 Republican Republican Republican 5-1 Democratic
53.4-38.8(d)[17]
Louisiana Republican Democratic Republican 25-14 Republican 62-39-4(a) Republican Republican Republican 5-1 Democratic
46.8-27.7(d)[18]
Maine Democratic Democratic Democratic 21-14 Democratic 89-56-6(a) Republican Independent(f) Democratic 2 Democratic
31.9-27.1(d)[19]
Maryland Democratic Republican Democratic 32-15 Democratic 99-42 Democratic Democratic Democratic

6-1-1(b, g)

Democratic
54.9-25.7(d)[20]
Massachusetts Democratic Republican Democratic 34-6 Democratic 127-32-1 Democratic Democratic Democratic 9 Democratic
35.3-10.9(d)[21]
Michigan Republican Democratic Republican 22-16 Republican 58-52 Democratic Democratic Democratic 7-6-1(g) Democratic
45-38(e)
Minnesota Democratic Democratic Republican 35-32 Democratic 75-59 Democratic Democratic Democratic 5-3 Democratic
47-37(e)
Mississippi Republican Republican Republican 33-19 Republican 74-46-2(b) Republican Republican Republican 3-1 Republican
45-38(e)
Missouri Republican Republican Republican 24-10 Republican 116-47 Republican Republican Republican 6-2 Republican
45-38(e)
Montana Republican Democratic Republican 30-20 Republican 58-42 Democratic Republican Republican Republican
51-37(e)
Nebraska Republican Republican Unicameral nonpartisan legislature(c) Republican Republican Republican 3 Republican
48.3-30.9(d)[22]
Nevada Democratic Democratic Democratic 13-8 Democratic 29-13 Democratic Democratic Democratic 3-1 Democratic
39.7-34.6(d)[23]
New Hampshire Democratic Republican Democratic 14-10 Democratic 234-166 Democratic Democratic Democratic 2 Republican
30.1-27.2[24]
New Jersey Democratic Democratic Democratic 25-15 Democratic 54-26 Democratic Democratic Democratic 11-1 Democratic
32.7-19.7(d)[25]
New Mexico Democratic Democratic Democratic 26-16 Democratic 46-24 Democratic Democratic Democratic 3 Democratic
46.6-31.2(d)[26]
New York Democratic Democratic Democratic 40-22-1 Democratic 106-43-1(a) Democratic Democratic Democratic 21-5-1(b, g) Democratic
49.4-23.9(d)[27]
North Carolina Republican Democratic Republican 29-21 Republican 65-55 Republican Republican Republican 10-3 Democratic
41.7-30.4(d)[28]
North Dakota Republican Republican Republican 37-10 Republican 79-15 Republican Republican Republican Republican
56-28(e)
Ohio Republican Republican Republican 24-9 Republican 61-38 Democratic Republican Republican 12-4 Republican
42-41(e)
Oklahoma Republican Republican Republican 39-9 Republican 77-24 Republican Republican Republican 4-1 Republican
46.8-38.2(d)[29]
Oregon Democratic Democratic Democratic 18-12 Democratic 38-22 Democratic Democratic Democratic 4-1 Democratic
37.8-29.9(d)[30]
Pennsylvania Republican Democratic Republican 28-22 Republican 110-93 Democratic Republican Tied 9-9 Democratic
49.5-36.7(d)[31]
Rhode Island Democratic Democratic Democratic 33-5 Democratic 66-9 Democratic Democratic Democratic 2 Democratic
41.5-10.9(d)[32]
South Carolina Republican Republican Republican 27-19 Republican 80-44 Republican Republican Republican 5-2 Republican
47-37(e)
South Dakota Republican Republican Republican 30-5 Republican 59-11 Republican Republican Republican Republican
46.2-33.8(d)[33]
Tennessee Republican Republican Republican 28-5 Republican 73-26 Republican Republican Republican 7-2 Republican
47-35(e)
Texas Republican Republican Republican 19-12 Republican 83-67 Republican Republican Republican 23-13 Republican
41-38(e)
Utah Republican Republican Republican 23-6 Republican 59-16 Republican Republican Republican 3-1 Republican
56-29(e)
Vermont Democratic Republican Democratic 22-6-2(a) Democratic 95-43-12(a) Democratic Independent(f) Democratic Democratic
52-30(e)
Virginia Democratic Democratic Democratic 21-19 Democratic 55-45 Democratic Democratic Democratic 7-4 Democratic
45-38(e)
Washington Democratic Democratic Democratic 29-20 Democratic 57-41 Democratic Democratic Democratic 7-3 Democratic
49-34(e)
West Virginia Republican Republican Republican 20-14 Republican 59-41 Democratic Republican Republican 3 Democratic
49.4-28.9(d)[34]
Wisconsin Republican Democratic Republican 19-14 Republican 63-36 Republican Democratic Republican

4-3-1(b, g)

Democratic
43-41(e)
Wyoming Republican Republican Republican 27-3 Republican 50-9-1 Republican Republican Republican Republican
66.7-19.8(d)[35]
Totals
Presidency
(after 2016 Election)
U.S. Senate
(after 2018 Elections)
U.S. House of
Representatives (October 2019)
Governor
(after 2019 Elections)
Majority in
State Senate (after 2019 Elections)
Majority in
State House (after 2019 Elections)
Republican 306-232 Republican 53-47(f) Democratic 234-197-1-3(g) Republican 26-24 Republican 31-19 Republican 28-20-1(a)

(a) The Alaska House of Representatives is controlled by a coalition of 15 Democrats, 6 Republicans and 2 Independents.

(b) Vacancy.

(c) While the Nebraska Legislature is technically non-partisan, the majority of its Senators are de facto Republicans.

(d) Indicated partisan breakdown numbers are from the registration-by-party figures ("active" registered voters, when applicable) from that state's registered voter statistics (late 2014 party registration figures provided whenever possible).

(e) Indicated partisan breakdown numbers are from the Party Identification by State figures for 2014 from Gallup polling (note: Gallup figures have been rounded to two significant figures on the assumption that figures from polling are less accurate than registration-by-party figures).[36]

(f) Senators Bernie Sanders (I-VT) and Angus King (I-ME) are independents; however, they caucus with Senate Democrats and, as such, are included in that party's total number of Senators for the purposes of calculating partisan breakdown in this article.

(g) The US House of Representatives currently consists of 234 Democrats, 197 Republicans, and 1 Independent (Rep. Justin Amash (I, MI-03), who was elected as a Republican but left the party on July 4, 2019). 3 seats are vacant (WI-07, held by Republican Rep. Sean Duffy until his September 23, 2019 resignation; NY-27, represented by Republican Rep. Chris Collins until his October 1, 2019 resignation; and MD-07, held by Democratic Rep. Elijah Cummings until his death on October 17, 2019).[37][38][39]

(h) Andrew Beshear was elected as Governor of Kentucky on November 5, 2019, and he is scheduled to take office December 10.

Regional breakdownsEdit

Local and regional political circumstances often influence party strength.

State governmentEdit

 
Party control of state Legislatures and Governorships as of February 1, 2019
  Full Democratic control
  Full Republican control
  Split control

The following figure is for Governors as of January 2019:

Governor
 

The following figures for party control of state legislative chambers are as of January 2019:

State Senate State House
   

Presidential election results and congressional delegationsEdit

The following is based on the results of the 2016 Presidential election:

Presidential Election
 

The following are the current standings in the U.S. Senate and in the U.S. House as of the 116th Congress:

Senate House of Representatives
   

DemographicsEdit

U.S. party percentages by state (2017)[40]
 

Historical party strengthEdit

The following table shows how many state legislatures were controlled outright by each party.[41]

Year Democrats Republicans Split
1938 21 19 6
1940 21 17 8
1942 19 24 3
1944 19 24 3
1946 17 25 4
1948 19 16 11
1950 19 21 6
1952 16 26 4
1954 19 20 7
1956 22 19 5
1958 30 7 11
1960 27 15 6
1962 25 17 6
1964 32 6 10
1966 23 16 9
1968 20 20 8
1970 23 16 9
1972 26 16 7
1974 37 4 8
1976 35 4 10
1978 31 11 7
1980 29 15 5
1982 34 11 4
1984 26 11 12
1986 28 9 12
1988 29 8 12
1990 30 6 13
1992 25 8 16
1994 18 19 12
1996 20 18 11
1998 20 17 12
2000 16 18 15
2002 18 17 14
2003 16 21 12
2004 17 21 11
2005 20 20 9
2007 24 16 9
2008 23 15 12
2009 27 15 8
2010 27 15 8
2011 15 27 8
2012 15 29 6
2013 17 28 5
2014 17 28 5
2015 11 31 8
2016 11 31 8
2017 12 32 6
2018 13 32 5
2019 18 30 2

The following table shows how many governorships were controlled outright by each party.[42]

Year Democrats Republicans Independent
1922 26 22
1923 27 21
1924 23 25
1926 20 28
1927 19 29
1928 16 32
1930 24 22 2
1931 26 20 2
1932 36 10 2
1934 37 9 2
1936 38 7 3
1937 39 6 3
1938 29 19
1940 28 20
1942 24 24
1943 22 26
1944 25 23
1946 23 25
1947 24 24
1948 28 20
1950 22 26
1952 18 30
1953 19 29
1954 27 21
1956 28 20
1958 35 15
1960 34 16
1962 34 16
1964 33 17
1966 25 25
1967 24 26
1968 19 31
1969 18 32
1970 29 21
1971 30 20
1972 31 19
1973 32 18
1974 36 13 1
1976 37 12 1
1978 32 18
1979 31 19
1980 27 23
1982 34 16
1983 35 15
1984 34 16
1986 26 24
1988 28 22
1989 29 21
1990 28 20 2
1992 30 18 2
1993 29 19 2
1994 19 30 1
1995 18 31 1
1996 17 32 1
1998 17 31 2
1999 18 30 2
2000 19 29 2
2001 21 27 2
2002 24 26
2004 22 28
2006 28 22
2008 29 21
2009 26 24
2010 26 23 1
2011 20 29 1
2012 20 29 1
2013 20 30
2014 21 29
2015 18 31 1
2016 18 31 1
2017 15 34 1
2018 16 33 1
2019 23 27

The following table describes how many state governments were fully controlled by either party or split.

Year Democrats Republicans Split
1977 27 1 22
1978 27 1 22
1979 19 5 26
1980 18 5 27
1981 16 8 26
1982 16 8 26
1983 24 4 22
1984 24 4 22
1985 17 4 29
1986 17 4 29
1987 15 7 28
1988 14 6 30
1989 15 5 30
1990 16 5 29
1991 16 3 31
1992 15 3 32
1993 18 3 29
1994 16 4 30
1995 8 15 27
1996 6 14 30
1997 5 12 33
1998 5 13 32
1999 8 15 27
2000 9 16 25
2001 8 14 28
2002 9 12 29
2003 8 12 30
2004 8 12 30
2005 8 12 30
2006 8 12 30
2007 15 10 25
2008 14 10 26
2009 18 10 22
2010 17 10 23
2011 11 22 17
2012 11 24 15
2013 13 25 12
2014 13 24 13
2015 7 24 19
2016 7 23 20
2017 5 25 20
2018 7 25 18
2019 15 23 12

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Republicans Exceed Expectations in 2010 State Legislative Elections". National Conference of State Legislatures. November 3, 2010. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
  2. ^ Hansen, Karen (December 2010). "Red Tide: December 2010 - A GOP wave washed over state legislatures on Election Day". National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
  3. ^ a b "Gallup Historical Trends: Party Affiliation". GALLUP News. Gallop, Inc. Retrieved October 20, 2019. In politics, as of today, do you consider yourself a Republican, a Democrat or an independent?
  4. ^ a b c Inc, Gallup (February 22, 2019). "Democratic States Exceed Republican States by Four in 2018". Gallup.com. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  5. ^ Coleman, Miles (December 16, 2016). "2016 State PVI Changes". Decision Desk HQ. Archived from the original on June 13, 2018.
  6. ^ "Partisan Voter Index by State, 1994-2014" (PDF). The Cook Political Report. 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2014.
  7. ^ For example, for earlier 2014 registration figures, see: Blumenthal, Mark; Edwards-Levy, Ariel (May 27, 2014). "HUFFPOLLSTER: A State-By-State Guide To Party Registration". Huffington Post. Retrieved December 23, 2014..
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  11. ^ "2014 Voter Registration Statistics". Colorado Secretary of State. October 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  12. ^ "Statistics and Data". Connecticut Secretary of State. January 22, 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  13. ^ "Voter Registration Totals". State of Delaware - Office of the State Election Commissioner. November 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  14. ^ "Voter Registration Statistics - By Election". Florida Division of Elections. October 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  15. ^ "Voter Registration Totals". Iowa Secretary of State. December 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  16. ^ "Voter Registration Statistics". State of Kansas - Office of the Secretary of State. November 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  17. ^ "Voter Registration Statistics Report" (PDF). Commonwealth of Kentucky - State Board of Elections. November 18, 2014. Archived from the original (pdf) on November 26, 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-28 – via http://elect.ky.gov/statistics/Pages/registrationstatistics.aspx.
  18. ^ "Registration Statistics - Statewide". Louisiana Secretary of State. November 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  19. ^ "Voter Registration Data, Election Data and Online Forms". State of Maine - Department of the Secretary of State - Bureau of Corporations, Elections and Commissions. November 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  20. ^ "Voter Registration Statistics". Maryland.gov - The State Board of Elections. November 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  21. ^ "Enrollment Breakdown as of 10/15/2014" (pdf). The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. October 27, 2014. Retrieved November 28, 2014 – via http://www.sec.state.ma.us/ele/ele14/ele14idx.htm.
  22. ^ "VR Statistics Count Report - Count of Registrants Eligible to Vote" (pdf). Nebraska Secretary of State. October 28, 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014 – via http://www.sos.ne.gov/elec/2014/elections.html.
  23. ^ "November 2014 Voter Registration Statistics". Nevada Secretary of State. December 1, 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014 – via http://nvsos.gov/index.aspx?page=85.
  24. ^ "Party Registration/Names on Checklist History". State of New Hampshire - Secretary of State - Elections Division. January 15, 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  25. ^ "2014 Election Information - Statewide Voter Registration Statistics". State of New Jersey - Department of State. 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  26. ^ "New Mexico Voter Registration Statistics Report" (pdf). New Mexico Secretary of State. October 20, 2014. Retrieved November 29, 2014 – via http://www.sos.state.nm.us/Elections_Data/2014-voter-registration-data.aspx.
  27. ^ "Enrollment by County". New York State - Board of Elections. November 1, 2014. Archived from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved 2014-12-20.
  28. ^ "Enrollment by County". North Carolina State Board of Elections. November 22, 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  29. ^ "Current Registration Statistics by County" (pdf). Oklahoma State Election Board. January 15, 2018. Retrieved April 22, 2018 – via http://www.ok.gov/elections/Voter_Info/Voter_Registration_Statistics/index.html.
  30. ^ "Election Statistics - Voter Registrations and Election Participation". Oregon Secretary of State. 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  31. ^ "Voter Registration Statistics". Pennsylvania Department of State. February 20, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2014.
  32. ^ Parker, Paul Edward (November 2, 2014). "R.I.'s voter database: More than half live in and around Providence". Providence Journal. Retrieved December 1, 2014.
  33. ^ "Voter Registration Tracking". South Dakota Secretary of State. November 3, 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  34. ^ "Voter Registration Totals". West Virginia Secretary of State. November 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014.
  35. ^ "Voter Registration Statistics" (pdf). Wyoming Secretary of State. November 4, 2014. Retrieved December 20, 2014 – via http://soswy.state.wy.us/elections/vrstats.aspx.
  36. ^ "2017 U.S. Party Affiliation by State". Gallup.com. Gallup, Inc. February 1, 2015. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
  37. ^ "Directory of Representatives | House.gov". www.house.gov. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  38. ^ Jenna, Portnoy. "Elijah Cummings, Baltimore congressman and civil rights leader, dies at 68". Washington Post. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  39. ^ Amash, Justin (July 4, 2019). "Opinion | Justin Amash: Our politics is in a partisan death spiral. That's why I'm leaving the GOP". Washington Post. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  40. ^ Inc, Gallup. "2017 U.S. Party Affiliation by State". Gallup.com. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
  41. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau, The 2011 Statistical Abstract, The National Data Book, Elections: Gubernatorial and State Legislatures". census.gov/compendia/statab. United States Census. January 6, 2011. Archived from the original on December 25, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2011.
  42. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau, The 2011 Statistical Abstract, The National Data Book, Elections: Gubernatorial and State Legislatures". www.census.gov/compendia/statab/. January 6, 2011. Archived from the original on December 25, 2007. Retrieved January 25, 2011.