Poisoned candy myths are urban legends about malevolent strangers intentionally hiding poisons or sharp objects such as razor blades, needles, or broken glass in candy and distributing the candy in order to harm random children, especially during Halloween trick-or-treating. These stories serve as modern cautionary tales to children and parents and repeat two themes that are common in urban legends: danger to children and contamination of food.
No cases of strangers killing or permanently injuring children this way have been proven. Commonly, the story appears in the media when a young child dies suddenly after Halloween. Medical investigations into the actual cause of death have always shown that these children did not die from eating candy given to them by strangers. However, in rare cases, adult family members have spread this story in an effort to cover up murder or accidental deaths. In other incidents, a child who has been told about poisoned candy places a dangerous object or substance in a pile of candy and pretends that it was the work of a stranger. This behavior is called the copycat effect. Folklorists, scholars, and law enforcement experts say that the story that strangers put poison into candy and give that candy to trick-or-treating children has been "thoroughly debunked".
Worries that candy from strangers might be poisoned has led to the rise of alternative events to trick-or-treating, such as events held at Christian churches, police and fire stations, community centers, and retail stores.
Claims that candy was poisoned or adulterated gained general credence during the Industrial Revolution, when food production moved out of the home or local area, where it was made in familiar ways by known and trusted people, to strangers using unknown ingredients and unfamiliar machines and processes. Some doctors publicly claimed that they were treating children poisoned by candy every day. If a child became ill, and had eaten candy, the candy was widely assumed to be the cause. However, no cases of illness or death were ever substantiated.
In the 1890s and 1900s, the US Bureau of Chemistry, in conjunction with state agencies, tested hundreds of kinds of candy and found no evidence of poisons or adulteration. These tests revealed that inexpensive glucose (from corn syrup) was in common use for cheap candies, that some candies contained trace amounts of copper from uncoated copper cooking pans, and that coal tar dyes were being used for coloring, but there was no evidence of the many types of poison, industrial waste, garbage, or other adulterants alleged to be present. Eventually, the claims that children were being sickened by candy were put down to indigestion due to overeating, or to other causes, including food poisoning due to improper cooking, hygiene, or storage of meat and other foods.
The prevalence and persistence of these myths during the 1960s, a time of social upheaval, greater racial integration, and improved status for women, reflected societal questions about who was trustworthy. Because society was struggling with questions about whether to trust neighbors in newly integrated neighborhoods, or young women who were publicly rejecting the subservient, motherhood-focused roles previously assigned to women, these stories about unidentifiable neighbors allegedly harming random, innocent children during an event intended to bring happiness to these children caught and retained the public imagination in a way that accurate stories about a judgmental neighbor, an abusive parent, or an adult carelessly leaving harmful chemicals where children can reach them, would not have. An academic view sees this as an example of a rumor panic, with Halloween developing as a carnival-like folk institution – meant to release social tensions – losing its functionality as neighborhoods themselves break down (for various reasons).
Due to their fears, parents and communities restricted trick-or-treating and developed alternative "safe" events, such as trunk-or-treat events held at Christian churches. This collective fear also served as the impetus for the "safe" trick-or-treating offered by many local malls.
This story also promoted the sale of individually wrapped, brand-name candies and discouraged people from giving homemade treats to children.
Development of the modern candy-tampering mythEdit
Several events in the late 20th century fostered the modern-day candy tampering myth.
In 1964, a disgruntled Long Island, New York woman gave out packages of inedible objects to children who she believed were too old to be trick-or-treating. The packages contained items such as steel wool, dog biscuits, and ant buttons (which were clearly labeled with the word "poison"). Though nobody was injured, she was prosecuted and pleaded guilty to endangering children. The same year saw media reports of lye-filled bubble gum being handed out in Detroit and rat poison being given in Philadelphia, although these media reports were never substantiated to be actual events.
Another notable milestone in the spread of the candy tampering myths was an article published in The New York Times in 1970. This article claimed that "Those Halloween goodies that children collect this weekend on their rounds of 'trick or treating' may bring them more horror than happiness", and provided specific examples of potential tamperings.
Reports and copycat incidents peaked shortly after the Chicago Tylenol murders, which were first reported one month before Halloween in 1982, further contributing to the myth of candy tampering. This incident involved a murderer who added poison to a few bottles of over-the-counter medication after the medication had been delivered to stores.
Debunking the mythsEdit
Joel Best, a sociologist at the University of Delaware, specializes in the scholarly study of candy-tampering legends. He collected newspaper reports from 1958 to 1983 in search of evidence of candy tampering. Fewer than 90 instances might have qualified as actual candy tampering. In none of the cases does he attribute the events to "random attempts to harm children" at the Halloween holiday. Instead, most cases were attempts by adults to gain financial compensation or, far more commonly, by children to get attention. Best found five child deaths that were initially thought by local authorities to be caused by homicidal strangers, but none of those were sustained by investigation.
Fabrications by children are particularly common. Children sometimes copy or act out the stories about tampered candy that they overhear, by adding pins to or pouring household cleaners on their own candy and then reporting the now-unsafe candy to their parents. In these incidents, the children have not been harmed; they know that the dangerous item is present and that it would be unsafe to eat the candy.
Misattributed poisoning deathsEdit
The deaths of five children were initially blamed on stranger poisoning. However, all of these claims were proven false upon investigation.
- In 1970, Kevin Toston, a 5-year-old boy from the Detroit area, died after finding and eating his uncle's heroin. The family attempted to protect the uncle by claiming the drug had been sprinkled in the child's Halloween candy.
- In 1978, Patrick Wiederhold, a two-year-old boy from Flint, Michigan died after eating Halloween candy. However, toxicology tests found no evidence of poison, and his death was determined to be due to natural causes.
- In 1990, Ariel Katz, a seven-year-old girl in Santa Monica, California, died while trick-or-treating. Early press reports blamed poisoned candy, despite her parents telling the police that she had previously been diagnosed with a serious medical condition, an enlarged heart, which was the actual cause of death.
- In 2001, a four-year-old girl in Vancouver, British Columbia died after eating some Halloween candy. However, there was no evidence of poisoned candy, and she actually died of a streptococcus infection.
- In a 1974 case, 8-year-old Timothy O'Bryan from Deer Park, Texas, died after eating a cyanide-laced package of Pixy Stix. A subsequent police investigation eventually determined that the poisoned candy had been planted in his trick-or-treat pile by the boy's father, Ronald Clark O'Bryan, who also gave out poisoned candy to other children in an attempt to cover up the murder, though no other children consumed the poisoned treats. The murderer, who had wanted to claim life insurance money, was executed in 1984. In this case, the distribution of poisoned candy is true, but this was a targeted murder, rather than the random or indiscriminate murder from the myth.
Media and the mythEdit
Despite these claims of poisoned candy being eventually proved false, the news media promoted the story continuously throughout the 1980s, with local news stations featuring frequent coverage. During this time cases of poisoning were repeatedly reported based on unsubstantiated claims or before a full investigation could be completed and often never followed up on. This one-sided coverage contributed to the overall panic and caused rival media outlets to issue reports of candy tampering as well. However, Joel Best says that the spread of the myth cannot be blamed solely on the media, and that it must have been transmitted via word of mouth as well.
By 1985, the media had driven the hysteria about candy poisonings to such a point that an ABC News/Washington Post poll that found 60% of parents feared that their children would be injured or killed because of Halloween candy sabotage.
"In recent years, there have been reports of people with twisted minds putting razor blades and poison in taffy apples and Halloween candy. It is no longer safe to let your child eat treats that come from strangers." –Ann Landers in 1995
"Somebody's child will become violently ill or die after eating poisoned candy or an apple containing a razor blade." –Dear Abby in 1983
Candy tampering by friends and familyEdit
Almost all tampering cases—at a rate of one or two per year—involve a friend or family member, usually as a prank. Almost all of those involved sharp objects, rather than poisoning. Three-quarters of them resulted in no injuries, and the rest resulted in only minor injuries. No child has ever been killed by eating a Halloween candy from a stranger.
- Best, Joel; Gerald T. Horiuchi (1985). "The Razor Blade in the Apple: The Social Construction of Urban Legends". Social Problems. 32 (5): 488–99. doi:10.2307/800777. JSTOR 800777.
- Brunvand, Jan Harold (2012-01-01). Encyclopedia of Urban Legends. ABC-CLIO. p. 288. ISBN 9781598847208.
- Pitts, Jonathan M. (30 October 2015). "For better and worse, Halloween activities reflect grown-up fears". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
Police departments issue safety tips. Churches bill "trunk-or-treat" events as "safe" ways to enjoy the holiday. A chain of medical clinics in the region offers to X-ray children's candy. ... Halloween is the night each year when children thrill to the spookier dimensions of life. But a combination of real hazards and urban legends has made the holiday scary for adults as well.Trunk-or-treating involves parents decorating their cars, lining them up in a school or church parking lot, and handing out candy from the trunks. It has gained popularity as an alternative to letting children walk neighborhoods at night.
- Sharos, David (29 October 2017). "Trunk or Treat event offers safe alternative for Aurora-area residents". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- Kawash, Samira (2013). Candy: A Century of Panic and Pleasure. New York: Faber & Faber, Incorporated. pp. 27–72. ISBN 9780865477568.
- Kawash, Samira (2013). Candy: A Century of Panic and Pleasure. New York: Faber & Faber, Incorporated. pp. 64–66. ISBN 9780865477568.
- Kawash, Samira (2013). Candy: A Century of Panic and Pleasure. New York: Faber & Faber, Incorporated. pp. 272–276. ISBN 9780865477568.
- Davis, Adam Brooke (2005). "Halloween and Devil's Night: the Linked Fates of Two Folk Festivals". Retrieved 12 December 2018.
- Bick, Julie (October 20, 2006). "This Halloween, Superheroes Will Head to the Mall". New York Times. Retrieved November 2, 2012.
- "Deadly 'Tricks' Given Children in 3 States". The Milwaukee Journal. United Press International. November 2, 1964. p. A18.
- Klemesrud, Judy (October 28, 1970). "Those Treats May Be Tricks". The New York Times. p. 56.
- Best, Joel (1993). Threatened Children: Rhetoric and Concern about Child-victims. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226044262.
- Adams, Guy (28 October 2012). "The Halloween poisoner has US in his grip: A new study casts doubt on an urban legend, but the myth of the deadly candy refuses to die". The Independent. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
- Carroll, Aaron & Rachel Vreeman (2009). Don't Swallow Your Gum!: Myths, Half-Truths, and Outright Lies about Your Body and Health. Macmillan. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-312-53387-8.
- Best, Joel. "Halloween Sadism: The Evidence". University of Delaware Faculty Pages. Retrieved October 27, 2014. Revised 2008 and 2011.
- Landers, Ann (October 31, 1995). "Twisted Minds Make Halloween a Dangerous Time". The Sunday Courier. p. 7B. Retrieved November 2, 2009.
- Van Buren, Abigail (October 31, 1983). "A Night of Treats, Not Tricks". The Gainesville Sun. p. 13A. Retrieved November 2, 2009.
- "The Men Who Murdered Halloween". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
- Colin, Chris (June 21, 1999). "Fighting fear with fear". Salon.
- Lewis, Dan (October 6, 2013). "Where Did the Fear of Poisoned Halloween Candy Come From?". Smithsonian.
- Belam, Martin (October 31, 2017). "Drugs or poison in the sweets? The Halloween urban legends that don't die". The Guardian.