A po' boy (also po-boy, po boy) is a traditional sandwich from Louisiana. It almost always consists of meat, which is usually roast beef or fried seafood, often shrimp, crawfish, fish, oysters or crab. The meat is served on New Orleans French bread, known for its crisp crust and fluffy center.
|Place of origin||New Orleans, Louisiana|
|Region or state||Louisiana, Southeast Texas, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, South Carolina, Southeast North Carolina and the Florida Panhandle|
Roast beef was New Orleans' most popular po'boy filler up to the 1970s:104 and fried oyster po'boys are popular enough that they are sometimes called an oyster loaf, but the fillings can be almost anything, according to Sarah Rohan who in her book Gumbo Tales mentions fried shrimp, catfish, crawfish, Louisiana hot sausage, fried chicken, baked ham, duck, and rabbit.:109
A "dressed" po' boy has lettuce, tomato, pickles, and mayonnaise. Fried seafood po' boys are often dressed by default with melted butter and sliced pickle rounds. A Louisiana style hot sauce is optional. Non-seafood po' boys will also often have Creole mustard.
The New Orleans sloppy roast beef po' boy is generally served hot with gravy and resembles a Chicago Italian beef sandwich in appearance and method of preparation, although the size, bread, and toppings differ. To make it, a cut of beef (usually chuck or shoulder) is typically simmered in beef stock with seasonings such as garlic, pepper, thyme, and bay for several hours. The beef can be processed into "debris" by cutting it to shreds when done (folklore says that a po' boy roast is done when it "falls apart with a hard stare") and simmering the shredded beef in the pot for a longer time to absorb more of the juice and seasoning.
Origin of the termEdit
In the late 1800s fried oyster sandwiches on French loaves were known in New Orleans as "oyster loaves", a term still in use. A sandwich containing both fried shrimp and fried oysters is often called a "peacemaker" or La Médiatrice.
The origin of the name is unknown. A popular local theory claims that "po' boy", as specifically referring to a type of sandwich, was coined in a New Orleans restaurant owned by Benny and Clovis Martin (originally from Raceland, Louisiana), former streetcar conductors. In 1929, during a four-month strike against the streetcar company, the Martin brothers served their former colleagues free sandwiches. The Martins' restaurant workers jokingly referred to the strikers as "poor boys", and soon the sandwiches themselves took on the name. In Louisiana dialect, this is naturally shortened to "po' boy".
One New Orleans historian finds the Martin claim suspicious for several reasons, starting with the fact that it wasn't described by the local press until 40 years after the strike, and that prior to 1969 the story from the Martin brothers themselves was that they had created the po-boy for farmers, dock workers and other "poor boys" who frequented their original location near the French Market. (The Martin brothers did write a letter, reprinted in local newspapers in 1929, promising to feed the streetcar workers, but it referenced "our meal" and made no mention of sandwiches.)
New Orleans is known for its grand restaurants (see Louisiana Creole cuisine), but more humble fare like the po' boy is very popular. Po' boys may be made at home, sold pre-packaged in convenience stores, available at deli counters and most neighborhood restaurants. One of the most basic New Orleans restaurants is the po' boy shop, and these shops often offer seafood platters, red beans and rice, jambalaya, and other basic Creole dishes.
The two primary sources of po'boy bread are the Leidenheimer Baking Company and Alois J. Binder. There is fierce competition between po' boy shops, and resident opinions of the best po' boy shop varies widely.
Each year there is a festival in New Orleans dedicated to the po' boy, the Oak Street Po'Boy Festival. It is a one-day festival that features live music, arts, and food vendors with multiple types of po' boys. It is held in mid-November along a commercial strip of Oak Street in the city's Carrollton neighborhood. The festival gives "best-of" awards, which gives the chefs an incentive to invent some of the most creative po' boys.
Authentic versions of Louisiana-style po' boys can be found along the Gulf Coast, from Houston through the Florida Panhandle. The term "po' boy" has spread further and can be found in the South Atlantic States and in California, where it may instead refer to local variations on the submarine sandwich.
Houston has its own variety of the Po-Boy, with chowchow added to ham, salami and provolone cheese, traditionally served cold. The sandwich is currently known as the "Original Po' Boy" and was previously the "regular". There is also a version with added meats and cheeses called the "Super". Stephen Paulsen of the Houston Chronicle stated that the "Original" variety is "in the city’s food DNA, the Shipley Do-Nuts of sandwiches." It was developed by Lebanese American Jalal Antone, owner of Antone's Import Company in the Fourth Ward, in 1962 after his brother-in-law stated that area residents at the time would not be accustomed to Levantine cuisine, and therefore the business needed to be openly focused around more familiar cuisine. John Lomax of Houstonia described the 1970s and 1980s as the height of their popularity and that the growth of chain sandwich shops that operated across the United States, the introduction of banh mi, and the poor quality of third party sandwiches in gas stations resulted in a decrease in popularity for the variety. Lomax in particular stated that the storage of the sandwiches at grocery stores ruined the flavor due to the delicate properties of the chowchow and mayonnaise. In 2002, 40% of the sandwiches sold at Antone's were the "Original" variety.
- Roahen, Sara (2008). Gumbo Tales. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 115.
- Anderson, Brett (April 20, 2012). "Was the oyster loaf invented in (gasp!) San Francisco?". New Orleans Times-Picayune. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-15.
- Edge, John T. (November 11, 2009). "Saving New Orleans Culture, One Sandwich at a Time". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 24, 2016.
- Karst, James (February 5, 2017). "If po-boys were invented in 1929, how was Louis Armstrong eating them a decade earlier?". The Times-Picayune. New Orleans. Archived from the original on February 6, 2017. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
- Rhinehart, Ed. "New Orleans Po'Boy Shop". Retrieved 8 May 2012.
- Garbarino, Steve. "The Crescent City's Greatest Po'boys". ProQuest 855034442. Cite journal requires
- "Oak Street Po'Boy Festival". Retrieved 8 May 2012.
- Lomax, John (2013-06-18). "The Rise And Fall Of The Houston Po' Boy". Houstonia. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Huynh, Dai (2002-10-04). "Digest: Antone's adds sauce to recipe for success". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2019-11-22.
- Cook, Allison (2017-09-11). "Antone's Original Po' Boy, a taste of my Houston history". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2019-11-22.
- Paulsen, Stephen (2018-10-08). "The strange saga of the Antone's po' boy". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2019-11-22.
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