Plug-in electric vehicles in Japan
As of December 2018[update], the fleet of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in Japan totaled about 257,300 highway legal plug-in electric vehicles sold in the country since 2009. As of 2017[update], the Japanese stock consisted of 104,490 all-electric cars (50.9%) and 100,860 plug-in hybrids (49.1%).
The rate of growth of the Japanese plug-in segment slowed down from 2013, with annual sales falling behind Europe, the U.S. and China during 2014 and 2015. The segment market share fell from 0.68% in 2014 to 0.59% in 2016. The decline in plug-in car sales reflects the Japanese government and the major domestic carmakers decision to adopt and promote hydrogen fuel cell vehicles instead of plug-in electric vehicles, although the first commercially produced hydrogen fuel cell automobiles began in 2015.
As of April 2018[update], the Nissan Leaf all-electric car ranked as the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the country, with over 100,000 units sold since December 2010. Ranking second is the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 34,830 units delivered through August 2016, followed by the Toyota Prius PHV with 22,100 units sold through April 2016.
As of December 2012[update], Japan was the country with the highest ratio of quick charging points to electric vehicles (EVSE/EV), with a ratio of 0.030 as of December 2012[update]. The country's charging infrastructure included 1,381 public quick-charge stations and around 300 non-domestic slow charger points. The Japanese government has set up a target to deploy 2 million slow chargers and 5,000 fast charging points by 2020.
Introduction and salesEdit
Cumulative light-duty plug-in electric vehicle sales in Japan totaled about 151,250 units between July 2009 and December 2016, consisting of 86,390 all-electric cars (57.1%) and 64,860 plug-in hybrids (42.9%). At the end of 2016, Japan ranked as the world's third largest light-duty plug-in vehicle country market after the China and the U.S. As of September 2016[update], total Japanese sales of light-duty plug-in vehicles represent 8.1% of the global stock of plug-ins. The plug-in segment sales climbed from 1,080 units in 2009 to 12,630 in 2011, and reached 24,440 in 2012. Only all-electric cars were sold in the country between 2009 and 2011. Global sales of pure electric cars in 2012 were led by Japan with a 28% market share of the segment sales. Japan ranked second after the U.S. in terms of its share of plug-in hybrid sales in 2012, with 12% of global sales.
About 30,600 highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles were sold in the country in 2013, representing a 0.58% market share of the 5.3 million new automobiles and kei cars sold in 2013. In 2014 the segment sales remained flat with over 30,000 plug-in electric vehicles were sold, with the plug-in market share achieving a record market share of 1.06% of new car sales (kei cars not included). Accounting for kei cars, the plug-in segment market share falls to 0.7%. During 2014, cumulative plug-in sales in the Japanese market passed the 100,000 unit mark. However, as a result of the slow growth from 2013, Japan was surpassed in 2014 by China, with over 50,000 units sold, as the second largest world market that year. Sales totaled 24,660 units in 2015 and 24,851 units in 2016. The segment market share declined from 0.68% in 2014 to 0.59% in 2016. As a result of the slow down in sales that occurred after 2013, annual sales fell behind Europe, the U.S. and China during 2014 and 2015.
The first electric car available in the Japanese market was the Mitsubishi i MiEV, launched for fleet customers in Japan in late July 2009. Retail sales to the public began in April 2010. Cumulative sales since July 2009 reached 11,144 i-MiEVs through April 2016. Sales of the Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV electric van began in December 2011, and a total of 6,172 units have been sold through April 2016. A truck version of the Minicab MiEV was launched in January 2013, with sales of 927 units through April 2016. Mitsubishi also launched in January 2013 a plug-in hybrid version of the Outlander, called the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, becoming the first SUV plug-in hybrid in the world's market. The SUV has an all-electric range of 60 km (37 mi). The Outlander P-HEV sold 9,608 units during 2013, ranking as the second top selling plug-in electric car in Japan after the Nissan Leaf. As of April 2016[update], Mitsubishi Motors had sold 52,234 plug-in electric vehicles in Japan since July 2009.
The first prototype battery switch station from Better Place was demonstrated in Yokohama on May 14, 2009. On April 2010, a 90-day switchable-battery electric taxi demonstration project was launched in Tokyo, using three Nissan Rogue crossover utility vehicles, converted into electric cars with switchable batteries provided by A123 Systems. The battery switch station deployed in Tokyo is more advanced than the Yokohama switch system demonstrated in 2009. During the three-month field test the EV taxis accumulated over 25,000 miles (40,000 km) and swapped batteries 2,122 times, with an average battery swap time of 59.1 seconds. Nissan decided to continue the trial until late November 2010.
Sales of the Nissan Leaf began on December 22, 2010, when the first 10 Leaf were delivered at the Kanagawa Prefecture. The Prefecture Government decided to assign six Leafs for official use and the other four were made available for the car rental service run by the local government. Sales of the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid began in January 2012, and a total of 19,100 units have been sold through September 2014. The Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid was introduced in Japan in June 2013 and it is available only for leasing, primarily to corporations and government agencies. As of December 2013[update], the Accord PHEV ranked as the third best selling plug-in hybrid in the Japanese market.
Sales of the plug-in electric drive segment during 2013 were led by the Nissan Leaf with 13,021 units sold, up from 11,115 in 2012, allowing the Leaf to continue as the top selling plug-in electric car in the country since 2011. Also during 2013, a total of 45 Nissan NMC all-electric low-speed neighborhood vehicles were sold in the country. Sales during the first nine months of 2014 again were led by the Nissan Leaf with 10,877 units, followed by the Outlander P-HEV with 8,630 units, together representing 78.8% of the plug-in segment sales during this period.
Retail deliveries of the Tesla Model S began in Japan in September 2014. The Leaf continued as the market leader in 2014 for the fourth year running with 14,177 units sold, followed by the Outlander P-HEV with 10,064 units, together representing about 80% of the plug-in segment sales in Japan in 2014.
In 2015 the Outlander plug-in hybrid surpassed the Leaf as the top selling plug-in electric car in the country that year with 10,996 units sold, while the Leaf sold 9,057 units. Japan is the Outlander P-HEV largest country market with 30,668 units sold through December 2015. Nevertheless, at the end of 2015 the Nissan Leaf continued to rank as the all-time best-selling plug-in car in the country with 57,699 units sold. As of December 2015[update], cumulative sales of plug-in electric cars totaled 126,420 units since 2009.
During the first eight months of 2016 the Nissan Leaf led sales with 11,120 units delivered. Since December 2010, Nissan has sold 68,819 units through August 2016, making the Leaf the all-time best-selling plug-in car in the country. Between January and August 2016, a total of 4,162 Outlander P-HEVs were sold in Japan. Sales of the Outlander plug-in hybrid fell sharply from April 2016 as a result of Mitsubishi's fuel mileage scandal. Since its inception, sales of the plug-in hybrid totaled 34,830 units through August 2016.
Sales by modelEdit
The following table presents sales for the top selling highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles by year since July 2009 up to April 2016.
|Top selling highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles|
available in the Japanese market between 2009 and April 2016
|Nissan Leaf||Dec 2010||64,978||7,279||9,057||14,177||13,021||11,115||10,310||19|
|Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV||Jan 2013||33,991||3,323||10,996||10,064||9,608|
|Toyota Prius PHV||Jan 2012||22,100||148||1,344||5,187||4,452||10,970||
|Mitsubishi i-MiEV||Jul 2009||11,144||86||635||1,021||1,491||2,295||2,290||2,340||986|
|Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV van||Dec 2011||6,172||111||501||865||1,461||2,487||747|
|Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV truck||Jan 2013||927||35||161||177||554|
|BMW i3||2014||+ 400||NA||NA||+ 400(2)|
|Total sales shown models Jul 2009 - Apr 2016||139,712||10,982||22,694||31,891||30,587||26,867||13,347||2,359||986|
|Notes: (1) The Tesla Model S, Smart ED and Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid are also available in Japan, but sales figures are not available.|
(2) Sales only between April and August 2014.
The rate of growth of the Japanese plug-in segment slowed down from 2013, with annual sales falling behind Europe, the U.S. and China during 2014 and 2015. This trend reflects the Japanese government and the major domestic carmakers decision to adopt and promote hydrogen fuel cell vehicles instead of plug-in electric vehicles. The Japanese strategy aims to focus in investing heavily in fuel-cell technology and infrastructure as part of a national policy to foster what it calls a hydrogen society, where the zero-emission fuel would power homes and vehicles.
In August 2012, Toyota announced its plans to start retail sales of a hydrogen fuel-cell sedan in California in 2015. Toyota expects to become a leader in this technology. In addition, in September 2012 Toyota announced that is backing away from fully electric vehicles. The company's vice chairman, Takeshi Uchiyamada, said "The current capabilities of electric vehicles do not meet society’s needs, whether it may be the distance the cars can run, or the costs, or how it takes a long time to charge." Toyota's emphasis would be re-focused on the hybrid concept, and 21 new hybrid gas-electric models scheduled to be on the market by 2015.
As part of Toyota's effort to maintain its alternative propulsion lead, it launched for retail customers the Toyota Mirai hydrogen fuel cell vehicle in late 2014, and Honda plans to launch the Clarity Fuel Cell by late 2016. Toyota is responding to interest in the hydrogen economy in its home market, where, as of December 2014[update], there were 100,000 residential hydrogen fuel cells already installed across Japan. The country is aiming for 5.3 million households, or roughly 10%, to have fuel cells by 2030. Nevertheless, in June 2015 Toyota announced its plans to continue a strong promotion of plug-in hybrids starting with the introduction of the Prius Prime.
In September 2016, Shoichi Kaneko, assistant chief engineer for the Prius Prime, said in an interview with the website AutoblogGreen that creating the next-generation Prius will be a tremendously difficult challenge due to the physical limitations to improve the Prius' fuel economy. And considering that Toyota "wants to lead the way in reducing (and eventually eliminating) fossil fuels from its vehicles, simply making a better standard hybrid powertrain might not be enough," the carmaker is considering making every future Prius a plug-in hybrid beginning with the fifth-generation models.
The Japanese electric vehicle charging infrastructure climbed from only 60 public charging stations in early 2010 to 1,381 public quick-charge stations as of December 2012[update], representing the largest deployment of fast chargers in the world. The number of non-domestic slow charger points increased to around 300 units. Japan also is the country with the highest ratio of quick charging points to electric vehicles (EVSE/EV), with a ratio of 0.030 as of December 2012[update]. There are 1,967 CHAdeMO quick charging stations across the country by April 2014. The Japanese government has set up a target to deploy 2 million slow chargers and 5,000 fast charging points by 2020. Currently all Family Mart convenience stores with sufficient parking space have one space specialized for quick-charge use or are in the process of having one installed.
This section needs to be updated.February 2014)(
The Japanese government introduced the first electric vehicle incentive program in 1996, and it was integrated in 1998 with the Clean Energy Vehicles Introduction Project, which provided subsidies and tax discounts for the purchase of electric, natural gas, methanol and hybrid electric vehicles. The project provided a purchase subsidy of up to 50% the incremental costs of a clean energy vehicle as compared with the price of a conventional engine vehicle. This program was extended until 2003.
In May 2009 the Japanese Diet passed the "Green Vehicle Purchasing Promotion Measure" that went into effect on June 19, 2009, but retroactive to April 10, 2009. The program established tax deductions and exemptions for environmentally friendly and fuel efficient vehicles, according to a set of stipulated environmental performance criteria, and the requirements are applied equally to both foreign and domestically produced vehicles. The program provided purchasing subsidies for two type of cases, consumers purchasing a new passenger car without trade-in (non-replacement program), and for those consumers buying a new car trading an used car registered 13 years ago or earlier (scrappage program).
Subsidies for purchases of new environmentally friendly vehicles without scrapping a used car are 100,000 yen (~US$1,100) for the purchase of a standard or small car, and 50,000 yen (~US$550) for the purchase of a mini or kei vehicle. Subsidies for purchasing trucks and buses meeting the stipulated fuel efficiency and emission criteria vary between 200,000 yen (~US$2,100) to 900,000 yen (~US$9,600).
Subsidies for purchases of new environmentally friendly vehicles in the case of owners scrapping a 13-year or older vehicle are 250,000 yen (~US$2,700) for the purchase of a standard or small car, and 125,000 yen (~US$1,300) for the purchase of a mini or kei vehicle. Subsidies for purchasing trucks and buses meeting the stipulated fuel efficiency and emission criteria vary between 400,000 yen (~US$4,300) to 1,800,000 yen (~US$19,000).
- Electric car
- Electric car use by country
- Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles
- List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles
- New energy vehicles in China
- Plug-in electric vehicle
- Plug-in electric vehicles in Australia
- Plug-in electric vehicles in Canada
- Plug-in electric vehicles in Europe
- Plug-in electric vehicles in France
- Plug-in electric vehicles in Germany
- Plug-in electric vehicles in the Netherlands
- Plug-in electric vehicles in Norway
- Plug-in electric vehicles in Sweden
- Plug-in electric vehicles in the United Kingdom
- Plug-in electric vehicles in the United States
- Plug-in hybrid
- "Nissan LEAF sales surpass 100,000 in Japan" (Press release). Yokohama: Nissan. 2018-04-20. Retrieved 2018-12-02.
- International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (May 2018). "Global EV Outlook 2017: 3 million and counting" (PDF). IEA Publications. Retrieved 2019-01-02.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) See pp. 9–10, 19–23, 29–28, and Statistical annex, pp. 107–113.
- Pontes, Jose (2019-01-29). "Japan December 2018". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2019-02-01. A total of 52,013 plug-in cars were sold in Japan in 2018, with a market share of 1.0%. The Nissan Leaf was the top selling plug-in model with 25,722 units.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-01-18). "Top Six Plug-in Vehicle Adopting Countries – 2015". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-02-18). "Top 6 Plug-In Vehicle Adopting Countries – 2014". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-06-25.
- Kane, Mark (2016-04-02). "Plug-In Electric Car Sales Visualized From 2011 to 2015". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (June 2017). "Global EV Outlook 2017: Two million and counting" (PDF). IEA Publications. Retrieved 2018-01-20.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) See pp. 5–7, 12–22, 27–28, and Statistical annex, pp. 49–51.
- Shirouzu, Norihiko; Lienert, Paul (2015-10-28). "Auto power play: Japan's hydrogen car vs China's battery drive". Reuters. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- Deign, Jason (2015-02-10). "Japan Makes a Big Bet on the Hydrogen Economy". Green Tech Media. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- "三菱 アイミーブなどの2016年８月度 販売実績" [Mitsubishi i-MiEV production and sales results for August 2016]. Electric Vehicle News (in Japanese). 2016-09-28. Retrieved 2016-10-01. A total of 34,830 Outlander P-HEVs have been sold in Japan through August 2016.
- "Worldwide Sales of Toyota Hybrids Surpass 9 Million Units" (Press release). Toyota City, Japan: Toyota. 2016-05-20. Retrieved 2016-05-22.
- International Energy Agency, Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (April 2013). "Global EV Outlook 2013 - Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020" (PDF). International Energy Agency. Retrieved 2013-04-20.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) See pp. 4, 6-8, and 11-12.
- Cobb, Jeff (2017-01-16). "The World Just Bought Its Two-Millionth Plug-in Car". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2017-01-17. An estimated 2,032,000 highway-legal plug-in passenger cars and vans have been sold worldwide at the end of 2016. The top selling markets are China (645,708 new energy cars, including imports), Europe (638,000 plug-in cars and vans), and the United States (570,187 plug-in cars). The top European country markets are Norway (135,276), the Netherlands (113,636), France (108,065), and the UK (91,000). Total Chinese sales of domestically produced new energy vehicles, including buses and truck, totaled 951,447 vehicles. China was the top selling plug-in car market in 2016, and also has the world's largest stock of plug-in electric cars.
- Cobb, Jeff (2018-01-04). "December 2017 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2018-01-23. Plug-in electric car sales in the U.S. totaled 194,479 units in 2017, consisting of 104,487 all-electric cars and 89,992 plug-in hybrids. The plug-in car segment achieved a market share of 1.13% of new car sales.
- Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV). "Bilsalget i 2017" [Car sales in 2017] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2018-01-11. A total of 71,737 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2017, consisting of: 33,025 new electric cars, 8,558 used imported all-electric cars, 29,236 new plug-in hybrid cars, 742 new all-electric vans, and 176 used imported all-electric vans.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-10-17). "China Now Ties US For Leadership In Cumulative Global Plug-In Sales". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-10-17.
- International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (May 2016). "Global EV Outlook 2016: Beyond one million electric cars" (PDF). IEA Publications. Retrieved 2016-10-01.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) See pp. 4-5, and 24-25 and Statistical annex, pp. 34-37.
- "三菱 i-MiEVなどの2014年9月度 生産・販売実績" [Mitsubishi i-MiEV production and sales results for September 2014] (in Japanese). Electric Vehicle News. 2014-10-27. Retrieved 2014-10-27. A total of 5,334 Minicab vans and 669 mini truck versions have been sold through September 2014.
- "Toyota Is Global Hybrid Leader With Sales Of 7 Million" (Press release). Torrance, California: PR Newswire. 2014-10-13. Retrieved 2014-10-18. As of September 2014[update], Prius PHV cumulative sales in Japan totaled 19,100 units and 65,300 units globally.
- Mark Kane (2014-10-26). "Nissan LEAF Sales Surge To Almost 7,000 In September". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-10-26. A total of 10,877 units were sold in Japan during the first nine months of 2014.
- Jose Pontes (2014-01-30). "Japan December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-02-21. Excludes sales of Nissan NMC units (45), which is a low-speed neighborhood vehicle.
- Jeff Cobb (2014-01-16). "Top 6 Plug-In Vehicle Adopting Countries". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- Yuri Kageyama (2010-04-01). "Japanese Start Buying Affordable Electric Cars". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-01-12.
- "Mitsubishi Motors Begins Production of i-MiEV; Targeting 1,400 Units in Fiscal 2009". Green Car Congress. 2009-06-05. Retrieved 2010-04-04.
- Chang-Ran Kim (2010-03-30). "Mitsubishi Motors lowers price of electric i-MiEV". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
- "Mitsubishi unveils Y4.59 mil electric car". Associated Press via Japan Today. 2009-06-06. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
- John Murphy (2009-06-08). "Mitsubishi Launches Electric Car". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2010-04-24.
- "三菱 i-MiEVなどの2016年4月度 販売実績" [Mitsubishi i-MiEV production and sales results for April 2016] (in Japanese). Electric Vehicle News. 2016-05-31. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- Mark Kane (2014-01-14). "Sales Of Mitsubishi MiEV in Japan Fell Off Sharply in 2013; Battery Production Constraints Probable Cause". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
- "三菱 i-MiEVなどの2013年12月度 販売実績" [Mitsubishi i-MiEV sales results for December 2013] (in Japanese). Electric Vehicle News. 2014-01-29. Retrieved 2014-02-01. Cumulative Outlander P-HEV sales in Japan totaled 9,608 units through December 2013.
- Mark Kane (2013-06-10). "Mitsubishi's Pure Electric Vehicle Sales Tumbling in Japan as Outlander PHEV Dominates". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
- Jay Cole (2013-01-24). "Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV On Sale In Japan Today, Extended Promotional Video Released". Inside EVs. Retrieved 2013-01-28.
- John Murphy (2009-05-09). "A High-Tech Twist on the Filling Station; In Japan, a California Start-Up Unveils System for Quickly Swapping Batteries in Electric Cars". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2009-10-05.
- "Better Place Launches Switchable-Battery Electric Taxi Project in Tokyo; Converted Crossovers with A123 Systems Packs". Green Car Congress. 2010-04-26. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- "Better Place launches electric-car test with Tokyo taxi firm". The Wall Street Journal. 2010-04-26. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2010-04-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Sam Abuelsamid (2010-08-27). "Tokyo battery swap trials". AutoblogGreen. Retrieved 2010-10-28.
- "Nissan delivers first Leaf in Japan". The Green Car Website. 2010-12-22. Retrieved 2010-12-23.
- "Nissan delivers first LEAF cars in Japan". International Business Times. 2010-12-22. Retrieved 2010-12-23.
- Honda News (2013-06-21). "Honda introduces Accord hybrid and plug-in in Japan; hybrid in US in October". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- Naoki Watanabe (2014-02-12). "Plug-in hybrids quickly becoming Japan's favorite way to drive green". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
- Takashi Mochizuki (2014-09-08). "Tesla's Musk, in Tokyo, Says 'Heart' of Model S Is Japanese". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014-09-08.
- Mark Kane (2014-01-30). "Nissan LEAF Sales In Japan Up 17% in 2013". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-02-21. See graph for Leaf sales by year between 2009 and 2013.
- Jose, Pontes (2016-02-08). "Japan December 2015". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-02-25.
- "三菱 i-MiEVなどの2014年12月度 生産・販売実績" [Mitsubishi i-MiEV production and sales results for December 2014] (in Japanese). Electric Vehicle News. 2015-01-28. Retrieved 2015-02-18..
- Jose Pontes (2015-01-30). "Japan December 2014". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
- Mark Kane (2015-02-09). "Nissan LEAF Sales In Japan Up 9% To 14,000 In 2014". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2015-02-09. A total of 14,177 units were sold in Japan during 2014.
- "三菱 i-MiEVなどの2015年12月度 販売実績" [Mitsubishi i-MiEV production and sales results for December 2015]. Electric Vehicle News (in Japanese). 2016-01-28. Retrieved 2016-02-23. A total of 30,668 Outlander P-HEVs have been sold in Japan through December 2015.
- Kane, Mark (2016-02-05). "Worldwide Nissan LEAF Sales Down To 43,651 In 2015 (From 60,000) As Weak Numbers For Japan Are In". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2016-02-05. Leaf sales in Japan totaled 9,057 units in 2015. A total of 2,503 units were sold in January 2016. As of December 2015[update], cumulative sales totaled 57,699 units since the Leaf introduction in December 2010.
- Kane, Mark (2016-09-26). "Nissan LEAF Sales In Japan Stay Strong In August". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2016-09-26. A total of 11,120 Leafs were sold in Japan during the first eight months of 2016.
- Kane, Mark (2016-09-19). "Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV Sales In Japan Down Nearly 90% In July". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2016-10-01.
- Kane, Mark (2016-05-31). "Has Nissan Satisfied All The 30 kWh LEAF Demand In Japan? April Sales Fall Below 350 Units". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2016-06-12. A total of 7,279 Leafs were sold in Japan during the first four months of 2016.
- "Worldwide Sales of Toyota Hybrids Surpass 9 Million Units" (Press release). Toyota City, Japan: Toyota. 2016-05-20. Retrieved 2016-05-23. Global sales of the Prius PHV totaled 75,400 units through April 2016, with 42,700 sold in North America, 22,100 in Japan, 10,500 in Europe, and about 100 units in the rest of the world. Details sales by year.
- Hiromi Sato (2014-09-16). "Big Subsidies for Foreign Electric Cars in Japan". Nikkei Business. Retrieved 2014-10-28.
- Alisa Priddle (2013-03-17). "Toyota to start selling hydrogen fuel-cell car in 2015". USA Today. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
- Associated Press (2012-09-24). "Toyota beefs up green vehicles, plans electric car for this year, fuel cell vehicle by 2015". Toledo Blade. Retrieved 2016-06-20.
- Ludwig, Sean (2012-09-24). "Toyota kills electric car plans, says 'capabilities of electric vehicles do not meet society's needs'". VentureBeat. Retrieved 2012-11-10.
- Kageyama, Yuri (2016-06-17). "Toyota gets bullish on plug-in hybrids with new Prius Prime". Japan Today. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- Blanco, Sebastian (2016-09-28). "Toyota: Every future Prius might be a plug-in hybrid". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2016-10-02.
- Mark Kane (2013-04-22). "Sweden and UK Drive Growth Of CHAdeMO Chargers In Europe To 1,117". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
- "Incentives for EV & HEV" (PDF). Electric Vehicle Association of Asia Pacific. October 2003. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
- Max Ahman (March 2006). "Government policy and the development of electric vehicles in Japan". Energy Policy (34): 433–443. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2004.06.011.
- "Fact Sheet- Japanese Government Incentives for the Purchase of Environmentally Friendly Vehicles" (PDF). Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-26. Retrieved 2010-12-24.
- "The Motor Industry of Japan 2010" (PDF). Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association. Retrieved 2010-12-24. See pages 45–46.
- "Japan's measures to withstand impact of global crisis on its automotive industry - JAMA shares at the 4th Indonesia International Automotive Conference". News from JAMA Asia. Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (36). September 2009. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
- "Sales Promotion Scheme and 2009 Vehicle Sales Forecasts - Japan: Rebate for purchase or replacement with eco-friendly vehicles". Marklines.com. Archived from the original on 2009-04-26. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Electrically-powered vehicles in Japan.|
- Plug-In Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Seven Markets (Norway, Netherlands, California, United States, France, Japan, and Germany), Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, October 2014.