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Ploughshares Fund logo, 2016.png
Established 1981
President Joseph Cirincione
Exec. Dir. Philip Yun
Chair Terry Gamble Boyer
Founder Sally Lilienthal (1919 - 2006)
Headquarters San Francisco, CA, USA
Homepage http://www.ploughshares.org

Ploughshares Fund is a public grantmaking foundation that supports initiatives to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons, and to prevent conflicts that could lead to their use. Ploughshares Fund is a 501(c)(3) foundation that pools contributions from individuals, families and foundations. Ploughshares Fund enables individual contributors to pool resources and provide support for initiatives to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons. With over $100 million awarded in grants since its founding in 1981, Ploughshares Fund is the largest US philanthropic foundation focused exclusively on nuclear weapons.[1]

Contents

History

Concerned about the world’s burgeoning nuclear arsenals, San Francisco philanthropist and activist Sally Lilienthal founded the organization in 1981. Since it was founded, Ploughshares has made grants totaling nearly $100 million to hundreds of people and organizations around the world.[1][2] Sally Lilienthal died in October 2006, at the age of 87, while still serving as Ploughshares Fund's president.[3] In 2008, the Board of Directors appointed Joseph Cirincione as Ploughshares Fund's president, the same year that the organization opened an office in Washington, DC.[4][5]

Issue areas

Ploughshares Fund’s grantmaking is focused on the following issues:

  • Promoting the reduction and eventual elimination of nuclear weapons
  • Preventing the emergence of new nuclear states
  • Building regional peace and security[6]

World nuclear weapon stockpile

As of April 17, 2019, Ploughshares web site provided links to scholarly articles estimating the nuclear weapons inventory of each nuclear state. The following table summarizes the number of nuclear weapons each state has and what is reported about the yields of these weapons:

yield
country total unknown or variable ≤15kt 15<yield<50kt ≥50kt
US 6550 3830 0 0 2720[7]
Russia 6490 4509 92 0 1889[8]
France 300 60 0 0 240[9]
China 280 46 0 0 234[10]
UK 225 225[11]
Pakistan 150 72 78 0 0[12]
India 130 48 38 44 0[13]
Israel 80 80 [14]
North Korea 20 20 [15]
total 14225 8665 208 44 5308
percent 60.91% 1.46% 0.31% 37.31%
with known yield
total 5560 39.09%
percent 3.74% 0.79% 95.47%
Summarized from references cited by Ploughshares.[16]

In these published inventories, yield figures were given for 39% of the weapons. For the other 61%, either no yield figure was given or the yield was "variable". An example of the latter is the U.S. B61 nuclear bomb; It has "variable yield," which the ground crew can set to 0.3, 5, 10 or 80 kilotons before loading the bomb onto an aircraft.

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ a b Nuclear Nightmares: Securing the World Before It Is Too Late, Joseph Cirincione, Appendix F
  2. ^ Nuclear Shadowboxing: Cold War Redux, A. DeVolpi.
  3. ^ Sally Lilienthal
  4. ^ Q&A: JOSEPH CIRINCIONE, President of PLOUGHSHARES FUND and Author
  5. ^ Spring 2008 Newsletter, Ploughshares Fund
  6. ^ What We Fund, Ploughshares Fund
  7. ^ Erik StrandellWikidata Q6192026
  8. ^ Hans M. Kristensen; Matt Korda (4 March 2019), "Russian nuclear forces, 2019", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 75 (2): 73–84, doi:10.1080/00963402.2019.1580891Wikidata Q62072823
  9. ^ Robert S. Norris; Hans M. Kristensen (September 2008), "French nuclear forces, 2008", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 64 (4): 52–54Wikidata Q63197680
  10. ^ Hans M. Kristensen; Robert S. Norris (25 June 2018), "Chinese nuclear forces, 2018", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 74 (4)Wikidata Q63197761
  11. ^ Robert S. Norris; Hans M. Kristensen (July 2013), "The British nuclear stockpile, 1953–2013", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 69 (4): 69–75, doi:10.1177/0096340213493260Wikidata Q56030003. This Ploughshares web page says the UK has 215, but the source it cites says 225. This apparent error is corrected here.
  12. ^ Hans M. Kristensen; Robert S. Norris; Julia Diamond (31 August 2018), "Pakistani nuclear forces, 2018", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 74 (5)Wikidata Q63197796
  13. ^ Hans M. Kristensen; Robert S. Norris (4 July 2017), "Indian nuclear forces, 2017", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 73 (4): 205–209, doi:10.1080/00963402.2017.1337998Wikidata Q56429966
  14. ^ Hans M. Kristensen; Robert S. Norris (November 2014), "Israeli nuclear weapons, 2014", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 70 (6): 97–115, doi:10.1177/0096340214555409Wikidata Q61458711
  15. ^ Hans M. Kristensen; Robert S. Norris (8 January 2018), "North Korean nuclear capabilities, 2018", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 74 (1)Wikidata Q63197836
  16. ^ World nuclear weapon stockpileWikidata Q63197617. This Ploughshares summary says that the UK has 215 nuclear weapons, when the document cited says 225. This apparent error is propagated into the total: 14215 vs. 14225, if the apparent UK error is corrected.