Pleurotus dryinus

Pleurotus dryinus is a species of fungus in the family Pleurotaceae. It grows on dead wood and is also a weak pathogen; infecting especially broad-leaved trees.

Pleurotus dryinus
Pleurotus dryinus JPG1.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Division:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
P. dryinus
Binomial name
Pleurotus dryinus
(Pers.) P.Kumm. (1871)
Synonyms

Agaricus acerinus
Agaricus corticatus
Agaricus dryinus
Agaricus spongiosus
Lentinus integer
Lentinus underwoodii
Pleurotus acerinus
Pleurotus albertinii
Pleurotus corticatus
Pleurotus corticatus subsp. tephrotrichus
Pleurotus corticatus var. albertinii
Pleurotus corticatus var. tephrotrichus
Pleurotus spongiosus
Pleurotus tephrotrichus

Pleurotus dryinus
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium
cap is offset
hymenium is decurrent
stipe has a ring
spore print is white
ecology is saprotrophic or parasitic
edibility: edible

NamingEdit

The species name is a Latinised version of the Greek word "dryinos" (δρύῐνος), meaning "related to oak", which refers to one of its main hosts.[1]

The original definition of this fungus as Agaricus dryinus was made by Persoon in 1800.[2] In 1871 in his "Führer in die Pilzkunde" ("Guide to mycology"), Paul Kummer introduced Pleurotus as a genus and defined three similar ringed species: Pleurotus corticatus, Pleurotus Albertini and P. dryinus. They were distinguished because only P. corticatus has intertwined ("anastomosing") gills on the stem and P. Albertini is bigger and grows on conifer wood rather than oak. However, nowadays all three are considered to be forms of the same species.[3] The name dryinus takes precedence because it is the oldest.[4]

Also, in 1874 Fries defined a species Pleurotus tephrotrichus, having a deeper grey colour, which again has been incorporated into P. dryinus but may be distinguished as the variety P. dryinus var. tephrotrichus.[5]

The English name "Veiled Oyster Mushroom" has been given to this species.[6]

DescriptionEdit

The following sections use the given references throughout.[7][8][9][10]

GeneralEdit

  • The cap, growing to about 13 cm, is pale, beige or (in variety tephrotrichus) greyish; later it can turn yellowish. Veil remnants may adhere to the edge. At first it is velvety (tomentose) and the tomentum can develop into grey-brown scales; in old specimens the surface becomes bare and may crack.
  • The whitish or pale brownish lateral stem may be very short or up to about 8 cm long, generally with a membranous ring.
  • The gills are decurrent well down the stipe and may anastomose (criss-cross) at the lower extreme. They are white or cream.
  • The smell is described as "pleasant"[7] or "slightly polypore-like"[10] or "complex, a bit fruity or sourish". The odour is definitely not floury (which can be used to distinguish from P. calyptratus).[11] The taste is mild.

Microscopic characteristicsEdit

  • The flesh may be monomitic (as with ordinary fragile mushrooms) but it may also be dimitic, having extra thick-walled hyphae which give the flesh a tough consistency.[9]
  • The elongated spores in the form of a rounded cylinder are around 9-15 μm by 3-5 μm.
  • There are no cystidia.

Distribution, habitat & ecologyEdit

This mushroom is saprobic on dead wood and can also be a weak parasite of trees. It occurs especially on oak (from which it derives its name), but also on beech, other broad-leaved trees, and occasionally on conifers. It is often solitary or may grow in small groups.

Appearing from summer to autumn, it is distributed throughout Europe, where it varies locally between common and rare.[8] It is also found in North America.[12]

Similar species and varietiesEdit

In the following table, Species Fungorum is a general reference for the names.[4]

Designation, author & date of related mushroom Relationship & status Characteristics
Hypsizygus ulmarius (Bull.) Gray (1821) This mushroom, which has been classified as a Pleurotus, is reportedly easy to mistake for P. dryinus.[13] The gills are only slightly decurrent, no ring.
Lentinus levis (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Murrill (1915) This American mushroom, which has been classified as a Pleurotus, is reportedly easy to mistake for P. dryinus.[13] It has no cap scales and no ring or veil remnants, and the felty surface is different.[14]
Pleurotus albertinii [Fr.) Sacc. (1887) Once defined as a separate species, now part of P. dryinus. Larger than var. dryinus and grows on conifer wood rather than deciduous.
Pleurotus calyptratus (Lindblad ex Fr.) Sacc. (1887) A similar but currently valid species, also with prominent veil remnants. Smells of flour,[11] little or no stipe, cap smooth, only grows on poplar.[9]
Pleurotus corticatus (Fr.) P. Kumm. (1871) Once defined as a separate species, now part of P. dryinus, may be considered a variety. Has intertwined ("anastomosing") gills on the stem.
Pleurotus dryinus var. dryinus P. Kumm (1871) This name may be used to distinguish normal P. dryinus from proposed varieties.  
Pleurotus dryinus var. tephrotrichus (Fr.) Damblon & Lambinon (1959) Once defined as a separate species, now part of P. dryinus, may be considered a variety. Greyer than var. dryinus.

Human impactEdit

This mushroom is edible, though it is tough when older and inferior to the better-known Pleurotus species.[15][8][6]

It is a mild parasite of broad-leaved trees (a "white rot").[9]

Like some other Pleurotus species, P. dryinus attacks nematodes and may provide a control method for these parasites when they infect cats and dogs.[citation needed]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ See Woodhouse, S. C. (1910). English-Greek Dictionary - A Vocabulary of the Attic Language. George Routledge & Sons, Ltd. p. 564.
  2. ^ For the original name, see "Species Fungorum Agaricus dryinus page". Species Fungorum. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. Retrieved 2017-02-02. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. ^ Paul Kummer (1871). Der Führer in die Pilzkunde. Anleitung zum methodischen, leichten und sichern Bestimmen der in Deutschland vorkommenden Pilze, mit Ausnahme der Schimmel- und allzu winzigen Schleim- und Kern-Pilzchen [The guide to mycology. Introduction to methodical, easy and reliable identification of mushrooms occurring in Germany, with the exception of moulds and tiny slime moulds and Pyrenomycetes.] (in German). Zerbst: E. Luppe. p. 104.
  4. ^ a b For the current name and synonyms, see "Species Fungorum Pleurotus dryinus page". Species Fungorum. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. Retrieved 2017-02-02. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. ^ For variety tephrotrichus, see "Species Fungorum Pleurotus dryinus var. tephrotrichus page". Species Fungorum. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. Retrieved 2017-02-02. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. ^ a b "Crazy about Mushrooms - Pleurotus dryinus, the Veiled Oyster Mushroom". Retrieved 2017-02-02. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. ^ a b Marcel Bon (1987). The Mushrooms and Toadstools of Britain and North-Western Europe. Hodder & Stoughton. p. 120. ISBN 0-340-39935-X.
  8. ^ a b c Courtecuisse, R.; Duhem, B. (2013). Champignons de France et d'Europe (in French). Delachaux et Niestlé. p. 190. ISBN 978-2-603-02038-8. Also available in English.
  9. ^ a b c d Knudsen, H.; Vesterholt, J., eds. (2008). Funga Nordica Agaricoid, boletoid and cyphelloid genera. Copenhagen: Nordsvamp. p. 322. ISBN 978-87-983961-3-0.
  10. ^ a b See Meinhard Moser (1983). Keys to Agarics and Boleti. Translated by Simon Plant. 15a Eccleston Square, London: Roger Phillips. p. 62. ISBN 0-9508486-0-3.CS1 maint: location (link)
  11. ^ a b Eyssartier, G.; Roux, P. (2013). Le guide des champignons France et Europe (in French). Belin. p. 972. ISBN 978-2-7011-8289-6.
  12. ^ See the Global Biodiversity Information Facility page, which provides hyperlinks to records with geographical location.
  13. ^ a b Kuo, M. (2009, April). Pleurotus dryinus. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site.
  14. ^ "Lentinus levis / Lentin poilu" (in French). Retrieved 2017-02-02. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  15. ^ "Pleurotus dryinus in MycoDB" (in French). Retrieved 2017-02-02. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)

LinksEdit