Yine language

  (Redirected from Piro language (Peru))

Piro is a Maipurean language spoken in Peru. It belongs to the Piro group which also includes Iñapari (†) and Apurinã. The principal variety is Yine. The Manchineri who live in Brazil (Acre) and reportedly also in Bolivia speak what may be a dialect of Yine (Aikhenvald, Kaufman). A vocabulary labeled Canamaré is "so close to Piro [Yine] as to count as Piro", but has been a cause of confusion with the unrelated Kanamarí language.[2]

Native toPeru
EthnicityYine people, Manchineri
Native speakers
5,000 (2000–2004)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
pib – Yine
mpd – Machinere (Manitenére)
Glottologyine1238  Yine
mach1268  Machinere


This language is also called Contaquiro, Pira, Piro, Pirro, Simiranch, or Simirinche. Cushichineri has been reported as a language, but is actually a family name used with Whites (Matteson 1965). The name Mashco has sometimes been incorrectly applied to the Yine. (See Mashco Piro.)


Extinct varieties of Piro (Yine):[3]:244


As of 2000, essentially all of the 4,000 ethnic Yine people speak the language. They live in the Ucayali and Cusco Departments, near the Ucayali River, and near the Madre de Dios River in the Madre de Dios Region in Peru. Literacy is comparatively high. A dictionary has been published in the language and the language is taught alongside Spanish in some Yine schools. There are also a thousand speakers of Machinere.[1]


Piro has an active–stative syntax.[4]


  1. ^ a b Yine at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Machinere (Manitenére) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Harald Hammarström (2013) Review of the Ethnologue, 16th Ed.
  3. ^ Ramirez, Henri (2020). Enciclopédia das línguas Arawak: acrescida de seis novas línguas e dois bancos de dados. 3 (1 ed.). Curitiba: Editora CRV. doi:10.24824/978652510234.4. ISBN 978-65-251-0234-4.
  4. ^ Aikhenvald, "Arawak", in Dixon & Aikhenvald, eds., The Amazonian Languages, 1999.


  • Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian languages: the historical linguistics of Native America. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Matteson, Esther. (1965). The Piro (Arawakan) language. University of California Publications in Linguistics, 42. Berkeley y Los Angeles: University of California Press. (Es la tesis para doctorado presentada en 1963 a la University of California, Los Angeles.)
  • Nies, Joyce, compilador. (1986). Diccionario piro (Tokanchi gikshijikowaka-steno). Serie Lingüística Peruana, 22. Yarinacocha: Ministerio de Educación and Instituto Lingüístico de Verano.
  • Parker, Stephen. (1989). "Un análisis métrico del acento en el piro". Estudios etno-lingüísticos, Stephen Parker (ed.), pp. 114–125. Documento de trabajo 21. Yarinacocha, Pucallpa: Ministerio de Educación e Instituto Lingüístico de Verano.
  • Solís Fonseca, Gustavo. (2003). Lenguas en la amazonía peruana. Lima: edición por demanda.
  • Urquía Sebastián, Rittma (2006). "La situación sociolingüística de la lengua yine en 2006". Situaciones sociolingüísticas de lenguas amerindias, ed. Stephen A. Marlett. Lima: SIL International and Universidad Ricardo Palma. [1]. External link in |publisher= (help)
  • Urquía Sebastián, Rittma. (2006). Yine. Ilustraciones fonéticas de lenguas amerindias, ed. Stephen A. Marlett. Lima: SIL International and Universidad Ricardo Palma.
  • Urquía Sebastián, Rittma; Marlett, Stephen A. (2008). "Yine". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 38 (3): 365–369. doi:10.1017/S0025100308003356.
  • Urquía Sebastián, Rittma and Wagner Urquía Sebastián. (2009). Diccionario yine–castellano
  • Hanson, Rebecca (2010). A Grammar of Yine (Piro) (Ph.D. thesis). La Trobe University. hdl:1959.9/536008.