Pieter Jacobus Oud (5 December 1886 – 12 August 1968) was a Dutch politician of the defunct Free-thinking Democratic League (VDB) and later co-founder of the Labour Party (PvdA) and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and historian. He was granted the honorary title of Minister of State on 9 November 1963.
Pieter Oud in 1956
|Chairman of the People's Party |
for Freedom and Democracy
8 April 1949 – 9 November 1963
|Leader||Himself (1949–1963) |
Edzo Toxopeus (1963)
|Preceded by||Dirk Stikker|
|Succeeded by||Kornelis van der Pols|
|Leader of the People's Party |
for Freedom and Democracy
28 January 1948 – 16 May 1963
|Preceded by||Office established|
|Succeeded by||Edzo Toxopeus|
|Mayor of Rotterdam|
7 May 1945 – 1 June 1952
|Preceded by||Frederik Ernst Müller|
|Succeeded by||Gerard van Walsum|
15 October 1938 – 10 October 1941
|Preceded by||Pieter Droogleever Fortuyn|
|Succeeded by||Arie de Zeeuw (Ad interim)|
|Parliamentary leader in the |
House of Representatives
27 July 1948 – 16 May 1963
|Preceded by||Office established|
|Succeeded by||Roelof Zegering Hadders|
|Parliamentary group||People's Party for |
Freedom and Democracy
20 September 1937 – 15 October 1938
|Preceded by||Dolf Joekes|
|Succeeded by||Dolf Joekes|
|Parliamentary group||Free-thinking |
|Leader of the Free-thinking |
18 May 1935 – 15 October 1938
|Preceded by||Henri Marchant|
|Succeeded by||Dolf Joekes|
|Minister of Finance|
26 May 1933 – 24 June 1937
|Prime Minister||Hendrikus Colijn|
|Preceded by||Dirk Jan de Geer|
|Succeeded by||Jacob Adriaan de Wilde|
|Member of the House of Representatives|
27 July 1948 – 5 June 1963
8 June 1937 – 8 November 1938
28 June 1917 – 26 May 1933
|Parliamentary group||People's Party for |
Freedom and Democracy
Pieter Jacobus Oud
5 December 1886
|Died||12 August 1968 (aged 81)|
|Political party||People's Party for |
Freedom and Democracy
|Committee-Oud (1947–1948) |
Labour Party (1946–1947)
Johanna Cornelia Fischer
(m. 1912; his death 1968)
|Children||Hendrik Cornelis Oud |
|Relatives||Jacobus Oud (brother)|
|Alma mater||University of Amsterdam |
(Bachelor of Laws, Master of Laws)
|Occupation||Politician · Civil servant · Jurist · Historian · Businessman · Tax advisor · Tax collector · Corporate director · Nonprofit director · Editor · Author · Professor|
Oud worked as civil servant for the Ministry of Finance from 1909 until 1917. Oud was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives after the election of 1977, taking office on 28 June 1917. Oud also worked as Editor-in-chief of the party newspaper De Vrijzinnig-Democraat from 15 May 1919 until 26 May 1933. After the election of 1933 Oud was appointed as Minister of Finance in the Cabinet Colijn II, taking office on 26 May 1933. After the Leader of the Free-thinking Democratic League Henri Marchant retired after 19 years he endorsed Oud as his successor. Marchant stepping down on 18 May 1935 and was succeeded by Oud. The Cabinet Colijn II fell on 23 July 1935 and was replaced by the Cabinet Colijn III with Oud continuing Minister of Finance, taking office on 31 July 1935. Following the election of 1937 Oud returned a Member of the House of Representatives, taking office on 8 June 1937 but asked Dolf Joekes to remain as Parliamentary leader of the Free-thinking Democratic League in the House of Representatives until 20 September 1937. The Cabinet Colijn III was replaced by the Cabinet Colijn IV on 24 June 1937. In October 1938 Oud was nominated as Mayor of Rotterdam and he announced he was stepping down as Leader and Parliamentary leader and endorsed his long-serving Deputy Dolf Joekes as his successor. Oud resigned Leader and Parliamentary leader the day he was installed as Mayor, taking office on 15 October 1938.
On 14 May 1940 the Luftwaffe destroyed almost the entire historic city center of Rotterdam during the German invasion leading to the Dutch government to capitulate the next day. On 10 October 1941 Oud resigned in protest against the German occupation and was briefly detained in the ilag Sint-Michielsgestel in the summer of 1942. During the rest of the German occupation Oud wrote dozens of books on History and Politics. Following the end of World War II Oud was again appointed as Mayor of Rotterdam, taking office on 7 May 1945. On 9 February 1946 the Free-thinking Democratic League (VDB), the Social Democratic
Workers' Party (SDAP) and the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) choose to merge to form the Labour Party (PvdA). Oud was one of the co-founders but left the party a year later. After leaving the Labour Party he and several other former members of the Free-thinking Democratic League formed the rump party Committee-Oud in February 1947. On 24 January 1948 the Committee-Oud and the Freedom Party (PvdV) choose to merge to form the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD). Oud was one of the co-founders and became the first Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy.
For the election of 1948 Oud was the Lijsttrekker (top candidate) of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy. The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy had 6 seats in the House of House of Representatives previously held by the Freedom Party and made a small win, gaining 2 seat and now had 8 seats in the House of Representatives. Oud again returned as a Member of the House of Representatives and became the first Parliamentary leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy in the House of Representatives on 27 July 1948. The following cabinet formation resulted in a coalition agreement between the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, the Catholic People's Party (KVP), the Labour Party and the Christian Historical Union (CHU) which formed the Cabinet Drees–Van Schaik with Oud opting to remain in the House of Representatives instead of a ministerial post. Oud also served as Chairman of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy from 8 April 1949 until 9 November 1963. Oud served continuously as Leader and Parliamentary leader for the next 15 years and was Lijsttrekker for the elections of 1952, 1956 and 1959. In January 1963 Oud announced his retirement from national politics and that she would not stand for the election of 1963. Shortly after the election Oud stepped down as Leader and Parliamentary leader on 16 May 1963 and was succeeded as Leader by Edzo Toxopeus and as Parliamentary leader by Roelof Zegering Hadders until Edzo Toxopeus took over as Parliamentary leader on 2 July 1963 but retained his seat in the House of Representatives and continued to serve as a backbencher until the end of the parliamentary term on 5 June 1963.
Following the end of his active political career, Oud occupied numerous seats as a corporate director and nonprofit director for supervisory boards in the business and industry world and for supervisory boards for several international non-governmental organizations and research institutes (Royal Dutch Shell, Philips, Van Lanschot, Netherlands Atlantic Association, Carnegie Foundation and the Royal Netherlands Historical Society) and served on several state commissions on behalf of the government.
Life before politicsEdit
Oud came from a middle-class family, his father traded in tobacco, wine and, later, stocks and served as alderman in Purmerend. Oud attended HBS in Amsterdam graduating in 1904. He continued to study to become notary between 1904 and 1907. During this time he had become member of the board of the League of Freethinking Propaganda Associations, the freethinking liberal youth organisation. He took a private courses in registration in Gorinchem between 1907 and 1909. Between 1909 and 1911 he was civil servant within the ministry of Finance responsible for registration and government possessions. In 1911 he became a tax collector on Texel. In 1912 he took his matriculation in order to study law at the University of Amsterdam. He combined his work as tax collector with his study of law. In the same year he married Johanna Cornelia Fischer, from this marriage they got one son. In 1914 he became tax collector in Ommen. Meanwhile, he was mobilised as Sergeant of the seventh regiment infantry, which was stationed near Amsterdam between 1914 and 1916. Between 1915 and 1919 he was member of the national board of the VDB. He graduated in 1917 on basis of a disputation.
For the VDBEdit
Oud was elected in 1917 elections for the VDB, the last election with runoff voting, in the second round he beat the Staalman of the left-wing Christian Democratic Party for the district of Den Helder. He retained his legal position as tax collector, but was given a leave for undetermined time. he was even promoted to inspector of finances in 1921, while on leave. In 1918 Oud stood for elections again and was elected with 5,000 preference votes, mainly from the district of Den Helder. While MP, Oud also served as secretary of the VDB national board and editor of the De Vrijzinnige Democraat, the party's magazine. In parliament Oud took a particular interest in military matters and education, and served as the party's finance spokesperson. As MP he served as member of the Committee on the Navy between 1923 and 1933 and the Committee on the Army since 1925. He was chairman of the Association for the promotion of Public Education "People's Education" for many years.
In 1933 Oud became Minister of Finance in the second cabinet led by Colijn. As minister he was responsible for a large scale operation of budget cuts, during a time of economic crisis. In 1935 he proposed the Bezuigingswet 1935 (the Budget Cut law 1935) which involved many budget cuts and financial reorganisations: salaries of civil servants were cut, the old age pensions were financed in a different way and for budgetary reasons, soldiers were to become civil servants after a certain period. Although his proposals lead to a political crisis, they were nonetheless carried by parliament. In the same year, after Marchant left the VDB after a scandal, Oud succeeded him as political leader of the VDB. Oud led the VDB in the 1937 elections and returned to the House of Representatives as chair of the parliamentary party. He also served as chair for the Committee on government expenditure.
He left the House of Representatives in 1938 to become mayor of Rotterdam. As mayor he also served in the College of Curators of the University of Rotterdam and as chair of the Association of Dutch Municipalities. After he stepped down in 1952 he became honorary chairman of that association. In 1939 he was elected into the States-Provincial of South Holland. In August 1939 he was offered the position of Minister of Finance in the cabinet of De Geer, but declined.
Controversially, Oud did not resign after the German invasion of 1940, although he was not a member of the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (NSB). During his period as mayor, he was involved in the reconstruction of the centre of Rotterdam which was destroyed by the German bombings. He was heavily criticised by Dutch politicians for cooperating too much with the NSB, while the NSB criticised him for being uncooperative. In the spring of 1941 he was harassed brutally by members of the NSB, twelve party-members invaded the City Hall, gagged Oud, adorned him with Freemason-like symbols and made pictures of him. In the autumn of 1941 he resigned as mayor and he stood down as member of the States Provincial. He was succeeded by Frederik Ernst Müller. In the summer of 1942 he was briefly held in Sint-Michielsgestel, where many prominent Dutch politicians were held captive. During the war Oud kept far from the resistance movement and instead committed himself to writing several books on parliamentary history. Meanwhile, he kept close contact with important people from the business and the political world of Rotterdam.
In 1945, after the liberation of the Netherlands, he returned to Rotterdam as mayor, although he was also asked to become mayor of Amsterdam, and he was officially re-appointed in 1946. In the same year the VDB merged with the social democratic SDAP and the left-wing Christian CDU to form the Labour Party. Oud was one of the co-founders of this party and served on the party's board between 1946 and 1947. Meanwhile, he served on many government, business, international and civil society committees, he chaired the government committee for municipal finances between 1946 and 1954, he was member of the board of trustees of the banker Staal, he was member of the pension council of the Dutch Reformed Church since 1946 and he served as chair of the International Union of Municipalities and Local Governments between 1948 and 1954.
For the VVDEdit
On 3 October 1947 Oud sent a letter to the board of the PvdA with which he resigned as a member. The reason he gave for the split was that the PvdA was moving too much into socialist waters, instead of being committed to progressive politics. The fact that he was refused a position on the party list for the Senate is generally seen as the political reason for Oud's split. Oud never felt at home in the new social-democratic party.
He immediately founded the Committee of Preparation of the Foundation of a Democratic People's Party, which prepared the foundation of the VVD. He negotiated the merger of the remnants of the old VDB with the newly founded Freedom Party. On 24 January 1948 he became one of the founding members of the liberal VVD, together with Stikker and Korthals and served in its first national board as vice-chair. In 1948 he was elected to the House of Representatives for the VVD, and became chair of the VVD parliamentary party, he combined this position with the position of chair of the party's organisation.
In parliament he mainly spoke on issues of administrative and constitutional law. He was a very influential member of parliament. When the law concerning the decolonisation of Indonesia, a very controversial issue, was voted on, the two-thirds majority was only reached because of amendment proposed by Oud ensured the support of the VVD. In 1950-51 Oud came into conflict with the VVD's Minister of Foreign Affairs, Stikker, over the policy concerning New Guinea. Between 1950 and 1953 he was a member of the Government Committee Van Schaik, which prepared a constitutional change. In 1952 he did not seek to be reappointed as Rotterdam's mayor, and instead became extraordinary professor of Constitutional Administrative law at the University of Rotterdam, which he remained until 1957. Between 1953 and 1963 he was chair of the Justice Committee of the House of Representatives. As such he was heavily involved in the preparation of many laws, and served as chair on the committees preparing the laws on the provinces, the police, archives, patents and many more. In 1959 he came into conflict with Van Riel, the chair of the VVD's parliamentary party in the Senate, because Van Riel wanted to become minister, but Oud denied him this.
In the last years of his period in the House of Representatives, Oud was the eldest member of the House and on many times functioned as President, when a new president was elected for instance. Before the 1963 elections Oud announced that he would not continue as MP, he was succeeded by the Minister of Home Affairs Edzo Toxopeus. In the same year he was appointed as Minister of State, an honorary title.
Life after politicsEdit
After 1963, Oud retired from Dutch political life. He was only asked upon at times of great crisis. In 1966 he was member of the committee, which advised government on the ministerial responsibility towards members of the royal house, together with Willem Drees. In the same year, he co-authored a book on a new constitution.
When Oud died in 1968, his family wanted to announce his death after the burial. His GP did not know this, and told a patient that evening that Oud had died that afternoon. The father of this patient happened to be a journalist for the socialist paper Het Vrije Volk, which published a large In Memoriam the next morning.
- "Om de Democratie" (1929; "For Democracy")
- "Het jongste verleden: Parlementaire geschiedenis van Nederland, 1918-1940" (1946; The recent past: parliamentary history of the Netherlands, 1918-194-)
- "Honderd jaren: Hoofdzaken der Nederlandsche staatkundige geschiedenis, 1840-1940" (1946; One hundred years, Important matters of the Dutch political history 1840-1940)
- "Het constitutionele recht van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden" (1947–1953; The constitutional law of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
- "Proeve van een Grondwet (1966; Attempt at a constitution)
- Oud was respected for his memory. During debates he could make remarks like: "You're saying this now, but eight years ago you said something totally different."
- When asked whether the VVD would cooperate with the PvdA the coalition in a new government he showed his aversion to the party he had been a member of for one year like this: "Normal people don't cooperate with alcoholics in fighting alcoholism?"
- Jacobus Oud, a famous Dutch architect, was his brother.
- Oud was a respected voice in parliament, not only because he spoke with a soft high pitched voice, but also because he was the House's conscience when it came to constitutional issues and administrative laws.
- He was made Knight of the Order of the Netherlands Lion in 1925 and received the Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-Nassau in 1957.
- Oud was a lifelong member of the freethinking Protestant broadcasting organisation, VPRO.
|Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown||Belgium||4 April 1936|
|Commander of the Order of the Netherlands Lion||Netherlands||30 July 1937||Elevated from Knight (29 August 1925)|
|Grand Cross of the Order of the House of Orange||Netherlands||10 December 1945|
|Grand Cross of the Order of the Oak Crown||Luxembourg||1 August 1950|
|Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour||France||8 March 1957|
|Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-Nassau||Netherlands||21 June 1957|
|Minister of State||Netherlands||9 November 1963||Style of Excellency|
- "Oud, Pieter Jacobus (1886-1968)" (in Dutch). Huygens ING. 12 November 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pieter Oud.|
- (in Dutch) Mr. P.J. (Pieter) Oud Parlement & Politiek