Pierre Bérégovoy

Pierre Eugène Bérégovoy (French pronunciation: ​[pjɛʁ beʁeɡɔvwa]; 23 December 1925 – 1 May 1993) was a French politician who served as Prime Minister of France under President François Mitterrand from 2 April 1992 to 29 March 1993. He was a member of the Socialist Party and Member of Parliament for Nièvre's 1st constituency.

Pierre Bérégovoy
Pierre Beregovoy.jpg
Prime Minister of France
In office
2 April 1992 – 29 March 1993
PresidentFrançois Mitterrand
Preceded byÉdith Cresson
Succeeded byÉdouard Balladur
Personal details
Pierre Eugène Bérégovoy

(1925-12-23)23 December 1925
Déville-lès-Rouen, France
Died1 May 1993(1993-05-01) (aged 67)
Nevers, France
Political partySocialist
OccupationMetallurgist, politician

Early careerEdit

Pierre Bérégovoy was born in Déville-lès-Rouen to a Ukrainian father (original family name Береговий in Ukrainian or Береговой in Russian) who had left the Russian Empire after the Russian Civil War, and a French mother.

He started his professional life at the age of 16 as a qualified metal worker. He got involved in politics following his activities in the French Resistance – while working at SNCF during World War II. A member of the SFIO Socialist Party and of the trade unions confederation Workers Force, he joined the staff of the Minister of Public Works and Transport, Christian Pineau, as adviser for relations with the trade unions in 1949. One year later, he became technical agent in Gaz de France.

In 1959, he left the SFIO and participated in the foundation of the dissident Unified Socialist Party (PSU). He became an adviser of Pierre Mendès-France. In 1967, with Alain Savary, he created the pro-Mendès-France Union of clubs for the renewal of the left. This group joined the renewed Socialist Party (PS) in 1969. He joined the executive group of the party behind François Mitterrand, and participated notably in the negotiations of the Common Program of the Union of the Left.

In 1981, following Mitterrand's election as President of France, he was chosen as Secretary General of the Presidency. One year later, he joined the cabinet as Minister of Social affairs. He was among the Socialist politicians who advised President Mitterrand to leave the European Monetary System in order to continue Socialist economic policy. But in March 1983, Mitterrand listened to his Prime Minister Pierre Mauroy and ratified the change of economic policy.

The 1985 "Plaza Accord" is named after New York City's Plaza Hotel, which was the location of a meeting of finance ministers who reached an agreement about managing the fluctuating value of the US dollar. From left are Gerhard Stoltenberg of West Germany, Pierre Bérégovoy of France, James A. Baker III of the United States, Nigel Lawson of Britain and Noboru Takeshita of Japan.

Bérégovoy became Minister of the Economy and Finance, from 1984 to the 1986 Socialist electoral defeat.

Elected mayor of Nevers in 1983, and deputy of Nièvre département in 1986, in the electoral land of Mitterrand, he was manager of the latter's 1988 presidential campaign. After his re-election, at the time of each cabinet reshuffle, his name was mentioned as a possible Prime Minister. In the end, he returned to the Ministry of the Economy and Finance. In this function, he symbolized the adaptation of French socialism to the market economy and struck up hearty relations with employer representatives.

After the 1992 regional elections, which were a disaster for the PS, he was finally appointed Prime Minister. He promised to fight unemployment, economic decline and corruption. During his inaugural speech in the French National Assembly, he claimed he knew the names of politicians from the right-wing opposition implicated in corruption scandals, causing a great hue and cry. Bérégovoy forced Bernard Tapie, his Minister of Urban Affairs, to resign in May 1992 after his indictment by the French justice. He thus created the misnamed "Balladur jurisprudence".[1] In social policy, a number of reforms were carried out. In November 1992 a law was passed that inserted a (arguably narrow) definition of sexual harassment into the labour code and empowered the labour inspectorate and workplace committees to enforce it.[2] In May 1992, increased aid was provided to farmers, mainly comprising reductions in the agricultural land tax and increased grants for young farmers.[3] In June 1992, the French parliament passed a bill which required mayors to encourage social mixing in public housing.[4] A law of 12 July 1992 was aimed at enhancing both the status of child-minders and "the quality of day care for children in a family environment," and a law of 29 July 1992 improved entitlement to medical assistance.[5] The Sapin law of January 1993 sought to prevent corruption and encourage transparency "in economic activities and public procedures,"[6] and a law of January 1993 established "the principle of joint parental authority in the legitimate family, even if a divorce occurs."[7] In addition, the coverage of housing benefits was extended in 1993.[8][9]

He resigned after the Socialist electoral collapse of the March 1993 legislative election.

Political careerEdit

Secretary General of the Presidency of the Republic: 1981–1982.

Governmental functions

Prime Minister: 1992–1993.

Minister of Economy and Finances: 1984–1986 / 1988–1992.

Minister of Social Affairs: 1982–1984.

Electoral mandates

National Assembly of France

Member of the National Assembly of France for Nièvre: 1986–1988 (Became minister in 1988) / March–May 1993 (Died in May 1993). Elected in 1986, reelected in 1988, 1993.

General Council

General Councillor of the Nièvre: 1985–1993 (Died in May 1993). Reelected in 1992.

Municipal Council

Mayor of Nevers: 1983–1993 (Died in May 1993). Reelected in 1989.

Municipal councillor of Nevers: 1983–1993 (Died in May 1993). Reelected in 1989.


Pierre Bérégovoy committed suicide by shooting himself on 1 May 1993.[10] Friends of Bérégovoy claimed that he had been depressed ever since he lost the March legislative elections in which his Socialist Party won only 67 out of 577 parliamentary seats. Bérégovoy was also being investigated concerning a one-million-franc interest-free loan he received from businessman and close friend, Roger-Patrice Pelat. Pelat died of a heart attack on 7 March 1989, less than one month after being found guilty in the Péchiney-Triangle affair.[10]

At Bérégovoy's funeral, held at Nevers in an atmosphere of tension and shock, François Mitterrand stated that media pressure in connection with the Pelat scandal was responsible for Bérégovoy's suicide. Targeting the press, he said Bérégovoy's "honour was thrown to the dogs", crediting him with "the grandeur of someone who chooses his destiny."[11]

Bérégovoy's ministry, 2 April 1992 – 29 March 1993Edit


  • 23 May 1992 – Bernard Tapie leaves the ministry and the office of Minister of City is abolished
  • 2 October 1992 – Martin Malvy succeeds Charasse as Minister of Budget. Jean-Pierre Soisson succeeds Mermaz as Minister of Agriculture, becoming also Minister of Rural Development
  • 26 December 1992 – The office of Minister of City is re-established, with Bernard Tapie again as Minister
  • 9 March 1993 – Pierre Joxe leaves the ministry of Defence and was succeeded by Pierre Bérégovoy (who remains also Prime minister)


  1. ^ La mise en examen de M. Santini n'a pas empêché sa nomination au gouvernement Archived 17 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Le Monde, 22 June 2007 (in French)
  2. ^ Hoskyns, C. (1996). Integrating Gender: Women, Law and Politics in the European Union. Verso. p. 217. ISBN 9781859840788. Archived from the original on 4 March 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  3. ^ "OECD Economic Surveys: France 1992 – Books – OECD iLibrary". oecd-ilibrary.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  4. ^ Goulbourne, H. (2001). Race and Ethnicity: Integration, adaptation and change. Routledge. p. 275. ISBN 9780415225038. Archived from the original on 14 December 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  5. ^ Charter, C.E.G.C.E.S.; Europe, C. (1996). European Social Charter: Governmental Committee, 13th Report. Vol. 2. Council of Europe Press. p. 19. ISBN 9789287128676. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  6. ^ Teicher, J.; Neesham, C.; Profiroiu, M. (2013). Sharing Concerns: Country Case Studies in Public-Private Partnerships. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 9781443852616. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  7. ^ Maclean, M. (2005). Family Law and Family Values. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 97. ISBN 9781847312129. Archived from the original on 14 December 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2017.
  8. ^ http://www.eea-esem.com/papers/eea-esem/2004/702/Student-2004.pdf[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ a b Simons, Marlise (4 May 1993). "In French Ex-Premier's Suicide, Cries of 'J'Accuse'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
  11. ^ "Funeral lament for death of ex-PM: Mitterrand salutes 'man of integrity'". The Independent. 5 May 1993. Archived from the original on 14 December 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2020.

External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by Secretary General to the President
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of Social Affairs
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of Economy and Finance
Succeeded by
Minister of Budget
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of Economy and Finance
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of Budget
Succeeded by
Preceded by Prime Minister of France
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of Defence
Succeeded by