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Phyllis McAlpin Schlafly (/ˈʃlæfli/; née Stewart; August 15, 1924 – September 5, 2016) was an American constitutional lawyer and movement conservative. She held staunchly conservative social and political views, supported antifeminism, opposed abortion, and successfully campaigned against ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Her book, A Choice Not an Echo (1964), a polemic against Republican leader Nelson Rockefeller, sold more than three million copies. Schlafly co-authored books on national defense and was critical of arms control agreements with the Soviet Union.[2] In 1972, Schlafly founded the Eagle Forum, a conservative political interest group, and remained its chairwoman and CEO until her death in 2016.

Phyllis Schlafly
Phyllis Schlafly by Gage Skidmore 4.jpg
Schlafly in 2011
Phyllis McAlpin Stewart

(1924-08-15)August 15, 1924
DiedSeptember 5, 2016(2016-09-05) (aged 92)
Resting placeCalvary Cemetery
Other namesPhyllis Stewart Schlafly
EducationWashington University (BA, JD)
Harvard University (MA)
Political partyRepublican
Fred Schlafly
(m. 1949; died 1993)
Children6, including Andrew



Schlafly was born Phyllis McAlpin Stewart, and born and raised in St. Louis. During the Great Depression, Schlafly's father faced long-term unemployment, and her mother entered the labor market. Mrs. Stewart was able to keep the family afloat and maintained Phyllis in a Catholic girls' school.[3]

Schlafly's mother, Odile Stewart (née Dodge),[4] was the daughter of attorney Ernest C. Dodge. Phyllis's sole sibling was her younger sister, Odile Stewart (married name Mecker; 1930–2015). Phyllis attended college and graduate school. Before her marriage, she worked as a teacher at a private girls' school in St. Louis.[5] During the Depression, Schlafly's mother went back to work as a librarian and a school teacher to support her family.[citation needed]

Schlafly's great-grandfather Stewart, a Presbyterian, emigrated from Scotland to New York in 1851 and moved westward through Canada before settling in Michigan.[6] Her grandfather, Andrew F. Stewart, was a master mechanic with the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway.[7] Schlafly's father, John Bruce Stewart, was a machinist and salesman of industrial equipment, principally for Westinghouse. He became unemployed in 1932 during the Great Depression and could not find permanent work until World War II.[8] He was granted a patent in 1944 for a rotary engine.[9]


Schlafly started college early and worked as a model for a time. In 1944, she graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Washington University in St. Louis. In 1945, she received a Master of Arts degree in government from Radcliffe College (for which the then all-male Harvard University was a coordinate institution). In Strike From Space (1965), Schlafly notes that during World War II, she worked as "a ballistics gunner and technician at the largest ammunition plant in the world". She earned a Juris Doctor degree from the Washington University in St. Louis School of Law in 1978.[8]

Activism and political effortsEdit

Among Schlafly's early experiences in politics was working in the successful 1946 campaign of Congressman Claude I. Bakewell.

In 1946, Schlafly became a researcher for the American Enterprise Institute and worked in the successful United States House of Representatives campaign of Republican Claude I. Bakewell.[10]

She played a major role with her husband in 1957 in writing a highly influential report, the "American Bar Association's Report on Communist Tactics, Strategy, and Objectives." Critchlow says it, "became not only one of the most widely read documents ever produced by the ABA, it was probably the single most widely read publication of the grassroots anticommunist movement."[11]

In 1952, Schlafly ran for Congress as a Republican in the majority Democratic 24th congressional district of Illinois and lost to Charles Melvin Price.[12] Schlafly's campaign was low-budget and promoted heavily through the local print media, and local entrepreneurs John M. Olin, Spencer Olin, and Texas oil billionaire H. L. Hunt.[13]

She attended her first Republican National Convention in 1952, and continued to attend each following convention.[14] As part of the Illinois delegation of the 1952 Republican convention, Schlafly endorsed U.S. Senator Robert A. Taft to be the party nominee for the presidential election.[15] At the 1960 Republican National Convention, Schlafly helped lead a revolt of "moral conservatives" who opposed Richard Nixon's stance (as The New York Times puts it) "against segregation and discrimination."[16]

She came to national attention when millions of copies of her self-published book, A Choice Not an Echo, were distributed in support of Barry Goldwater's 1964 presidential campaign, especially in California's hotly fought winner-take-all-delegates GOP primary.[17] In it, Schlafly denounced the Rockefeller Republicans in the Northeast, accusing them of corruption and globalism. Critics called the book a conspiracy theory about "secret kingmakers" controlling the Republican Party.[18]

In 1967, Schlafly lost a bid for the presidency of the National Federation of Republican Women against the more moderate candidate Gladys O'Donnell of California. Outgoing NFRW president and future United States Treasurer Dorothy Elston of Delaware worked against Schlafly in the campaign.[19][20]

Schlafly joined the John Birch Society, but quit because she thought that the main communist threats to the nation were external rather than internal.[citation needed] In 1970, she ran unsuccessfully for a House of Representatives seat in Illinois against Democratic incumbent George E. Shipley.

American Feminists made their greatest bid for national attention at the 1977 National Women's Conference in Houston; however, historian Marjorie J. Spruill argues that the anti-feminists led by Schlafly organized a highly successful counter-conference, the Pro-Life, Pro-Family Rally, to protest the National Women's Conference and make it clear feminists did not speak for them. At their rally they announced the beginning of a pro-family movement, to fight against politicians who had been supporting feminism and liberalism, and to promote "family values" in American politics, and so moved the Republican Party to the right and defeated the ratification of the ERA.[21]

Opposition to Equal Rights AmendmentEdit

Symbol used on signs and buttons of ERA opponents

Schlafly became an outspoken opponent of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) during the 1970s as the organizer of the "STOP ERA" campaign. STOP was an acronym for "Stop Taking Our Privileges". She argued that the ERA would take away gender-specific privileges currently enjoyed by women, including "dependent wife" benefits under Social Security, separate restrooms for males and females, and exemption from Selective Service (the military draft).[22][23] She was opposed by groups such as the National Organization for Women (NOW) and the ERAmerica coalition. The Homemakers' Equal Rights Association was formed to counter Schlafly's campaign.[citation needed]

In 1972, when Schlafly began her campaign against the Equal Rights Amendment, it had already been ratified by 28 of the required 38 states.[citation needed] Seven more states ratified the amendment after Schlafly began organizing opposition, but another five states rescinded their ratifications. The last state to ratify the ERA was Indiana, where State Senator Wayne Townsend cast the tie-breaking vote in January 1977.[citation needed]

The Equal Rights Amendment was narrowly defeated, having only achieved ratification in 35 states, five of which had subsequently rescinded their ratification.[8] Experts agree Schlafly was a key player. Political scientist Jane J. Mansbridge concluded in her history of the ERA:

Many people who followed the struggle over the ERA believed—rightly in my view—that the Amendment would have been ratified by 1975 or 1976 had it not been for Phyllis Schlafly's early and effective effort to organize potential opponents.[24]

Joan Williams argues, "ERA was defeated when Schlafly turned it into a war among women over gender roles."[25] Historian Judith Glazer-Raymo argues:

As moderates, we thought we represented the forces of reason and goodwill but failed to take seriously the power of the family values argument and the single-mindedness of Schlafly and her followers. The ERA's defeat seriously damaged the women's movement, destroying its momentum and its potential to foment social change ... Eventually, this resulted in feminist dissatisfaction with the Republican Party, giving the Democrats a new source of strength that when combined with overwhelming minority support, helped elect Bill Clinton to the presidency in 1992 and again in 1996.[26]

Critics of Schlafly saw her advocacy against equal rights and her role as a working professional as a contradiction. Gloria Steinem and author Pia de Solenni, among others, considered it ironic that in Schlafly's role as an advocate for the full-time mother and wife, she herself was a lawyer, newsletter editor, touring speaker, and political activist.[19][27]

Broadcast mediaEdit

In broadcast media, Schlafly provided commentaries on Chicago news radio station WBBM from 1973 to 1975, the CBS Morning News from 1974 to 1975, and then on CNN from 1980 to 1983. In 1983, she began creating syndicated daily 3-minute commentaries for radio. In 1989, she began hosting a weekly radio talk show, Eagle Forum Live.[28]


Equal Rights AmendmentEdit

Schlafly focused political opposition to the ERA in defense of traditional gender roles, such as only men fighting in war. She argued that the equal rights amendment would eliminate the men-only draft and guarantee the possibility that women would be equally subject to conscription and be required to serve in combat; that defense of traditional gender roles proved a useful tactic. In Illinois, the anti-ERA activists used traditional symbols of the American housewife, and took homemade foods (bread, jams, apple pies, etc.) to the state legislators, with the slogans, "Preserve us from a congressional jam; Vote against the ERA sham" and "I am for Mom and apple pie."[29]

The historian Lisa Levenstein said that, in the late 1970s, the feminist movement briefly attempted a program to help older divorced and widowed women.[30] Many widows were ineligible for Social Security benefits, few divorcees received alimony, and, after a career as a housewife, few had any work skills with which to enter the labor force. The program, however, encountered sharp criticism from young activists who gave priority to poor minority women rather than to middle-class women. By 1980, NOW downplayed the program, as they focused almost exclusively on ratification of the ERA. Schlafly moved into the political vacuum, and denounced the feminists for abandoning older, middle-class widows and divorcees in need, and warned that the ERA would equalize the laws for the benefit of men, stripping legal protections that older women urgently needed.[31]

Schlafly said the ERA was designed for the benefit of young career women, and warned that if men and women had to be treated equally, that social condition would threaten the security of middle-aged housewives without job skills. That the ERA would repeal legal protections, such as alimony, and eliminate the judicial tendency for divorced mothers to receive custody of their children.[32] Schlafly's argument that protective laws would be lost resonated with working-class women.[33]

Women's issuesEdit

Schlafly with Ronald Reagan in 1987

Schlafly told Time magazine in 1978, "I have cancelled speeches whenever my husband thought that I had been away from home too much."[34]

In March 2007, Schlafly spoke against the concept of marital rape in a speech at Bates College in Lewiston, Maine, "By getting married, the woman has consented to sex, and I don't think you can call it rape."[35] In an interview on March 30, 2006, she attributed improvement in women's lives during the last decades of the 20th century to labor-saving devices such as the indoor clothes dryer and disposable diapers.[36]

She called Roe v. Wade "the worst decision in the history of the U.S. Supreme Court" and said that it "is responsible for the killing of millions of unborn babies".[37]

In 2007, while working to defeat a new version of the Equal Rights Amendment, she warned it would force courts to approve same-sex marriages and deny Social Security benefits for housewives and widows.[23]

United Nations and international relationsEdit

Over the years, Schlafly disdained the United Nations. On the 50th anniversary of the UN in 1995, she referred to it as "a cause for mourning, not celebration. It is a monument to foolish hopes, embarrassing compromises, betrayal of our servicemen, and a steady stream of insults to our nation. It is a Trojan Horse that carries the enemy into our midst and lures Americans to ride under alien insignia to fight and die in faraway lands." She opposed President Bill Clinton's decision in 1996 to send 20,000 American troops to Bosnia during the Yugoslav Wars. Schlafly noted that Balkan nations have fought one another for 500 years and that the U.S. military should not be "policemen" of world trouble spots.[38]

Prior to the 1994 Congressional elections, Schlafly condemned globalization through the World Trade Organization as a "direct attack on American sovereignty, independence, jobs, and economy ... any country that must change its laws to obey rulings of a world organization has sacrificed its sovereignty."[39]

In late 2006, Schlafly collaborated with Jerome Corsi and Howard Phillips to create a website in opposition to the idea of a "North American Union", under which the United States, Mexico, and Canada would share a currency and be integrated in a structure similar to the European Union.[40]

During the Cold War, Schlafly opposed arms control agreements with the Soviet Union. In 1961, she wrote that "[arms control] will not stop Red aggression any more than disarming our local police will stop murder, theft, and rape."[41]

Judicial systemEdit

Schlafly was an outspoken critic of what she termed "activist judges", particularly on the Supreme Court. In 2005, Schlafly made headlines at a conference for the Judeo-Christian Council for Constitutional Restoration by suggesting that "Congress ought to talk about impeachment" of Justice Anthony Kennedy, citing as specific grounds Justice Kennedy's deciding vote to abolish the death penalty for minors.[42]

In April 2010, shortly after John Paul Stevens announced his retirement as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, Schlafly called for the appointment of a military veteran to the Court. Stevens had been a veteran and, with his retirement, the court was "at risk of being left without a single military veteran."[43]

Presidential electionsEdit

Schlafly at a gathering of conservatives in Des Moines, Iowa, in March 2011.

Schlafly did not endorse a candidate for the 2008 Republican presidential nomination, but she spoke out against Mike Huckabee, who, she says, as governor left the Republican Party in Arkansas "in shambles". At the Eagle Forum, she has hosted U.S. Representative Tom Tancredo of Colorado, known for his opposition to illegal immigration. Before his election, she criticized Barack Obama as "an elitist who worked with words".[44]

During the election, she endorsed John McCain in an interview by saying: "Well, I'm a Republican, I'm supporting McCain". When asked about criticism of John McCain from Rush Limbaugh, she said: "Well, there are problems, we are trying to teach him".[45]

Schlafly endorsed Michele Bachmann in December 2011 for the Iowa caucus of the 2012 Republican presidential primaries, citing Bachmann's work against "ObamaCare" and deficit spending and her (Bachmann's) support of "traditional values."[46]

Schlafly speaking at CPAC 2013 in Washington, D.C.

On February 3, 2012, Schlafly announced that she would be voting for Rick Santorum in that year's Missouri Republican primary.[47] In 2016, she endorsed Donald Trump's candidacy for president.[48] The endorsement soon led to a breach in the Eagle Forum board. Schlafly broke with six dissident members, including her own daughter, Anne Cori,[49] and Cathie Adams, the former short-term state chairman of the Texas Republican Party.[50] Adams instead supported U.S. Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, Trump's principal challenger whom Adams considered a more conservative choice.[51]

Schlafly's last book, The Conservative Case for Trump, was published September 6, 2016, one day after her death.[52][53]

Same-sex marriageEdit

Schlafly opposed same-sex marriage and civil unions: "[a]ttacks on the definition of marriage as the union of one man and one woman come from the gay lobby seeking social recognition of their lifestyle."[54] Linking the Equal Rights Amendment to LGBT rights and same-sex marriage played a role in Schlafly's opposition to the ERA.[55][56]

Immigration proposalsEdit

Schlafly believed the Republican Party should reject immigration reform proposals; she told Focus Today that it is a "great myth" that the GOP needs to reach out to Latinos in the United States. "The people the Republicans should reach out to are the white votes, the white voters who didn't vote in the last election. The propagandists are leading us down the wrong path ... [T]here's not any evidence at all that these Hispanics coming in from Mexico will vote Republican."[57][58]

Honorary degree and protestsEdit

On May 1, 2008, the trustees of Washington University, St. Louis, announced that Schlafly would receive an honorary degree at the graduation ceremony for the Class of 2008, which news met objection from some students and faculty, who complained that she was anti-feminist and criticized her work in defeating the Equal Rights Amendment.[59] In a letter, fourteen law professors complained that the career of Schlafly demonstrated "anti-intellectualism in pursuit of a political agenda."[60]

While the trustees' honorary-degree committee unanimously approved who would be honored, five student-members of the committee complained, in writing, that they were required to vote for the five people to be honored, as a slate, rather than individually, and thought that the selection of Schlafly was a mistake, despite her prominence as a famous graduate of Washington University.[61] In the days before the graduation ceremony, Washington University Chancellor Mark S. Wrighton explained the trustees' decision to award Schlafly an honorary degree with the following statement of disclaimer:

In bestowing this degree, the University is not endorsing Mrs. Schlafly's views or opinions; rather, it is recognizing an alumna of the University whose life and work have had a broad impact on American life and have sparked widespread debate and controversies that in many cases have helped people better formulate and articulate their own views about the values they hold.[62]

At the May 16, 2008, commencement ceremony, Schlafly was awarded an honorary degree as a Doctor of Humane Letters, yet faculty and students protested to rescind Schlafly's honorary degree. During the ceremony, hundreds of the 14,000 people in attendance, including one-third of the graduating class and some faculty, silently stood and turned their backs to Schlafly in protest.[63] In the days before the commencement there were protests regarding the awarding of an honorary degree; Schlafly described the protesters as "a bunch of losers".[59] Moreover, after the ceremony, Schlafly said that the protesters were "juvenile" and "I'm not sure they're mature enough to graduate."[63] As planned, Schlafly did not address the graduating class, nor did any other honored guest, except for the commencement speaker, news commentator Chris Matthews of MSNBC.[64]

Personal lifeEdit

On October 20, 1949, when she was twenty-five years old, she married attorney John Fred Schlafly Jr., a member of a wealthy St. Louis family; he died in 1993. His grandfather, August, immigrated in 1854 from Switzerland. In the late 1870s, the three brothers founded the firm of Schlafly Bros., which dealt in groceries, Queensware (dishes made by Wedgwood), hardware, and agricultural implements.[65] Fred and Phyllis Schlafly were both active Catholics. They linked Catholicism to Americanism and often exhorted Catholics to join the anti-communist crusade.[66]

Fred and Phyllis Schlafly moved across the Mississippi River to Alton, Illinois, and had six children: John, Bruce, Roger, Liza, Andrew, and Anne.[67] When her husband died in 1993 she moved to Ladue, Missouri. In 1992, their eldest son, John, was outed as homosexual by Queer Week magazine.[14] Schlafly acknowledged that John is gay, but stated that he embraces his mother's views.[14][68] Andrew is also a lawyer and activist, and created the wiki-based Conservapedia.[69] Anne married the only child of Nobel-winning scientists Carl and Gerty Cori.[70]

Schlafly was the aunt of conservative anti-feminist author Suzanne Venker; together they wrote The Flipside of Feminism: What Conservative Women Know — and Men Can't Say.[71]


Schlafly died of cancer on September 5, 2016, at her home in Ladue, Missouri, at the age of 92.[53][72]

Published worksEdit

Schlafly was the author of twenty-six books on subjects ranging from child care to phonics education. She wrote a syndicated weekly newspaper column for Creators Syndicate.[73]

Schlafly's published works include:

  • The Conservative Case for Trump – posthumously, with Ed Martin and Brett M. Decker (Regnery Publishing, 2016) ISBN 978-1-62157-628-0
  • How the Republican Party Became Pro-Life (Dunrobin Publishing, 2016) ISBN 978-0-9884613-9-0
  • A Choice Not an Echo: Updated and Expanded 50th Anniversary Edition (Regnery Publishing, 2014) ISBN 978-1621573159
  • Who Killed the American Family? (WND Books, 2014) ISBN 978-1938067525
  • No Higher Power: Obama's War on Religious Freedom (Regnery Publishing, 2012) ISBN 978-1621570127
  • The Flipside of Feminism: What Conservative Women Know—and Men Can't Say (WorldNetDaily, 2011) ISBN 978-1935071273
  • Judicial Tyranny: The New Kings of America? – contributing author (Amerisearch, 2005) ISBN 0-9753455-6-7
  • The Supremacists: The Tyranny of Judges And How to Stop It (Spence Publishing Company, 2004) ISBN 1-890626-55-4
  • Feminist Fantasies, foreword by Ann Coulter (Spence Publishing Company, 2003) ISBN 1-890626-46-5
  • Turbo Reader (Pere Marquette Press, 2001) ISBN 0-934640-16-5
  • First Reader (Pere Marquette Press, 1994) ISBN 0-934640-24-6
  • Who Will Rock the Cradle?: The Battle for Control of Child Care in America (World Publications, 1989) ISBN 978-0849931987
  • Pornography's Victims (Crossway Books, 1987) ISBN 0-89107-423-6
  • Child Abuse in the Classroom (Crossway Books, 1984) ISBN 0-89107-365-5
  • Equal Pay for UNequal Work (Eagle Forum, 1984) ISBN 99950-3-143-4
  • The End of an Era (Regnery Publishing, 1982) ISBN 0-89526-659-8
  • The Power of the Christian Woman (Standard Pub, 1981) ISBN B0006E4X12
  • The Power of the Positive Woman (Crown Pub, 1977) ISBN 0-87000-373-9
  • Ambush at Vladivostok, with Chester Ward (Pere Marquette Press, 1976) ISBN 0-934640-00-9
  • Kissinger on the Couch (Arlington House Publishers, 1974) ISBN 0-87000-216-3
  • Mindszenty the Man (with Josef Vecsey) (Cardinal Mindszenty Foundation, 1972) ISBN B00005WGD6
  • The Betrayers (Pere Marquette Press, 1968) ISBN B0006CY0CQ
  • Safe Not Sorry (Pere Marquette Press, 1967) ISBN 0-934640-06-8
  • Strike from Space: A Megadeath Mystery (Pere Marquette Press, 1965) ISBN 80-7507-634-6
  • Grave Diggers (with Chester Ward) (Pere Marquette Press, 1964) ISBN 0-934640-03-3
  • A Choice Not an Echo (Pere Marquette Press, 1964) ISBN 0-686-11486-8

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Phyllis Schlafly profile". UXL Newsmakers. 2005. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
  2. ^ Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons. 2000. Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort. New York: Guilford Press, p. 202.
  3. ^ Ehrenreich, pp. 152–153.
  4. ^ "Phyllis Schlafly profile". National Women's History Museum. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
  5. ^ 1919 Gould's St. Louis City Directory.
  6. ^ Profile of Andrew F. Stewart, in Men of West Virginia, Biographical Publishing Co., Chicago: 1903. pp. 157–158.
  7. ^ 1902–03 City Directory, Huntington, WV and 1910 Federal Census (Virginia), Alleghany County, Clifton Forge, ED126, Sheet 9A and note 1.
  8. ^ a b c Donald Critchlow, Founding Mother-Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman's Crusade, p. 422.
  9. ^ Carol Felsenthal, The sweetheart of the silent majority: the biography of Phyllis Schlafly (Doubleday, 1981).
  10. ^ Critchlow 2005, pp. 25–29.
  11. ^ Critchlow 2005, online
  12. ^ Critchlow 2005, pp. 47–59.
  13. ^ Critchlow 2005, p. 55.
  14. ^ a b c Abraham, Yvonne (September 2, 2004). "At 80, Schlafly is still a conservative force". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on May 22, 2009.
  15. ^ Critchlow 2005, p. 46.
  16. ^ Warner, Judith. She Changed America, New York Times, January 29, 2006.
  17. ^ Critchlow, Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism (2005), p 109
  18. ^ Berlet and Lyons. 2000. Right–Wing Populism in America, pp. 180, 202.
  19. ^ a b "Nation: Anti-ERA Evangelist Wins Again". Time. July 3, 1978. Archived from the original on January 21, 2011.
  20. ^ Critchlow 2005, pp. 138-59.
  21. ^ Marjorie J. Spruill,Divided We Stand: The Battle Over Women's Rights and Family Values That Polarized American Politics (2017) online review.
  22. ^ Kolbert, Elizabeth (November 7, 2005), "Firebrand: Phyllis Schlafly and the Conservative Revolution", The New Yorker, 81 (34), p. 134
  23. ^ a b Eilperin, Juliet. "New Drive Afoot to Pass Equal Rights Amendment". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  24. ^ Jane J. Mansbridge, Why we lost the ERA (University of Chicago Press, 1986) p 110.
  25. ^ Joan Williams (1999). Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What To Do About It. Oxford UP. p. 147. ISBN 9780199840472.
  26. ^ Judith Glazer-Raymo (2001). Shattering the Myths: Women in Academe. Johns Hopkins UP. p. 19. ISBN 9780801866418.
  27. ^ "Buzzflash Headlines". Archived from the original on August 28, 2013. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  28. ^ "Phyllis Schlafly bio". Eagle Forum. Retrieved February 4, 2012.
  29. ^ Rosalind Rosenberg (2008). Divided Lives: American Women in the Twentieth Century. p. 225. ISBN 9780809016310.
  30. ^ "Lisa Levenstein – HIS – UNCG".
  31. ^ Lisa Levenstein, "'Don't Agonize, Organize!': The Displaced Homemakers Campaign and the Contested Goals of Postwar Feminism", 'Journal of American History (2014) 100#4: 1114–38,; accessed September 7, 2016.
  32. ^ Deborah L. Rhode (2009). Justice and Gender: Sex Discrimination and the Law. Harvard UP. pp. 66–67. ISBN 9780674042674.
  33. ^ Rosalind Rosenberg (2008). Divided Lives: American Women in the Twentieth Century. pp. 225–26. ISBN 9780809016310.
  34. ^ "Anti-ERA Evangelist Wins Again". Time. July 3, 1978. Archived from the original on January 21, 2011.
  35. ^ Leonard, J.T. (March 29, 2007). "Schlafly cranks up agitation at Bates". Sun Journal. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
  36. ^ Bellafante, Ginia (March 30, 2006). "A Feminine Mystique All Her Own". The New York Times. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  37. ^ "Anniversary: Roe v. Wade". The Washington Post. January 18, 2002. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011.
  38. ^ Critchlow 2005, pp. 298–99
  39. ^ Critchlow 2005, p. 298
  40. ^ Bennett, Drake (November 25, 2007). "The amero conspiracy". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 20, 2009.
  41. ^ Phyllis Schlafly, "Communist Master Plan for 1961", Cardinal Mindszenty Newsletter, February 15, 1961.
  42. ^ Dana Milbank (April 9, 2005). "And the Verdict on Justice Kennedy Is: Guilty". Washington Post. p. A03.
  43. ^ "Schlafly: Obama Would Be Foolish to Leave Supreme Court Without a Veteran". Retrieved June 2, 2013.
  44. ^ Leith, Sam (January 17–18, 2009). "Obama's Oratory". Financial Times. Archived from the original on January 8, 2010.
  45. ^ "Phyllis Schlafly Speaks Out". YouTube. May 15, 2008. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
  46. ^ Jacobs, Jennifer (December 4, 2011). "Conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly endorses Michele Bachmann". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
  47. ^ Levy, Pema (February 3, 2012). "Phyllis Schlafly Will Vote For Santorum" (Livewire). TPM. Retrieved July 16, 2017. ... planning to vote for Rick Santorum
  48. ^ Ward, Jon (January 20, 2016). "The Trump supporter who matters more to Iowa conservatives than Palin". Yahoo! Politics. And she's willing to take a chance with someone who's going to shake things up.
  49. ^ Pfeiffer, Alex (April 11, 2016). "Phyllis Schlafly Pushes Own Daughter to Resign Amid Cruz-Trump Split". Daily Caller.
  50. ^ Weigel, David (April 10, 2016). "Phyllis Schlafly faces coup over Trump endorsement". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 19, 2017.
  51. ^ Medina, Jose (March 23, 2016). "Texas Eagle Forum's Cathie Adams: Schlafly Was Manipulated into Endorsing Trump". Texas Freedom Network. When you're 91 and you're not out with the grass roots all the time, it is very much taking advantage of someone.
  52. ^ Schlafly, Phyllis; Martin, Ed; Decker, Brett M. (September 6, 2016). The Conservative Case for Trump. Regnery Publishing. p. 272. ISBN 978-1621576280.
  53. ^ a b Sullivan, Patricia (September 5, 2016). "Phyllis Schlafly, a conservative activist, has died at age 92". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
  54. ^ Schlafly, Phyllis (November 2009). "Feminists Psychoanalyze Themselves Again". The Phyllis Schlafly Report. Eagle Forum. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
  55. ^ Schlafly, Phyllis (September 1986). "A Short History of E.R.A". The Phyllis Schlafly Report. Eagle Forum. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
  56. ^ Sachs, Andrea (April 7, 2009). "Phyllis Schlafly at 84". Time. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
  57. ^ Phyllis Schlafly Tells Republicans To Ignore Hispanic Voters, Focus On White People (VIDEO), Meredith Bennett-Smith, The Huffington Post, May 30, 2013.
  58. ^ Phyllis Schlafly's White Voter Mirage, Jordan Fabian, ABC News/Univision, May 29, 2013
  59. ^ a b "Wash-U chancellor apologizes for controversy, but Schlafly will still get honorary degree". Associated Press. May 15, 2008. Archived from the original on May 19, 2008.
  60. ^ "Phyllis Schlafly Hon. Degree Sparks Wash U Spat, Law Prof Protest". UPI. Retrieved July 25, 2008.
  61. ^ "Brian Leiter's Law School Reports".
  62. ^ "Statement on Phyllis Schlafly's honorary degree". Retrieved May 14, 2008.
  63. ^ a b "Schlafly Honor Protested". May 17, 2008. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
  64. ^ "Students, faculty protest Schlafly honor". UPI. May 16, 2008.
  65. ^ The 1881 History of Marion & Clinton Counties, Illinois
  66. ^ Critchlow 2005, pp. 42–43.
  67. ^ Critchlow 2005, pp. 31–33.
  68. ^ Blumenfeld, Laura (September 19, 1992). "Schlafly's Son, Out of the Closet; Homosexual Backs Mother's Views, Attacks `Screechy Gay Activists'". The Washington Post.
  69. ^ Simon, Stephanie (June 22, 2007). "A conservative's answer to Wikipedia". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 2, 2007.
  70. ^ "Nobels All Around | National Review". National Review. September 22, 2012. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  71. ^ Daum, Meghan (March 31, 2011). "Phyllis Schlafly: back on the attack". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
  72. ^ "Conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly dies". Saint Louis Post-Dispatch. September 6, 2016.
  73. ^ "Gang of Eight Increases Unemployment by Phyllis Schlafly on – A Syndicate of Talent". Retrieved June 2, 2013.


  • Critchlow, Donald T. Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman's Crusade Princeton University Press, 2005. 422 pp. ISBN 0-691-07002-4.
  • Ehrenreich, Barbara. 1983. The Hearts of Men: American Dreams and the Flight from Commitment New York: Anchor Books, an attack from the left
  • Felsenthal, Carol. The Sweetheart of the Silent Majority: The Biography of Phyllis Schlafly (Doubleday, 1981). ISBN 0-89526-873-6.

Further readingEdit

  • Farber, David. The Rise and Fall of Modern American Conservatism: A Short History (2010) pp. 119–58
  • Hallow, Ralph Z. "Conservatives' first lady sparked pro-family effort." The Washington Times: October 7, 2005.
  • A Choice Not an Echo,; accessed September 7, 2016.
  • Spruill, Marjorie J. Divided We Stand: The Battle Over Women's Rights and Family Values That Polarized American Politics (2017) Bloomsbury.[1] accessed July 12, 2017.

External linksEdit