In music, the Phrygian dominant scale is the fifth mode of the harmonic minor scale, the fifth being the dominant. Also called the altered Phrygian scale, dominant flat 2 flat 6 (in jazz), the Freygish scale (also spelled Fraigish), harmonic dominant, or simply the fifth mode of the harmonic minor scale. It resembles the scale of the Phrygian mode but has a major third. In the Berklee method, it is known as the Mixolydian ♭9 ♭13 chord scale, a Mixolydian scale with a lowered 9th (2nd) and lowered 13th (6th), used in secondary dominant chord scales for V7/III and V7/VI. Bebop jazz pianist Barry Harris added a note to the scale and describes his use as "on C7, play down from the 7th of Eb7 to E the 3rd of C7” and especially over G-7b5 to C7b9 (the ii V in minor). He nicknamed this eight tone scale “the minor’s five”. Being eight tones it has the advantage of placing the chord tones on the beats which enables a melody to reinforce the underlying harmony. It also eliminates the harsh augmented 2nd melodic interval found in the seven tone 5th mode of harmonic minor scale. Another advantage is that gives improvisers an access to their often more familiar dominant scale vocabulary. Barry Harris further recognized that its descending form has an especially melodic quality rather than being played up from a root. He said he noticed this particular descending permutation being played by Charlie Parker several times on “What Is This Thing Called Love?”.
This scale occurs in Indian, Middle Eastern, Eastern European, Central Asian, and Flamenco music. It is common in Arabic and Egyptian music, in which it is called Hijaz-Nahawand or Hijaz maqam, and used in Hebrew prayers and Klezmer music, where it is known as Ahava Rabbah, Freygish or just the "Jewish scale", and is called Dastgāh-e Homāyoun in Iran. It is the most common scale in North Indian classical raga Hijaz Bhairav (Basant Mukhari) and South Indian raga Vakulabharanam.
It is sometimes called the Spanish Phrygian scale, Spanish Gypsy scale (see: gypsy scale) or Phrygian major scale (see: phrygian mode and major scale) and is common in Flamenco music. It can also be found in traditional Spanish songs outside Flamenco, everywhere in Spain to varying amounts, but especially in southern and central areas of the country, often being also known as escala andaluza (Andalusian scale) in Spanish. Related scales in Spanish traditional music with chromatic notes in the second degree, varying between a semitone and a tone, are also known as "gama española" ("Spanish gamut") or "gama de Castilla y León" (gamut of Castile and León) and, though found all over Spain, are particularly common in Castilian and Leonese traditional songs.
The flatted second and the augmented step between the second and third degrees of the scale create its distinctive sound. Examples include some versions of "Hava Nagila" and "Misirlou", while other versions of those melodies use the closely related "double harmonic scale". The main chords derived from this scale are I, bII, iv, and vii.
The sequence of steps forming the Phrygian dominant scale is:
When related to the scale degrees of the major scale, it reads:
- 1 – ♭2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – ♭6 – ♭7 – 1
Written in semitones, the sequence is:
Beginning on C, the scale is:
- C – D♭ – E – F – G – A♭ – B♭ – C
Phrygian Dominant 7 scale and Phrygian Major Lydian 7 scaleEdit
This is the 5th mode of the Harmonic Minor ♭4 scale. It goes like this:C Db E F G Ab Bbb. Chords that may be derived from the Phrygian Dominant 7 scale based on C are C6, Db, Bbb7, Fm, F, Bbbm, G7sus2b5, Abaug, and Bbbaug. The other scale is the 3rd mode of the Scala Enigmatica Descending scale. It goes like this:C Db E F# G Ab Bbb. Chords that may be derived from the Phrygian Major Lydian 7 scale based on C are C6, Dbsus4, Bbb7, F#7sus2b5, F#m7b5, Bbbm, Bbb, F#m7, Gmaj7sus2b5, and Abaug.
Phrygian Major Lydian scaleEdit
This is the 4th mode of the Neapolitan major ♭5 scale. It goes like this:C Db E F# G Ab Bb. Chords that may be derived from the Phrygian Major Lydian scale based on C are C7, Dbsus4, Edim7, F#7sus2b5, GmM7b5, F#7b5, Abaug, F#7, Bbm7b5, and Abaug.
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