1992 Philippine presidential election

The Philippine presidential and vice presidential elections of 1992 were held on May 11, 1992.[1] This was the first general election held under the 1987 Constitution. An estimated 80,000 candidates ran for 17,000 posts from the presidency down to municipal councilors.

1992 Philippine presidential election

← 1986 May 11, 1992 1998 →
Turnout75.5% Decrease 3.3%
  Ramos Pentagon cropped.jpg Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago (cropped).jpg
Nominee Fidel V. Ramos Miriam Defensor-Santiago Eduardo Cojuangco Jr.
Party Lakas PRP NPC
Running mate Emilio Osmeña Ramon Magsaysay Jr. Joseph Estrada
Popular vote 5,342,521 4,468,173 4,116,376
Percentage 23.58% 19.72% 18.17%

  Speaker Ramon Mitra.jpg Imelda Marcos (1984).jpg Salonga.jpg
Nominee Ramon Mitra Jr. Imelda Marcos Jovito Salonga
Party LDP KBL Liberal
Running mate Marcelo Fernan Vicente Magsaysay Aquilino Pimentel Jr.
Popular vote 3,316,661 2,338,294 2,302,123
Percentage 14.64% 10.32% 10.16%

  Salvador Laurel.jpg
Nominee Salvador Laurel
Party Nacionalista
Running mate Eva Estrada Kalaw
Popular vote 770,046
Percentage 3.40%

1992 Philippine presidential election result per province.png
Election results per province/city.

President before election

Corazon Aquino

Elected President

Fidel V. Ramos

The new constitution limited the president to a single six-year term with no possibility of reelection, even if nonsuccessive.[2] Although some of President Corazon Aquino's advisers suggested that she could run for a second term,[3] as she was sworn in before the 1987 Constitution took effect, Aquino did not run again.[4]

In the presidential election, retired general Fidel Ramos of Lakas–NUCD narrowly defeated populist candidate Miriam Defensor Santiago of the People's Reform Party.[5] Ramos also got the lowest plurality in the Philippine electoral history, and beat the previous election for the closest margin of victory, percentage-wise (this record would later be beaten by the 2004 election).[6]

Santiago led the canvassing of votes for the first five days but then was overtaken by Ramos in a few days. Santiago cried fraud and filed an electoral protest citing power outages as evidence.[7] Various media personnel became witnesses to the fraud made in the election, where the phrase, 'Miriam won in the election, but lost in the counting' became popular.[8] However, her protest was eventually dismissed by the Supreme Court of the Philippines.[7]

The 1992 election was the second time both president and vice president came from different parties.[9] Movie actor and Senator Joseph Estrada, running with presidential candidate Eduardo Cojuanco, won a six-year term as Vice-President.[10]

Under the transitory provisions of the Constitution, 24 senators were elected in this election. The first 12 senators who garnered the highest votes would have six-year terms while the next 12 senators would have three-year terms.[11] Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP) got a large share in the Senate race.[12] Television personality and Quezon City Vice Mayor Vicente Sotto III (also known as Tito Sotto) got the highest number of votes.[13]


For PresidentEdit

Fidel V. RamosLakas-NUCD5,342,52123.58
Miriam Defensor SantiagoPeople's Reform Party4,468,17319.72
Danding CojuangcoNationalist People's Coalition4,116,37618.17
Ramon Mitra Jr.Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino3,316,66114.64
Imelda MarcosKilusang Bagong Lipunan2,338,29410.32
Jovito SalongaLiberal Party2,302,12410.16
Salvador LaurelNacionalista Party770,0463.40
Valid votes22,654,19593.40
Invalid/blank votes1,600,7596.60
Total votes24,254,954100.00
Registered voters/turnout32,141,07975.46
Source: Dieter Nohlen; Florian Grotz; Christof Hartmann; Graham Hassall; Soliman M. Santos.
Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Volume II: South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacific
Popular vote


By regionEdit

For Vice PresidentEdit


Joseph EstradaNationalist People's Coalition6,739,73833.01
Marcelo FernanLaban ng Demokratikong Pilipino4,438,49421.74
Emilio OsmeñaLakas-NUCD3,362,46716.47
Ramon Magsaysay Jr.People's Reform Party2,900,55614.20
Aquilino Pimentel Jr.Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan12,023,2899.91
Vicente MagsaysayKilusang Bagong Lipunan699,8953.43
Eva Estrada KalawNacionalista Party255,7301.25
Valid votes20,420,16984.19
Invalid/blank votes3,834,78515.81
Total votes24,254,954100.00
Registered voters/turnout32,141,07975.46
Source: Dieter Nohlen; Florian Grotz; Christof Hartmann; Graham Hassall; Soliman M. Santos.
Elections in Asia and the Pacific: A Data Handbook: Volume II: South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacific
1Running mate of Jovito Salonga (Liberal Party)
Popular vote
R. Magsaysay Jr.
V. Magsaysay

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Phl presidential elections and the stock market". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
  2. ^ "THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES – ARTICLE VII". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
  3. ^ Jurado, Emil P. (25 July 1988). "Realignment of forces". Manila Standard. Retrieved 2018-11-08 – via Google News Archive.
  4. ^ Shenon, Philip. "Aquino Endorses Ex-Army Chief in Vote". Retrieved 2018-11-08.
  5. ^ "Ramos Is Declared New President 6 Weeks After Philippine Election". Retrieved 2018-11-08.
  6. ^ Singh, Daljit; Salazar, Lorraine Carlos (2006). Southeast Asian Affairs 2006. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 227. ISBN 9789812303738. closest margin win 2004 election philippines.
  7. ^ a b Servando, Kristine F. "Miriam: I was cheated, but didn't call for people power". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
  8. ^ Wolfgang, Sachsenroeder (2018-05-30). Power Broking In The Shade: Party Finances And Money Politics In Southeast Asia. World Scientific. ISBN 9789813230750.
  9. ^ "Single ticket: How about voting for president and VP together?". Rappler. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
  10. ^ "Erap presidency redux". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2018-11-08.
  11. ^ "Term of Office of Senators". senate.gov.ph. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  12. ^ Banks, Arthur S.; Day, Alan J.; Muller, Thomas C.; 0, 0 (2016-02-01). Political Handbook of the World 1998. Springer. ISBN 9781349149513.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ "Senators Profile - Vicente C. Sotto III". www.senate.gov.ph. Retrieved 2018-11-08.

External linksEdit