Philip Treacy

Philip Anthony Treacy OBE (born 26 May 1967) is an award–winning Irish haute couture milliner, or hat–designer,[a] based in London, who has been described by Vogue magazine as "perhaps the greatest living milliner".[b] In 2000, Treacy became the first milliner in 80 years to be invited to exhibit at the Paris haute couture shows.[5] Treacy has been associated with some of the largest fashion houses and particularly Chanel and Givenchy, as well as celebrities such as Isabella Blow, Lady Gaga, Madonna and Sarah Jessica Parker. Treacy has been associated with British royalty, and has designed hats for royal occasions.

Philip Anthony Treacy

Philip Treacy, The Master Millner.jpg
Treacy wearing his own creation
Born (1967-05-26) 26 May 1967 (age 52)[1]
EducationNational College of Art and Design (NCAD) Dublin, (1987)
Alma materRoyal College of Art London, (MA, 1990)
OccupationMilliner, hat designer,[a] designer
Spouse(s)Stefan Bartlett
married 2017
  • James Vincent Treacy
    (d. 1978)[1] (father)
  • Katie Agnes Treacy
    (d. 1993)[1] (mother)
WebsitePhilip Treacy

Early lifeEdit

Philip Anthony Treacy was born on 26 May 1967 in the small village of Ahascragh, in County Galway in the Republic of Ireland, whose population was circa 500.[1][6] Treacy says that his interest in sewing started at age five,[7] and that his obsession with the weddings in the church across the road from his house, inspired an early passion for fashion.[8] At age 17, Treacy moved to Dublin in 1985, to study fashion at the National College of Art and Design, where he spent a 6–week work experience with British millner, Stephen Jones.[9] In 1988, Treacy won an MA scholarship for the Fashion Design course at the Royal College of Art in London, and graduated in 1990 with first class honours.[10][9]

When I was interviewed [for the Royal College of Art] I didn’t know whether to play down the hats or play up the hats, but they were thinking of setting up a hat course so I became their guinea pig. After one day there I said to my tutor Sheilagh Brown: “What should I do? Should I make hats or clothes?’ She said: ‘make hats.’ It was very practical, not a great revelation.

— Philip Treacy, Irish Independent, February 2011[7]

In 1989 he took one of his hats to Michael Roberts, fashion editor of Tatler magazine, and his style editor, Isabella Blow.[11] Blow asked Treacy to make a hat for her to wear for her wedding,[8] and soon after, invited him in 1990, to live with her and her new husband Detmar Blow, in their Belgravia London home, where Treacy worked in their basement.[11][12] Alexander McQueen, another Blow discovery, would also join Treacy in her home.[13][14]

The Telegraph would chronicle in a 2011 interview: "She made him famous. He made her look like an icon. When you think of the late, great Blow, you think of her in one of his creations, be it a giant disc or a replica sailing ship."[14] In July 2002, the Design Museum in London, hosted an exhibition of the 30 most iconic hats Treacy designed for Blow, titled: When Philip met Isabella.[10] The exhibition was so well received that it went on a world tour for several years, and drew a record attendance of circa 43,000 when shown in Dublin in 2005.[10]

My biggest inspiration has been Isabella Blow. [..] In twenty years I have met all my heroes and for me nobody has surpassed her. She was incredible. I thought there must be others like her, but there wasn't. Everyone was boring in comparison to her.

— Philip Treacy, Irish Independent, February 2011[7]


Haute coutureEdit

Treacy designed the Beauxbatons hats for Harry Potter in 2005

In 1991, Treacy, aged 23, on the prompting of Blow,[15] got his "big break",[2] being asked by Karl Lagerfeld to come to the Chanel showrooms in Paris, in what was to be the start of a long–term working relationship with Chanel. The first hat that Treacy designed for Chanel appeared on the cover of British Vogue worn by model Linda Evangelista.[c]

I was 23 and I’d just left [art] school, I didn’t know whether to call him Mr Lagerfeld or whatever. I was totally intimidated but Issie [Blow] was exactly herself. She just walked into the house of Chanel and said: "We’d like some tea please". I would design hats for Chanel for the next decade.

— Philip Treacy, Irish Independent, February 2011[7]

In 1991, Treacy opened his first showroom in London, and won his first of five, British Accessory Designer of the Year awards.[8] By 1993, Treacy held his first fashion show during London Fashion Week in Harvey Nichols, with Naomi Campbell, Yasmin le Bon, Kate Moss, Christy Turlington and Stella Tennant modelling in return for keeping Treacy's hats, which were all black.[8][16] In 1994, he opened up his boutique at 69 Elizabeth Street, in Belgravia, London, right beside Isabella Blow's residence at number 67.[15][17][16]

Treacy's first solo show in 1993 saw him debut on the fashion and celebrity radar, when no fewer than five of the most famous supermodels of the era – Naomi Campbell, Yasmin Le Bon, Kate Moss, Stella Tennant and Christy Turlington – appeared on his catwalk. Playing down his star appeal, Treacy is humble about his overnight success story. "London was in a lull then," he said. "The media went crazy when all those girls did my show, but it completely changed perceptions of the hat.

— Philip Treacy, The Sydney Morning Herald, 2007[18]
Philip Treacy's boutique, 69 Elizabeth Street, Belgravia, London.

Treacy has designed hats for Alexander McQueen (another discovery of Isabella Blow),[d] including his 1999 white collection for Givenchy Haute Couture in Paris, for Karl Lagerfeld at Chanel, and for Valentino, Ralph Lauren, Donna Karan, Versace and Rifat Özbek. In January 2000, he became the first milliner for 80 years to be invited to exhibit at the Paris shows.[e][19][5] In November 2015, Vogue magazine ran a feature of Treacy's 20 "most awe–inspiring chapeaux" from the runways.[20]

Wider fashionEdit

Outside of haute couture, Treacy has designed hats for films, including Harry Potter (most notably the Beauxbatons hat, for The Goblet of Fire in 2005).[21] Sarah Jessica Parker has worn his hats at Sex and the City premières (2008, 2011), and Met Galas (2013, 2015).[f][23] Treacy designed Madonna's gold headpiece for her 2012 Super Bowl half–time show.[24] Lady Gaga described Treacy as "the greatest milliner of all time", while hosting his 2012 London Week fashion show.[25] Notable designs for Lady Gaga include a telephone-shaped headpiece with a removable handset hat, worn for her appearance on Friday Night with Jonathan Ross in 2010 (now in permanent display at Madame Tussauds),[26] and a lightning-bolt hat, she wore for the 2010 Grammy Awards.[27][28]

As well as Isabella Blow, Sarah Jessica Parker, and Lady Gaga, other notable muses for Treacy's hats are socialite Daphne Guinness,[29] model Naomi Campbell,[2][30] and singer, actress, model, Grace Jones,[31] who used Treacy as art director and designer for her 2009 sold-out Hurricane tour.[32]

In an interview with The Guardian in July 2011, Treacy distilled what he felt a hat should do (a Treacy quote which is often reproduced):[33]

Princess Beatrice's fascinator "pretzel hat" by Philip Treacy in April 2011

The Guardian: Does a person carry off a hat or a hat carry off a person?
Philip Treacy: A person carries off the hat. Hats are about emotion. It is all about how it makes you feel. I like hats that make the heart beat faster.

— Philip Treacy, The Guardian, July 2011.[34]

Treacy had previously written a piece for The Guardian in May 2001 on what defines the "perfect hat".[35]

Royal occasionsEdit

Treacy's hats are also associated with English royalty, with thirty–six worn at the 29 April 2011 Royal wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton,[36] including the controversial fascinator style hat worn by Princess Beatrice of York. The so–called "pretzel hat" was auctioned for charity by Princess Beatrice on eBay for $130,000 (£80,100.01) on the 22 May 2011.[37] Treacy felt the criticism regarding the "pretzel hat" was very extreme (the hat had its own Facebook page with over 140,000 connections), and in July 2011 said: "In the future, we'll look back and think she looked wild".[34] In a July 2018 Radio 4 Desert Island Discs interview, Treacy said: "There was a moment where I thought I would find myself with my head on a spike outside the Tower of London", from the controversy of the "pretzel hat".[38] The hat resides at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.[39]

Treacy designed over twenty hats worn at the 19 May 2018 Wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle, including by Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, by Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, and by Oprah Winfrey.[40][41] Megan Markle chose a Treacy hat for her first official royal event in December 2017.[42][43]

In July 2018, Treacy credited the Queen with "single–handedly saving the British hat industry".[44]


Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall wearing a Treacy hat in June 2012

Treacy won the title of British Accessory Designer of the Year at the British Fashion Awards five times during the 1990s (1991, 1992, 1993, 1996 and 1997).[45] In January 2000, Treacy was invited by the Chambre Syndicale de la Haute Couture to participate in Paris fashion shows, the first milliner to be invited in 80 years.[e][19][5]

In November 2004, Treacy was named the International Designer of the Year, at the China Fashion Awards in Shanghai.[16] In April 2006, he was awarded a Doctorate of Fine Arts, by the National University of Ireland at University College Dublin ("UCD").[9][47]

He was awarded an honorary OBE (Order of the British Empire) for services to the British fashion industry by Prince Charles and Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall at a special ceremony in Clarence House in November 2007.[g][48] Treacy designed the headdress worn by the Duchess of Cornwall for the couple's wedding.

In July 2010 Treacy was one of six contemporary and internationally renowned Irish fashion designers honoured by a set of Irish postage stamps issued by An Post. The other designers were Paul Costelloe, Louise Kennedy, John Rocha, Lainey Keogh and Orla Kiely.[49]

Treacy's hats have been exhibited, and are housed in the collections, of design museums including the Victoria and Albert Museum,[50][19] the Metropolitan Museum of Art,[51][19] and the Galleria del Costume of the Palazzo Pitti in Florence.[52] Vogue magazine has described Treacy, on a number of occasions, as being the "greatest milliner in the world".[3][4]

Personal lifeEdit

Treacy is gay and in May 2017 he married his long–term partner of over 21 years, Stefan Bartlett, in a ceremony in Las Vegas.[53]

Treacy has noted the support his parents[h] gave him in pursuing his love of millinery, noting that his father would say: "whatever makes him happy".[55][56] Treacy called his friendship with his significant mentor, Isabella Blow, as: "an affair without sex".[14] Treacy also highlights the importance of fashion model Grace Jones as a collaborator and friend.[31]

Treacy is the second youngest of a large family and has one sister [57] and seven brothers.[48][54] He is particularly close to his sister, Marion Tubbing,[48] the eldest of their generation, whom he credits with supplying him with editions of Harper's and Queen and Vogue while living in Galway (Tubbing was working in London at the time),[57] and for whom, along with his partner Stefan Bartlett, Treacy dedicated his 2015 biography: Philip Treacy: Hat Designer.[30]


  • Reed, Paula (2001). Philip Treacy. Charta. ISBN 978-8881583553.
  • Treacy, Philip (2003). Philip Treacy: "When Philip Met Isabella". Assouline. ISBN 978-2843233722.
  • Blow, Isabella (2011). Philip Treacy (Memoire). Assouline. ISBN 978-2843233937.
  • Davies, Kevin (2013). Philip Treacy. Phaidon Press. ISBN 978-0714865270.
  • Hume, Marion (2015). Philip Treacy: Hat Designer. Rizzoli International Publications. ISBN 978-0847846504.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Treacy perfers to use the term "hat–designer".[2]
  2. ^ Vogue magazine has made this comment, and slight variations of it, on a number of occasions.[3][4]
  3. ^ The hat was called Twisted Birdcage and was photographed by French fashion photographer, Patrick Demarchelier.[16] Treacy also chose another Linda Evangelista photograph as the cover of his 2015 biography.[2]
  4. ^ For McQueen's first Givenchy exhibition in 1997, Blow had the horns cut from a ram in her flock of rare–breed sheep, which Treacy then sprayed with gold, and which Naomi Campbell then wore on the runway.[18]
  5. ^ a b Treacy exhibited his Orchid Collection at the Paris 2000 haute coutoure shows.[46]
  6. ^ Sarah Jessica Parker's 2015 Met Gala Treacy hat was nominated by Vogue in May 2018, as one of the 16 Craziest Celebrity Moments in Met Gala History.[22]
  7. ^ Because Treacy is Irish, and not sworn to allegiance to the Crown, the ceremony was not held with the Queen in Buckingham Palace. Normally, in such cases, a Government Minister would perform the ceremony, however Prince Charles intervened to host the ceremony in Clarence House.
  8. ^ Treacy's father was a baker and his mother was a housewife,[54] however, his father had a weak heart which prevented him from working as a full-time baker, and he eventually died when Philip was age 11 from a heart attack; Treacy's mother died in 1993, when Philip was 25.[8]


  1. ^ a b c d "The Tracey Clan: Arts: Crafts". Philip Anthony Treacy, b. 26 May 1967 Ballinasloe, Co. Galway, son of the late James Vincent Treacy and Katie Agnes Treacy. His parents owned a baker’s shop in Ahascragh, Co. Galway.
  2. ^ a b c d Rachel Marie Walsh (6 October 2015). "Philip Treacy's crowning glory". The Irish Examiner. The hat designer (a description he prefers to milliner) pinpoints being summoned to Paris by Karl Lagerfeld in 1991 as his big break, comparable to an American Idol win
  3. ^ a b Lynn Yaeger (24 June 2015). "7 Chic Hats We've Fallen Head Over Heels For This Summer". Vogue. As Philip Treacy, one of our greatest living milliners, once said, “Wearing a hat is fun! People have a good time when they're wearing a hat.”
  4. ^ a b Lynn Yaeger (17 September 2012). "Thriller Night: At Philip Treacy, the King of Pop's Wardrobe Meets Its Millinery Match". Vogue. On one thing, at least, the ecstatic throng can agree—it is a London show like none other, and Gaga is right: Treacy is perhaps the greatest milliner in the world
  5. ^ a b c Jess Cartner-Morley (16 April 2002). "Who wants to be a milliner". The Guardian. He has created hats to accompany the catwalk collections of Alexander McQueen and Valentino, has been named British Accessory Designer of the Year five times, and was the first milliner in 80 years to be invited by French fashion's governing body, the Chambre Syndicale, to take part in the Parisian haute couture shows
  6. ^ Reed, Paula; Etherington-Smith, Meredith (2002). Philip Treacy: unlikely sculpture. Milano: Charta. p. 53. ISBN 9788881583553.
  7. ^ a b c d Sinead Van Kampen (16 February 2011). "Philip Treacy on his new collection". Irish Independent.
  8. ^ a b c d e Barry Egan (20 November 2005). "An audience with Prince Philip". Irish Independent.
  9. ^ a b c Colm O'Briain (7 April 2006). "Text of the introductory address delivered by: PROFESSOR COLM Ó BRIAIN, on the occasion of the conferring of the Degree of Doctor of Fine Arts, honoris causa, on PHILIP TREACY" (PDF). National University of Ireland. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  10. ^ a b c Deirdre McQuillan (July 2014). "Crown Prince". Irish Arts Review.
  11. ^ a b Sheridan, Jayne (2010). Fashion, media, promotion : the new black magic. Hoboken: Wiley. p. 27. ISBN 9781118815021.
  12. ^ Ashley Senft (25 May 2011). "Philip Treacy".
  13. ^ Detmar Blow (14 February 2010). "Alex McQueen and Isabella Blow". The Telegraph. I first met Alexander when Isabella invited him to live with us at 67 Elizabeth Street in Belgravia. We were on the top floor, [the milliner] Philip Treacy on the first, and Alexander was on the ground. Issie was working at British Vogue at the time and had come across Alexander at his graduate fashion show in 1992
  14. ^ a b c Bryony Gordon (18 April 2011). "Philip Treacy: 'I've been busy, what with the wedding'". The Daily Telegraph.
  15. ^ a b "Philip Treacy: how my flower hats blossomed". The Telegraph. 5 April 2014.
  16. ^ a b c d Carrie Chan (18 October 2006). "Philip Treacy". South China Morning Post.
  17. ^ "69 Elizabeth Street". LondonTown Guide. Treacy opened this elegant shop in Elizabeth Street in 1994, next door to Blow's old house at 67 Elizabeth Street – where Treacy's business first began in the basement
  18. ^ a b "Most popular man in fashion". The Sydney Morning Herald. 26 May 2003.
  19. ^ a b c d "Philip Treacy". Vogue Italia. 9 March 2010. In 2000, he was the first milliner in 70 years to be invited by the Chambre Syndicale to show his collection during the Haute Couture fashion week in Paris Missing or empty |url= (help)
  20. ^ "20 of Philip Treacy's Most Jaw–Dropping Couture Chapeaux". Vogue Magazine. 13 November 2015.
  21. ^ "Wizarding Wardrobes opens at Warner Bros. Studio Tour London". Pottermore. 21 July 2017.
  22. ^ "The Craziest Celebrity Moments in Met Gala History". Vogue. 2 May 2018. You gotta give it to SJP: She never phones it in. The Philip Treacy headpiece she wore for the 2015 Met Gala, “China: Through the Looking Glass,” will always be remembered as the hat that launched a thousand memes
  23. ^ "Sarah Jessica Parker wears outrageous 'satellite dish' Philip Treacy hat". Mail Online. 2 November 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  24. ^ Phong Luu (12 April 2012). "Exclusive: Philip Treacy on designing Madonna's Super Bowl hat". The Daily Telegraph. Treacy made Madonna's jewelled Egyptian-ish fanned headpiece for her Super Bowl performance. He shows off the mock-up he made of it, and, even as a dummy run, it's impressive.
  25. ^ Jess Cartner-Morley (16 September 2012). "Lady Gaga pays tribute to milliner Philip Treacy at London fashion week". The Guardian. How extraordinary was Philip Treacy's London fashion week catwalk show? Put it this way: when Lady Gaga appeared wearing a floor–length neon pink veil and towering Alexander McQueen Armadillo shoes, she did not immediately attract much attention. It was that kind of night
  26. ^ Alexandra Topping (9 December 2010). "Lady Gaga appears in eight different outfits at eight Madame Tussauds". The Guardian. In the London Madame Tussauds, a waxwork figure of the singer wearing a show–stopping Philip Treacy telephone hat which she wore on Friday Night with Jonathan Ross in March 2010 was unveiled, teamed with a Giorgio Armani Privé outfit with pagoda–style shoulders and vertiginous heels
  27. ^ Elaine McCahill (31 October 2014). "Lady Gaga shares a laugh with 'genius' Philip Treacy". Irish Independent. Gaga was wearing Treacy's unique hats as far back as 2010 when she wore an eye–catching outfit to the Grammy Awards
  29. ^ Colleen Egan (25 October 2015). "Philip Treacy's Trippiest, Most Dazzling Hats". Architectural Digest. “Daphne is a rare bird. She’s a fashion contradiction. No designer owns her. Whatever Daphne wears, she owns,” Treacy says of Guinness
  30. ^ a b Bairbre Power (18 October 2015). "Top Hat... Philip Treacy's two decades of creating masterpieces". Irish Independent.
  31. ^ a b "Irish milliner Philip Treacy". Irish Times. 8 July 2018. Treacy also spoke candidly to Young about how he has overcome some of the losses in his life with the help of close friend and eccentric collaborator Grace Jones. “If you told somebody you were getting advice from Grace Jones they would probably tell you you need your head examined,” said Treacy. “But she actually gives really good advice.”
  32. ^ Patrik Henry Bass (10 November 2011). "Hats Off To Grace Jones' Favorite Head Topper". Essence. The style icon tapped the milliner as art director and designer for her 2009 sold–out “Hurricane” tour. Long before that collaboration, Grace was sporting the milliner’s works of art in videos and special appearances.
  33. ^ "Top Hat... Philip Treacy's two decades of creating masterpieces". Irish Independent. 18 October 2015. Philip Treacy's mission as a hat designer is to be creative and, as he says himself, he likes "to make hats that make the heart beat faster".
  34. ^ a b "Philip Treacy: 'I like hats that make the heart beat faster'". The Guardian. 10 July 2011.
  35. ^ Philip Treacy (22 May 2001). "The perfect hat". The Guardian. Everyone thinks you need confidence to wear a beautiful hat, but this perfect hat will instead give you the courage and the energy to carry it off.
  36. ^ Philip Treacy: King of Royal wedding hats Irish Independent, 2011-04-29
  37. ^ "Princess Beatrice's royal wedding hat sells for more than $130,000 on EBay". Los Angeles Times. 22 May 2011. The princess plans to give the money (final bid: 81,100.01 pounds, which is around $131,134) from the 10-day auction to UNICEF UK and Children in Crisis via her Little Bee Initiative campaign.
  38. ^ "Royal hat-maker Philip Treacy 'feared head on spike'". BBC News. 8 July 2018.
  39. ^ "PHILIP TREACY HAT (c. 2011): Gift of Melinda B. Hildebrand, 2012". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Accession Number: 2012.519 (search item 171324)
  40. ^ "Irish designer Philip Treacy created 20 hats for the British royal wedding - including Oprah's". Irish Independent. 19 May 2018. Treacy designed hats for Oprah Winfrey, Priyanka Chopra, Camilla, the Duchess of Cornwall, and Kate Middleton for Meghan and Harry's big day
  41. ^ "All the Hats at Meghan Markle and Prince Harry's Wedding". Harper's Bazaar. 19 May 2018. There was a lot of Philip Treacy.
  42. ^ "Meghan Markle chose Irish designer Philip Treacy hat for first 'royal outing'". Irish Independent. 27 December 2017.
  43. ^ Jennifer O'Brien (24 May 2018). "Meghan's first official duty tops off hat-maker Philip Treacy's rise". The Times. Hats off to him. Philip Treacy, the Galway-born milliner, has cemented his position as the primary choice of hatmaker for the royal family.
  44. ^ "Queen's patronage has single–handedly saved the British hat industry, Philip Treacy says". Telegraph. 8 July 2018.
  45. ^ "Philip Treacy 'Hatforms' at IMMA Thursday". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 5 April 2001. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
  46. ^ Hillary Alexander (19 November 2007). "Madcap milliner receives OBE". The Daily Telegraph. In 2000, he made millinery history by staging his 'Orchid' collection of haute couture hats in Paris
  47. ^ "Irish hat designer Philip Treacy turns royal heads with OBE award". Irish Examiner. 20 November 2007.
  48. ^ a b c "Prince honours king of the hats". Irish Independent. 20 November 2007. Irishman Philip Treacy (40) received an honorary OBE at a special ceremony hosted by Prince Charles and his wife, Camilla Parker Bowles, at their Clarence House home. The fashion designer was appointed an honorary Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (OBE). The honour was conferred on Philip by Queen Elizabeth in recognition of his services to the British Fashion industry
  49. ^ "Magnificent Irish fashionista stamps". World Stamp News. 18 July 2010. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  50. ^ "Victoria & Albert: Philip Treacy".
  51. ^ "Search The Met Collection: Philip Treacy".
  52. ^ "Exhibition in Florence: The Hat Between Art and Extravaganza". FIRENZE. 28 November 2013. Despite prevailing specimens of known names of the fashion house such as Christian Dior, Givenchy, Chanel, Yves Saint Laurent, Prada, Gianfranco Ferre and international famous milliners of the present and the past like Philip Treacy, Stephen Jones, Caroline Reboux, Claude Saint-Cyr, and [Madame] Paulette [..]
  53. ^ "Irish designer Philip Treacy weds long–term love in Las Vegas - and celebrates with Cher". Irish Independent. 7 May 2017.
  54. ^ a b Darragh Doyle (3 June 2009). "Philip Treacy Interview".
  55. ^ "Irish milliner Philip Treacy 'feared head on spike' over Beatrice hat". Irish Times. 8 July 2018. “One of the strongest memories I have is being in somebody’s house and my father’s friend saying don’t you think that’s a little odd, don’t you think it’s a bit strange this child is doing this?’ “And I remember distinctly my father saying: ‘Whatever makes him happy’. It moves me still.”
  56. ^ Mary O'Sullivan (15 April 2001). "Raise your hat to Philip". Independent.
  57. ^ a b Marilyn Cole Lownes (March 2007). "The Master Hatter". Irish America. Being the second youngest of seven boys, and with one sister who was the eldest child, Philip recollects, “I thought my sister, Marion, was the most glamorous girl in the world. She was a huge inspiration to me. She was my introduction to fashion and magazines. She worked as a nurse in London and used to come home on holidays with all these great magazines like Harper’s and Queen and Vogue, which I’d never seen.”

External linksEdit