Philip Jessup (February 5, 1897 - January 31, 1986), also Philip C. Jessup, was a 20th-century American diplomat, scholar, and jurist notable for his accomplishments in the field of international law.
Philip C. Jessup
|Judge of the International Court of Justice|
|Preceded by||Green H. Hackworth|
|Succeeded by||Hardy C. Dillard|
|U.S. Ambassador at Large|
March 2, 1949 – January 19, 1953
|Appointed by||Harry Truman|
|Born||February 5, 1897|
New York City, U.S.
|Died||January 31, 1986 (aged 88)|
Newtown, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Lois Walcott Kellogg (m. 1921)
|Alma mater||Hamilton College (BA)|
Yale Law School (JD)
Columbia University (MA), (PHD)
Early life and educationEdit
Philip Caryl Jessup was born on January 5, 1897, in New York, New York. He was the grandson of Henry Harris Jessup In 1919, he received his undergraduate A.B. degree from Hamilton College. In 1924, he received a law degree (LLB) from Yale Law School. In 1927, he received a doctorate from Columbia University.
From 1925 to 1961, Jessup held teaching positions at Columbia University. While pursuing his doctorate, and for a good time thereafter (1925–1946), Jessup served as a lecturer and professor in international law at Columbia Law School. From 1942 to 1944, he served as assistant director of the Naval School of Military Government and Administration at Columbia University.In 1946, he was named the Hamilton Fish Professor of International Law and Diplomacy at Columbia Law, a post he held until 1961.
Public sector: civil serviceEdit
In 1924, Jessup became an assistant solicitor for the United States Department of State. In 1929, he assisted Elihu Root for the Conference of Jurists on the Permanent Court of International Justice in Geneva, Switzerland.
In 1943, Jessup served as assistant secretary-general of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) conference through 1944. From 1943 to 1945, he also served as chief of the Division of Personnel and Training for Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations at the State Department. In 1944, he also served at the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference (the "Bretton Woods" conference). In 1945, he was a technical advisor to the American delegation to the San Francisco United Nations charter conference in 1945 (whose Acting Secretary was Alger Hiss). In 1947, he served as U.S. representative to the United Nations Committee on Codification of International Law. From 1948 through 1952, he served in several roles at the United Nations: U.S. representative to the General Assembly (second, third, and fourth special sessions), deputy U.S. representative to the Interim Committee of the General Assembly and Security Council, and deputy chief of the U.S. Mission to the United Nations.
From 1949 to 1953, he also served as "Ambassador-at-large." As Ambassador, Jessup served on the 1949 U.S. delegation of the Sixth Session of the Paris Council of Foreign Ministers Meeting. Charles W. Yost was his assistant. The two continued to work together in Washington, researching and writing the 1949 Department of State White Paper, officially entitled “United States Relations with China.”
Institute of Pacific RelationsEdit
From 1967 to 1986, he served as chairman of the Chile-Norway Permanent Commission and as an honorary member of the Governing Council for the International Institute for Unification of Private Law.
Second Red ScareEdit
Jessup became a primary target of Senator Joseph McCarthy, who charged in the 1950 Tydings Committee hearings that Jessup was a security risk who had "an unusual affinity... for Communist causes." McCarthy wasn't allowed by the Tydings Committee to outline his case regarding Jessup but the committee did allow Jessup to fly in from Pakistan and give his defense. Jessup was subsequently cleared of all charges by the Loyalty Board of the State Department and the Tydings Committee, and McCarthy was rebuked by many fellow senators and other statesmen. However, in two speeches on the floor of the Senate, McCarthy gave his evidence regarding Jessup's "unusual affinity for Communist causes":
- That Jessup had been affiliated with five Communist front groups
- That Jessup had been a leading light in the Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR) at a time that organization was reflecting the Communist Party line
- And that he had "pioneered the smear campaign against Nationalist China and Chiang Kai-shek" and propagated the "myth of the 'democratic Chinese Communist'" through the IPR magazine, Far Eastern Survey, over which he had "absolute control"
- That Jessup had associated with known Communists in the IPR
- That the IPR's American Council under Jessup's guidance had received more than $7,000 of Communist funds from Frederick Vanderbilt Field
- That Jessup had "expressed vigorous opposition" to attempts to investigate Communist penetration of the IPR
- That Jessup had urged that United States atom bomb production be brought to a halt in 1946, and that essential atomic ingredients be "dumped into the ocean"
- That Jessup had appeared as a character witness for Alger Hiss, and that later, after Alger Hiss's conviction, Jessup had found "no reason whatever to change his opinion about Hiss's veracity, loyalty and integrity"
McCarthy's allegations severely damaged Jessup's reputation and career.
Nonetheless, President Harry S. Truman appointed Jessup as United States delegate to the United Nations in 1951. However, when the appointment came before the Senate it was not approved, largely because of McCarthy's influence. Truman circumvented the Senate by assigning Jessup to the United Nations on an "interim appointment."
Shortly after John F. Kennedy took office as president, the State Department approved the appointment of Jessup as U.S. candidate for the International Court of Justice, a post that did not need Senate confirmation. He served from 1961 until 1970.
Personal life and legacyEdit
An international law moot court competition, the Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition, is named in Jessup's honor. It is held annually in Washington D.C. and is attended by law students from around the world.
- The Law of Territorial Waters and Maritime Jurisdiction (G.A. Jennings Co., 1927)
- Elihu Root (Dodd, Mead & Co., 1938)
- A Modern Law of Nations (Macmillan Co., 1948)
- Transnational Law (Yale University Press, 1956)
- "Price of International Justice" (1971)
- The Birth of Nations (Columbia University Press, 1974)
- "Philip C. Jessup papers, 1574-1983: Biographical/Organizational Note". Library of Congress. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- "Philip Caryl Jessup". Encyclopedia.com: Facts, Pictures, Information. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- "Law School's Jessup Moot Court Team Competes in International Championship After Sweeping Regionals". Columbia University. 19 March 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- Chisholm, Brock; Winslow, C.-E.A.; Hiss, Alger (March 1948). "The World Health Organization". International Concilation. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
- Pace, Eric (February 1, 1986). "PHILIP C. JESSUP DIES; HELPED END BERLIN BLOCKADE". The New York Times. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
- ICJ Judges
- Manley O. Hudson Awards and 26 January 2009
- ICJ Presidents H.E. Rosalyn Higgins and H.E. Stephen M. Schwebel at the ILSA-ASIL Gala Dinner Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition on 27 March 2009 and Jessup's 50th Anniversary Honorary Committee and 50th Jessup Video and 50th Jessup Programme and Prize for "Best Jessup Oralist" Launched in Honour of Former ICJ President Stephen M. Schwebel at the 103rd ASIL Annual Meeting on International Law as Law, Fairmont Hotel in Washington, D.C., 25–28 March 2009
- Wikipedia Citations of H.E. Judge Philip Jessup[permanent dead link]
- Visual Wikipedia of H.E. Judge Philip Jessup
- Newspaper clippings about Philip Jessup in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW