Phase-out of lightweight plastic bags

In the early 21st century, there has been a global movement towards the phase-out of lightweight plastic bags.[1][2] Single-use plastic shopping bags, commonly made from low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic,[3] have traditionally been given for free to customers by stores when purchasing goods: the bags have long been considered a convenient, cheap, and hygienic way of transporting items. Problems associated with plastic bags include use of non-renewable resources (such as crude oil, gas and coal),[4] difficulties during disposal, and environmental impacts. Concurrently with the reduction in lightweight plastic bags, shops have introduced reusable shopping bags.

Governments all over the world have taken action to ban the sale of lightweight bags, charge customers for lightweight bags, or generate taxes from the stores that sell them.[2][5] The Bangladesh government was the first to do so in 2002, imposing a total ban on lightweight plastic bags.[6] Between 2010 and 2019, the number of public policies intended to phase out plastic carryout bags tripled.[7] As of 1 August 2020, such bans have been introduced in 76 countries, with varying degrees of enforcement, and 37 countries instead impose a charge per bag. Bans and charges have also been enacted by some local jurisdictions such as states, counties, territories and cities.

IssuesEdit

 
Plastic waste on the mounds of garbage in the Philippines

Plastic bags cause many minor and major ecological and environmental issues. The most general issue with plastic bags is the amount of waste produced. Many plastic bags end up on streets and subsequently pollute major water sources, rivers, and streams.

 
Photodegraded plastic bag adjacent to hiking trail. Approx. 2,000 pieces 1 to 25 mm, three months' exposure outdoors.

Even when disposed of properly, they take many years to decompose and break down, generating large amounts of garbage over long periods of time. Improperly discarded bags have polluted waterways, clogged sewers and been found in oceans, affecting the ecosystem of marine creatures.[3] The UN estimates that there will be more plastics than fish in the oceans by 2050 unless countries comes up with urgent measures to promote efficient production, use and waste management of plastics through out their life cycles.[8].

Two primary kinds of direct damage to wildlife are entanglement and ingestion.[9] Animals can become entangled and drown.[10] Plastic bags are often ingested by animals that cannot distinguish them from food. As a result, they clog their intestines which results in death by starvation.[10] Plastic bags can block drains, trap birds and kill livestock. The World Wide Fund for Nature has estimated that over 100,000 whales, seals, and turtles die every year[citation needed] as a result of eating or being trapped by plastic bags. In India, an estimated number of 20 cows die per day as a result of ingesting plastic bags and having their digestive systems clogged by the bags. It is also very common across Africa to have sewers and drain systems clogged by bags which cause severe cases of malaria due to the increased population of mosquitoes that live on the flooded sewers.[11] The term "white pollution" has been coined in China to describe the local and global effects of discarded plastic bags upon the environment.[12]

Lightweight plastic bags are also blown into trees and other plants and can be mistaken for food. Plastic bags break down by polymer degradation but not by biodegradation. As a result, any toxic additives they contain—including flame retardants, antimicrobials, and plasticizers—will be released into the environment. Many of those toxins directly affect the endocrine systems of organisms, which control almost every cell in the body.[13] Research shows the average operating "lifespan" of a plastic bag to be approximately 20 minutes.[citation needed] Plastic bags can last in landfill – an anaerobic environment – for up to 1000 years.[citation needed]

Plastic bags dumped in the Pacific Ocean can end up in the Great Pacific garbage patch. 80% of the plastic waste comes from land; the rest comes from oil platforms and ships.[14] This can be eaten by marine animals, and block their breathing passages and digestive systems. Plastic bags not only add to the Great Pacific garbage patch, they can be washed ashore around the world.[15]

MethodsEdit

The two most popular methods of phasing out lightweight plastic bags are charges and bans.[7] The charge strategy is said to have all of the same results in plastic bag reduction as a plastic bag ban, with the additional benefit of creating a new revenue source.[16] The plastic bag charge method also protects consumer choice, which the ban does not.[16]

Recycling of plastic bags can be another method of phase-out. However, a big issue with recycling is that only 5% of plastic bags make it to recycling facilities, to begin with.[16] Even when bags are brought to these recycling bins and facilities, they often fly out of these bins or recycling trucks and end up as litter on the streets. If there are any facilities of avoiding the plastics from flying out this would be a better method [17] Another issue with recycling is that different bags are made from different yet aesthetically similar types of plastics.[16] Bags can be either made of bioplastics or biodegradable plastics, and if accidentally combined in a compost, the bioplastics could contaminate the biodegradable composting.[16] These bags can also jam recycling equipment when mixed with other types of plastic, which can be costly to repair.[17] For example, costs of repairs rounded out to be about $1 million per year in San Jose, California.[17]

Individuals can also engage in advocacy with local officials and local merchants. With the rise in eco-tourism [18] and green travel, there are many opportunities to say no to plastic.[19]

ImpactEdit

According to a 2018 study in the American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, a five-cent tax on disposable bags reduced disposable bag usage by 40 percentage points.[20] According to a 2019 review of existing studies, levies and taxes led to a 66% reduction in usage in Denmark, more than 90% in Ireland, between 74-90% in South Africa, Belgium, Hong Kong, Washington D.C., Santa Barbara, the UK and Portugal, and around 50% in Botswana and China.[7]

A 2019 study in the Journal of Environmental Economics and Management found that the implementation of a ban on plastic carryout bags in California led to a reduction of 40 million pounds of plastic through the elimination of plastic carryout bags but that Californians purchased 12 million pounds of plastic through trash bag purchases.[21] The study showed that before the introduction of the ban between 12% and 22% of plastic carryout bags were re-used as trash bags.[21]

Plastic bag bans can lead to larger black markets in plastic bags.[7] The production of some non-plastic bags (e.g. paper, cotton, using virgin plastic such as plastic having thickness of 50 micron) can produce more greenhouse gas emissions than plastic bags, which means that greenhouse gas emissions may increase on net following plastic bag bans. Further, the bans can drive significant increases in sales of trash bags.[7][22]:1[23]:254[23]:270

Summary of regional developmentsEdit

 
Phase out of lightweight plastic bags around the world (laws passed but not yet in effect are not shown on map)
  Plastic bags banned
  A charge on some plastic bags
  Voluntary charge agreement
  Partial charge or ban (municipal or regional levels)
Key Country United Nations Regional Group Legislation Notes References
  Afghanistan Asia-Pacific Ban [24]
  Albania Eastern Europe Ban Since 2018. [25]
  Andorra Western Europe and Others Ban Since 2017. [26]
  Antigua and Barbuda Latin America Ban [27]
  Argentina Latin America Regional ban Banned in several provinces and cities. [28]
  Armenia Eastern Europe Charge Since 2020. Ban from 2022. [29]
  Australia Western Europe and Others Regional ban Lightweight plastic bags banned in all states except New South Wales. Lightweight plastic bags were swapped out for reusable thick 15¢ bags in the two major supermarket chains in all states and territories including New South Wales. Norfolk Island has a voluntary agreement with retailers. [30][31][32][33][34]
  Austria Western Europe and Others Ban Since 2020. [35]
  Azerbaijan Eastern Europe Ban planned. [36]
  Bahamas Latin America Ban Since 1 July 2020. [37]
  Bahrain Asia-Pacific Ban Since 21 July 2019. [38]
  Bangladesh Asia-Pacific Ban Since 2002. [39]
  Barbados Latin America Ban Since April 2019. [40]
  Belarus Eastern Europe Charge is being considered. [41]
  Belgium Western Europe and Others Ban Since 2016 in Wallonia, 2017 in Brussels, 2019 in Flanders. [42][43]
  Belize Latin America Ban Since 22 April 2019 (Earth Day). [44]
  Benin Africa Ban Since November 2017. [45][46]
  Bhutan Asia-Pacific Ban [47]
  Bolivia South America Regional ban Banned in La Paz. [48]
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Eastern Europe Charge [24]
  Botswana Africa Ban Since November 2018. [49]
  Brazil Latin America Regional ban Banned in Sao Paulo and the State of Rio de Janeiro. [50][51]
  Brunei Asia-Pacific Voluntary ban [52]
  Bulgaria Eastern Europe Charge [53]
  Burkina Faso Africa Ban Since 2015. [54][46]
  Burundi Africa Ban Since 22 August 2019. [55]
  Cambodia Asia-Pacific Charge Since October 2017. [56]
  Cameroon Africa Ban Since April 2014. [57]
  Canada Western Europe and Others Regional ban Banned in two provinces. Charge in Northwest Territories. Bans in several municipalities. Full ban planned for 2021. See section[58]
  Cape Verde Africa Ban Since 2017. [59][46]
  Chad Africa Regional ban Banned in N'Djamena. [60]
  Chile Latin America Ban Since February 2019. [61]
  People's Republic of China Asia-Pacific Charge Since June 2008. Ban planned by 2022 (excluding fresh produce markets until 2025). Hong Kong and Macau apply a charge. [62][63][64][65]
  Republic of China (Taiwan) Asia-Pacific Charge Since 2003. Ban planned for 2030. [66][67][68][69]
  Colombia Latin America Ban Since July 2017. Charge applied to reusable bags. [70][71]
  Comoros Africa Regional ban Banned in Moroni. [72]
  Costa Rica Latin America Ban planned for 2021. [73]
  Democratic Republic of the Congo Africa Ban Since 2018. [74]
  Republic of the Congo Africa Ban Since 2011. [75]
  Croatia Eastern Europe Charge Since 2019. [76]
  Cyprus Western Europe and Others Charge Since 2018. [77]
  Czech Republic Eastern Europe Charge [78]
  Denmark Western Europe and Others Charge A tax on plastic bags Since 1993. There is also a tax in Greenland. [79][80]
  Djibouti Africa Ban [24]
  Dominica North America Ban Since 2019. [81]
  Ecuador Latin America Regional ban Restricts plastic bags around the Galápagos Islands. [82]
  Egypt Africa Regional ban Banned in Red Sea Governorate. [83]
  Eritrea Africa Ban Since 2005. [84]
  Estonia Eastern Europe Charge Since July 2017. [79]
  Ethiopia Africa Partial ban [85]
  Fiji Asia-Pacific Ban Since 2020. [86]
  Finland Western Europe and Others Voluntary charge [87][79]
  France Western Europe and Others Ban Since July 2016. Also banned in Overseas France. [88][89][90][91][92]
  Gabon Africa Ban Since 2010. [93]
  Gambia Africa Ban Since 2015. [94][46]
  Georgia Eastern Europe Ban Since 2017. [95]
  Germany Western Europe and Others Voluntary charge. Since April 2016. Ban planned. [79][96]
  Greece Western Europe and Others Charge Since 2018. [97]
  Grenada Latin America Ban Since February 2019. [98]
  Guatemala Latin America Regional ban Banned in several municipalities. Ban planned for 2021. [99][100][101][102][103][104]
  Guinea-Bissau Africa Ban Since 2016. [105][46]
  Guyana Latin America Ban planned for 2021. [106]
  Haiti Latin America Ban [107]
  Honduras Latin America Regional ban Banned in the Bay Islands Department. [108]
  Hungary Eastern Europe Charge Since 2012. [79]
  Iceland Western Europe and Others Charge Since July 2019. Ban planned for 2021. [109]
  India Asia-Pacific Ban Since 2002. Also banned at regional levels due to poor enforcement. [5][110]
  Indonesia Asia-Pacific Regional bans and charges Charges in 23 cities. Banned in Bali since June 2019 and Jakarta since July 2020. [111][112][113][114]
  Ireland Western Europe and Others Charge Since March 2002, a 0.15 Euro tax has been added to all plastic bags. Since these charges were added, there has been a 90% reduction in the use of plastic bags. [115][116]
  Israel Western Europe and Others Charge Since January 2017. [117]
  Italy Western Europe and Others Ban Since January 2011. [118]
  Ivory Coast Africa Ban Since 2014. [119][46]
  Jamaica Latin America Ban Since January 2019. [120]
  Japan Asia-Pacific Charge and regional bans National charge since July 2020. [121][122][123]
  Kazakhstan Asia-Pacific Ban is being considered. [124]
  Kenya Africa Ban Since 28 August 2017. [125]
  Kyrgyzstan Asia-Pacific Ban is being considered. [126]
  Latvia Eastern Europe Charge Since January 2019. [127]
  Lebanon Asia-Pacific Regional ban Banned in Byblos. [128]
  Lithuania Eastern Europe Charge Since 31 December 2018. [79]
  Luxembourg Western Europe and Others Charge [79][87]
  Madagascar Africa Ban Since 2015. [129]
  Malawi Africa Ban Since 2015. [130]
  Malaysia Asia-Pacific Regional charge Charges in two states. [131][132]
  Maldives Asia-Pacific Ban planned for 2021. [133]
  Mali Africa Ban [134][46]
  Malta Western Europe and Others Charge Since 2009. Ban planned for 2022. [79][135]
  Marshall Islands Asia-Pacific Ban [136]
  Mauritania Africa Ban Since 2013. [137]
  Mauritius Africa Ban Since 2016. [138]
  Mexico Latin America Regional ban Banned in 16 states and Mexico City. [139]
  Micronesia Asia-Pacific Regional ban Banned in the states of Kosrae, Pohnpei and Yap. Ban planned in Chuuk for 31 December 2020. [136][140][141][142]
  Republic of Moldova Eastern Europe Ban Since 2017 banned in large retailers. Since 2018 banned in medium retailers. Full ban since 2020. [143]
  Monaco Western Europe and Others Ban Since 2016. [144]
  Mongolia Asia-Pacific Ban Since March 2019. [145]
  Montenegro Eastern Europe Ban has been proposed. [146]
  Morocco Africa Ban Since July 2016. [147]
  Mozambique Africa Charge Since 5 February 2016. [148]
  Myanmar Asia-Pacific Regional ban Banned in Yangon. [149]
  Namibia Africa Charge Since August 2019. Banned in protected places. [150][151]
    Nepal Asia-Pacific Ban [152]
  Netherlands Western Europe and Others Charge Since 2016. Banned in Aruba. [153][154]
  New Zealand Western Europe and Others Ban Since July 2019. Also banned in Niue. Ban planned in the Cook Islands. [155][156][157]
  Niger Africa Ban [158]<[46]
  Nigeria Africa Ban [159][46]
  North Macedonia Eastern Europe Charge Since 2009. [160]
  Norway Western Europe and Others Voluntary charge [161]
  Oman Asia-Pacific Ban planned for 2021. [162]
  Pakistan Asia-Pacific Ban Banned independently in each of the country's provinces and territories from 1994 to 2019. [163][164][165][166]
  Palau Asia-Pacific Ban [167]
  Panama Latin America Ban Since 2017. [168]
  Papua New Guinea Asia-Pacific Ban Since 2016. [169][170]
  Peru Latin America Charge Since August 2019. Ban planned for 2021. [171][172]
  Philippines Asia-Pacific Regional ban and charges Banned in select cities of Metro Manila, excluding Taguig, Malabon, Caloocan, Valenzuela, Navotas, San Juan, and Parañaque. [173]

[174][175][176][177]

  Poland Eastern Europe Charge Since 2018. [178]
  Portugal Western Europe and Others Charge Since 2016. [179]
  Romania Eastern Europe Ban Since 2019. [79]
  Russian Federation Eastern Europe Ban planned. [180]
  Rwanda Africa Ban Since 2008. [181]
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Latin America Ban Since August 2020. [182]
  Samoa Asia-Pacific Ban Since 2019. [183]
  Sao Tome and Principe Africa Ban planned. [184]
  Senegal Africa Ban Since April 2015. [185][46]
  Serbia Eastern Europe Charge Since 2018. Banned in Belgrade. [186][187]
  Seychelles Africa Ban Since 2017. [188]
  Slovakia Eastern Europe Charge Since March 2017. [79]
  Slovenia Eastern Europe Charge Since 2019. [189]
  Solomon Islands Asia-Pacific Regional ban Banned in Western Province. [190]
  Somalia Africa Regional ban Banned in Somaliland. [191][192][193][194][195]
  South Africa Africa Charge Since 2004. [196][197]
  Republic of Korea Asia-Pacific Ban Since August 2018. [198]
  South Sudan Africa Ban [199]
  Spain Western Europe And Others Charge Since July 2018. Banned in Balearic Islands since 2020. [200][201]
  Sri Lanka Asia Ban Since 2017. [202]
  Sudan Africa Regional ban Banned in Khartoum State. [203]
  Sweden Western Europe and Others Charge [204]
   Switzerland Western Europe and Others Voluntary charge Banned in Geneva since 2020. Voluntary charge elsewhere. [205][206][207][208]
  Tanzania, United Republic of Africa Ban Since June 2019. [209][210]
  Thailand Asia-Pacific Voluntary ban Since 2020. Ban planned for 2021. [211][212]
  Togo Africa Ban Since July 2018. [213][46]
  Tunisia Africa Ban Since March 2017. [214]
  Turkey Western Europe and Others Charge Also a ban in some regions. Turkish-controlled Northern Cyprus also applies a charge. [215][216][217]
  Tuvalu Asia-Pacific Ban Since August 2019. [218]
  Uganda Africa Ban Since September 2007. [219]
  Ukraine Eastern Europe Charge planned for 2021. Ban planned for 2022. [220]
  United Arab Emirates Asia-Pacific Ban planned in Abu Dhabi for 2021. [221]
  United Kingdom Western Europe and Others Charge Wales since 2011, Northern Ireland since 2013, Scotland since 2014 and England since 2015. Banned in Anguilla, Gibraltar and the Turks and Caicos Islands.
Voluntary charge in place in the Falkland Islands. Ban planned in British Indian Ocean Territory, the Isle of Man and Jersey.
[222][223][224][225][226][227][228][229][230][231]
  United States Western Europe and Others Regional bans and charges Banned in five states (one de facto) and four territories. Charges in one state and Washington, D.C. Ban to go in effect for Washington, Maine, Delaware, and Guam in 2021. Bans and charges in several municipalities. See main article
  Uruguay South America Ban Since July 2019. [232]
  Uzbekistan Asia-Pacific Charge Since 2019. [233]
  Vanuatu Asia-Pacific Ban Since 31 January 2018. [234]
   Vatican City Western Europe and Others Ban Since 2019. [235]
  Yemen Asia-Pacific Ban [24]
  Zambia Africa Ban Since December 2018. [236]
  Zimbabwe Africa Ban [24]

Legislation around the worldEdit

AfricaEdit

KenyaEdit

Kenya made the first attempt to ban the manufacturing and importation of plastic bags in 2007 and 2011 as a way to protect the environment.[237] The 2007 and 2011 ban targeting plastics below 30 microns failed after manufacturers and retail outlets threatened to pass on the cost of using other materials to consumers.[238] In 2017 the cabinet secretary of Environment and Natural resources, Prof Judy Wakhungu banned the use, manufacture and importation of all plastic bags used for commercial and household packaging under Gazette notice number 2356.[239] On 28 August 2017, Kenya began implementing a countrywide ban of single-use plastic bags. Primary packaging bags, hospital waste bags, and garbage bin liners have been exempted from the ban. The ban has been hailed as one of the most stringent in the world, with fines of up to $40000, or four years in prison.[125]

President Uhuru Kenyatta in 2019, during the World Environment Day, further solidified Kenya's efforts to fight plastic pollution and in the sustainable management of waste by banning single-use plastics in protected natural areas[240]. The ban, which came into effect on 5 June 2020, prohibits the use of plastics in National Parks, beaches, forests and conservation areas.

NigeriaEdit

In May 2019, The House of Representatives of Nigeria banned the production, import and usage of plastic bags in the country.[46][159]

SomaliaEdit

Plastic bags were banned in the self-declared Republic of Somaliland on 1 March 2005 after a 120-day grace period that the government had given to the public to get rid of their stocks. The Ministry of Trade and Industries announced the cabinet decision in a decree titled: "Banning importation, production and use of plastic bags in the country". The bags had been nicknamed "the Hargeysa flower", as many of them ended up being blown around and getting stuck in trees and shrubs, posing a danger to livestock because the animals that feed on the leaves often ingest the bags accidentally. In 2015 the ban was repeated by Presidential Decree No. #JSL/M/XERM/249-3178/042015, again providing for a 120 days grace period to get rid of stocks. To ensure the implementation of the ban, the government constituted enforcement teams in 2016 to conduct special drives which launch probes into business stalls. At least 1000 men and women in uniform deployed into the main markets and shopping malls. The government announced fines against violators who continue selling plastic bags in the country.[191][192][193][194][195]

South AfricaEdit

Plastic bags were a major concern in South Africa before the bag levy was introduced in 2004. The bags were never banned, but a levy was introduced, payable by the plastic bag manufacturer. The thicker plastic bags are levied and although this move initially caused outrage with consumers and an initial decline in volumes, consumers use has continually increased to several billion plastic shopping bags every year.[196][197]

TanzaniaEdit

The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar banned plastic bags in 2005.[241] Tanzania introduced plans to implement a nationwide ban on plastic bags in 2006.[242] However, its ratification had been delayed for more than ten years.[243] The ban finally came into effect on 1 June 2019.[210]

TunisiaEdit

Tunisia introduced a ban on plastic bag distribution in supermarkets starting from 1 March 2017. An agreement was signed between the Ministry of Local Affairs and Environment and large supermarket chains in the country to enact the first phase of a process aiming to reduce the consumption of plastic bags.[214] Tunisian activists are planning awareness campaigns to establish greener policies in the country.[244]

UgandaEdit

 
Heap of trash including plastic bags in Kampala, Uganda

Uganda introduced legislation in 2007 to ban the sale of lightweight plastic bags under 30 µm thick and tax thicker bags at a punitive rate of 120%. Although the laws came into effect in September of that year,[219] they have not been enforced and have failed to measurably reduce the use of plastic bags.[245] The law is not well enforced.[246]

AsiaEdit

BangladeshEdit

A strict ban was introduced in Bangladesh in 2002 after floods caused by littered plastic bags submerged two-thirds of the country in water between 1988 and 1998.[39] Plastic bags remain a big problem for sewerage system and waterways.

CambodiaEdit

Cambodia passed legislation to impose a plastic bag tax in October 2017. Supermarkets now charge customers 400 Riels (10 US cents) per plastic bag should they need one.[56]

ChinaEdit

A total plastic bag ban on ultra thin plastic bags and a fee on plastic bags was introduced in China on 1 June 2008. This came into effect because of the problems with sewerage and general waste. One 2009 survey suggests that plastic bag use fell between 60 and 80% in Chinese supermarkets, and 40 billion fewer bags were used. However, first hand accounts clearly indicate, the ban has seen limited success, and that the use of plastic bags remains prevalent. Street vendors and smaller stores, which make up a significant portion of retail in China, do not abide by the policy in part due to difficulties of enforcing the ban.[62]

Hong KongEdit

Hong Kong forbids retailers from giving plastic bags under a certain thickness and for free.[5] A 50 cent plastic bag levy was implemented on 1 April 2015 across Hong Kong. The use of plastic bags dropped 90% after the introduction of the levy.[63] Signs show that Hong Kong is phasing out the use of plastic bags at a dramatic rate.

 
A sign proclaiming that polythene bags thinner than 30 µm are prohibited in Kasaragod, Kerala, India.

IndiaEdit

In 2002, India banned the production of plastic bags below 20 µm in thickness to prevent plastic bags from clogging of the municipal drainage systems and to prevent the cows of India ingesting plastic bags as they confuse it for food.[5][110] However, enforcement remains a problem.

The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has also passed regulation to ban all polythene bags less than 50 microns on 18 March 2016.[247] Due to poor implementation of this regulation, regional authorities (states and municipal corporations), have had to implement their own regulation.

In 2016, Sikkim, India's first fully organic state,[248] banned the use of not only packaged drinking water bottles in any government meetings or functions but also food containers made from polystyrene foam all over the state.[249]

Himachal Pradesh was the first state to ban plastic bags less than 30 µm. The Karnataka state became first state to ban all forms of plastic carry bags, plastic banners, plastic buntings, flex, plastic flags, plastic plates, plastic cups, plastic spoons, cling films and plastic sheets for spreading on dining tables irrespective of thickness including the above items made of thermacol and plastic which uses plastic micro beads.[250][251] The state of Goa has banned bags up to 40 µm thick,[252] while the city of Mumbai bans bags below a minimum thickness to 50 µm.[253]

The state Government of Maharashtra banned plastic starting 23 June 2018.[254] The state Government of Tamil Nadu also banned plastic starting 1 January 2019.[255]

IndonesiaEdit

Starting in 2016, Environment Ministry enforced retailers in 23 cities across the archipelago (mini-market, hypermarket, and supermarket) to charge consumers for plastic bags between Rp.200 and Rp.5,000 for each bag including degradable plastic bags. And money which came from tax are used by retailers as public funds for waste management alongside non-governmental organizations.[111]

The island of Bali banned single-use plastic bags, straws, and styrofoam effective July, 2019.[256] Other major cities, including Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Semarang and Bogor, have since also banned single use plastic bags, particularly from modern retailers.[257]

IsraelEdit

Since January 2017, large retailers are required to charge consumers for plastic bags with handles, at NIS 0.10 for each bag. The tax revenues will be used to fund public waste-management programs.[citation needed] The average use of plastic bags in Israel in 2014 was 275 per person per year.[117] Four months after the law came into force, the number of disposable plastic bags distributed by retailers subject to the law had dropped by 80%.[258]

PhilippinesEdit

The Philippines is the world's third-largest ocean polluter despite a waste management act coming into effect 18 years ago. Corruption, lack of political will – and the proliferation and accessibility to single-use plastic products are the main challenges in regulating plastics.[259]

In 2010, Muntinlupa became the first local government in the National Capital Region to ban plastic bags and styrofoam in shops.[260] This was soon after followed by cities regulating or imposing bans or charges: Las Piñas (Jan. 2, 2012), Pasig (Jan. 1, 2012), Quezon City (Sept. 1, 2012, bags for a fee), Pasay (Sept. 1, 2012, bags for a fee), Makati (June 30, 2013).[261]

Metro Manila cities that have delayed imposing regulations and bans are : Taguig , Caloocan, Malabon, Valenzuela, Navotas, San Juan and Parañaque. These cities happen to be the base of hundreds of plastics and rubber manufacturing companies. In one city, a mayor's family even owns a 60-hectare “Plastic City Industrial” compound.[262]

On July 4, 2019, Senator Francis Pangilinan filed a bill seeking to phase out single-use plastic products by prohibiting its importation, manufacture and use in food establishments, stores, markets, and retailers.[263][264]

TaiwanEdit

In January 2003, Taiwan banned the free distribution of lightweight plastic bags.[66] The ban prevented the owners of department stores, shopping malls, hypermarkets, convenience stores, fast food restaurants and regular restaurants from providing free plastic bags to their customers. Many stores have replaced plastic with recycled paper boxes.[265] In 2006, however, the administration decided to begin allowing free plastic bags to be offered by food service operators.[266] In February 2018, Taiwan announced plans to ban plastic bags in varying degrees, banned for in-store use by 2019, certain stores prohibited from offering bags by 2020, price increases starting 2025, then 2030 blanket ban of single-use plastic bags, as well as single-use utensils and containers.[67][68][69]

EuropeEdit

European UnionEdit

In November 2013, the European Commission published a proposal aiming to reduce the consumption of lightweight (thickness below 50 microns) plastic carrier bags.[267] Under the proposal, EU member states can choose the most appropriate measures to discourage the use of plastic bags. On 29 April 2015 the European Parliament passed Directive 2015/720 to reduce plastic bag use by 50% by 2017 and 80% by 2019.[268][269][needs update]

DenmarkEdit

In 2003, Denmark introduced a tax on retailers giving out plastic bags. This encouraged stores to charge for plastic bags and pushed the use of reusable bags. It was thought that this saved about 66% of plastic and paper bags.[270] In 2004, a similar law was passed by the Inatsisartut in Greenland, which applied a recycling tax on plastic bags.[80] By 2014 Denmark had the lowest plastic bag use in Europe, with 4 bags per person per year, compared to 466 in Portugal, Poland and Slovakia.[271]

GermanyEdit

Germany imposes a fee on excess packaging through its Green Dot program, which included plastic bags.[272] In addition, all stores in Germany that provide plastic bags must pay a recycling tax.[273]

An agreement was signed between trade representatives and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety in April 2016 to reduce plastic bags, excepting thin bags for fruit and vegetables, bags for deep-freeze products and long-term usable bags,[274] resulting in many shops no longer offer such plastic bags free of cost since July 2016. Should the goal not be achieved, it is foreseen that a law may be passed banning shops from handing them out.[275] The political background to this is a recent change to the European directive 94/62/EG that obliges the member states to reduce the yearly number of plastic bags per capita down to maximally 90 by end-2019 and to maximally 40 by end-2025, whereas Germany had been using 70 bags per capita so far.[274]

GreeceEdit

A plastic bag charge was introduced on 1 January 2018.[97] Initially bags cost 4 cents each, which then increased to 7 cents on 1 January 2019.[276]

IrelandEdit

Ireland introduced a €0.15 tax in March 2002. Levied on consumers at the point of sale, this led to 90% of consumers using long-life bags within a year. This tax geared to change the behavior of consumers while still allowing them to choose if they want to pay an extra fee for plastic bags.[116] The tax was increased to €0.22 in 2007. The revenue is put into an Environment Fund, which is to be used for environmental projects; this is a major reason that consumers support this tax.[115][116] A study was done to look at how consumers responded to the tax at checkout and 60% were neutral over the cost while 14% of respondent were "positive" to the extra charge and 26% responded negatively.[116]

MoldovaEdit

The Moldovan parliament has passed legislation banning plastic bags. It came into force for larger retailers in 2017, came into force for medium-sized retailers on 1 January 2018 and is scheduled for small retailers in 2020.[143]

NetherlandsEdit

The Netherlands implemented a comprehensive ban on free plastic shopping bags on 1 January 2016. The ban has a small number of exemptions for unpacked food products which are exposed to possible contamination, such as fresh fruit. The target price for a plastic bag is €0.25.[153]

PolandEdit

A plastic recycling levy was introduced on 1 January 2018. Single-use plastic bags cost a minimum of 0.25 (inclusive of VAT), however stores are able to charge a higher amount.[178] The Polish government estimated that the levy would bring 1.1 billion złoty to the state budget in 2018, in addition to approx. 250 million złoty of VAT revenue raised on sales of the bags.[277]

PortugalEdit

Portugal has implemented a plastic bag tax amounting to 10 cents (€) on single-use carrier bags, which led to a reduction of 90% in their use.[179] However, many retailers started selling thicker (reusable) plastic bags, which are not subject to the tax, for the same amount. Before the Portuguese government implemented this plastic bag tax, some supermarkets in Portugal had already implemented a 2 cent (€) fee on each plastic bag.[278] In Madeira Island where supermarkets implemented this bag fee, there was a 64% reduction in plastic bag consumption.[278]

RomaniaEdit

A law was introduced in 2006 (law 578/2006) – and was later modified in 2011 (law 1032/2011) – that put a mandatory tax on non-biodegradable plastic bags. A modification in 2011 reduced the tax on plastic bags and was regarded by some as a step backwards from environmental protection.[279] Lightweight plastic bags were banned on 1 January 2019.[79]

SerbiaEdit

Serbia has a tax on manufacturers and importers of plastic bags[186] and plans to introduce a ban on lightweight plastic bags and a charge on biodegradable bags in order to reduce bag use to under 90 per person by 2019.[280] Major supermarkets began charging 2 dinars per bag in 2018.[281]

SpainEdit

Spain introduced a plastic bag charge on 1 July 2018.[200] Catalonia has had a bag charge since April 2017.[79][282]

SwitzerlandEdit

In 2016, the two largest chains of supermarkets in Switzerland, the Federation of Migros Cooperatives and Coop, announced that they will progressively stop to distribute free plastic bags (at the check-out).[205] Both distributors announced that they will not make money with paid bags, but that profits from their sale will be invested in environmental projects.[207]

Migros previously tested the measure in the Canton of Vaud since 2013: they reduced the number of plastic bags distributed by ninety percent (and saved 100,000 francs per year).[205][206] Migros will be the first to introduce the measure across the country, on 1 November 2016 (the bags will be made with recycled plastic and cost 0.05 Swiss francs each).[205][206] Coop plans to introduce this in 2017.[207]

United KingdomEdit

The Climate Change Act 2008 served as the legislative framework for the regulation of plastic bags in the United Kingdom.[283]

WalesEdit

Wales introduced a legal minimum charge of 5 pence for almost all single use bags in October 2011. Paper and biodegradable bags are included in the charge as well as plastic bags, with only a few specific exemptions – such as for unpackaged food or medicine supplied on an NHS prescription. VAT raised from the charge is collected by the government. Retailers are asked to pass the rest of the proceeds on to charities.[222] July 2012 statistics released by the Welsh Government suggested that carrier bag use in Wales had reduced 96% since the introduction of the charge.[273]

Northern IrelandEdit

Northern Ireland introduced a 5 pence levy on almost all single use bags on 8 April 2013. The levy was extended to reusable carrier bags with a retail price of less than 20 pence from 19 January 2014[223] as data from a number of retailers indicated that reusable bag sales had increased by 800% since the introduction of the levy on single use bags. The proceeds of the levy (£4.17m in 2013/14) are paid to the Department of the Environment and used to fund local environmental projects and enforce the levy. Official statistics for the Northern Ireland levy show that the number of single use bags dispensed fell from around 300 million in 2012/13 to 84.5 million in 2013/14 – a reduction of 72%.[284]

ScotlandEdit

A five pence minimum charge for single-use carrier bags came into force in Scotland on 20 October 2014. The proceeds of the charge can be used by the retailers as they see fit,[224] although retailers are encouraged to pledge to donate proceeds to "good causes".[285] The charge is not exclusive to plastic bags, and includes biodegradable bags, such as paper.[224] Bags for unpackaged food, loose seeds, soil-contaminated goods, axes, knives or blades; drugs or medical appliances; small packaged uncooked fish, meat or poultry; aquatic animals; purchases made in aerodrome security restricted areas; or goods bought on board a ship, train, aircraft, coach or bus are exempt from the charge.[286]

EnglandEdit

England was the last country in the United Kingdom to adopt the 5 pence charge,[225] with the levy taking effect on 5 October 2015.[287] Prior to the introduction of plastic bag regulations, various retailers participated in voluntary actions to reduce plastic bag consumption.[288]

Unlike the rest of the UK, the English charge does not apply to paper bags or bags made from other natural materials. As with the other nations, VAT raised on sales will be collected by the Government. Retailers can choose how the money raised from bag sales is used. The Government publishes information yearly on the scheme, encouraging retailers to donate the proceeds to charities.[289][290]

In the first 6 months, 640 million plastic bags were used in seven major supermarkets in England, raising £29.2 million for good causes.[291] England reported to have distributed 0.6 billion single-use bags during the first half year of the charge,[292] 7 billion fewer than were distributed in 2014.[293] A longitudinal evaluation of the English Plastic Bag Charge found that the charge had a positive effect upon all demographic groups, with a reduction in single-use plastic bags found among all income groups, all age groups, and both men and women.[294] In addition, the study found that public support for the plastic bag charge increased just one month after it was introduced, and people who increased their support for the bag charge were also more likely to increase their support for other policies aimed at reducing plastic waste, suggesting a 'spillover' effect for policy support.[294]

To promote the growth of new businesses in England, retailers with fewer than 250 employees are exempt from the charge.[295] Opponents to the exemption of small retailers argued that this exemption would diminish the environmental impact of the charge.[296] In response to this criticism, in the UK government has announced plans to extend the charge to all retailers and double the charge to 10p, which is expected to come into effect in April 2021.[297]

North AmericaEdit

The BahamasEdit

Within the Bahamas, non-legislative approaches have been instituted by The Bahamas Plastic Movement (BPM), an environmental non-profit organization that utilizes research, education, citizen science and policy change as solutions. Through citizen science-based research, public education and youth activism campaigns, this grass roots entity successfully engaged the Bahamian government in enacting legislation for a single-use plastics ban (including light-weight plastic bags), to be implemented in 2020.[298]

CanadaEdit

In March 2007, the small town of Leaf Rapids, Manitoba, became the first community in North America to ban bags.[299]

The Toronto City Council voted on 6 June 2012, to ban plastic bags effective 1 January 2013, and to scrap the city's five-cent bag fee starting 1 July 2012.[300] Industry groups have convinced city officials to include a grace period between 1 January 2013, and 30 June 2013, when no fines, only warnings, can be issued.[301] The bag ban and five cent fee (six cents with HST) have both been overturned as of 28 November 2012 and it's up to individual retailers if they want to charge for plastic bags.[302] Most stores, with the exception of a few national retailers do not charge.

The Canadian government has plans to ban single-use plastics as early as 2021, the list of items to be banned includes plastic straws, cotton swabs, stirrers, plates, cutlery as well as balloon sticks.[303]

Local laws governing plastic bag use in Canada
Province/Territory Municipality Passage date Effective date Effect
  Alberta Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo 10 April 2010 10 September 2010 Single-use plastic shopping bag ban. Reusable bags must be at least 2.25 mils.[304]
  British Columbia Victoria 17 December 2017 1 July 2018 Single-use plastic shopping bag ban.[305]
  Manitoba
Leaf Rapids 22 March 2007 2 April 2007 Single-use plastic shopping bag ban.[306]
Thompson 27 September 2010 31 December 2010 Single-use polyethylene bag ban. Reusable bags must be 2.25 mils thick.[307]
  New Brunswick
Dieppe 10 June 2019 1 October 2020 Single-use plastic shopping bag ban.[308][309]
Moncton 1 October 2020 Single-use plastic shopping bag ban.[308][309]
Riverview 10 June 2019 1 October 2020 Single-use plastic shopping bag ban.[308][309]
  Newfoundland and Labrador Province-wide 9 April 2019 1 October 2020 Single-use plastic shopping bag ban.[310][311]
  Northwest Territories Territory-wide 1 February 2011 Single-use plastic shopping bag charge of 25c.[312]
  Nova Scotia Province-wide 30 October 2019 30 October 2020 Single-use plastic shopping bag ban.[313]
  Prince Edward Island Province-wide July 2019 Single-use plastic shopping bag ban.[314]
  Quebec
Brossard 16 February 2016 1 September 2016 Single-use plastic bag ban (including compostable)[315][316]
Deux-Montagnes 2009 Plastic bag ban[317]
Huntingdon 2008 Plastic bag ban including bags used for newspapers and flyers[317]
Montreal 23 August 2016 1 January 2018 Ban of plastic bags including biodegradable. Reusable bags must be at least 50 microns thickness.[318]
  Saskatchewan Regina 31 May 2020 Single-use plastic shopping bag ban effective following COVID-19 pandemic.[319]
  Yukon Carmacks 1 August 2019 Single-use plastic shopping bag ban.[320]

GuatemalaEdit

A few municipalities in Guatemala have banned plastic bags, including San Pedro La Laguna, Acatenango, Villa Canales, San Miguel Petapa and Totonicapán.[99][100][101][102][103]

JamaicaEdit

There is a working group examining a state motion to ban plastic bags in Jamaica.[321]

On 17 September 2018, the Jamaican Cabinet announced a total ban on the importation, manufacture, distribution and use of single-use plastic bags, effective 1 January 2019.[120]

MexicoEdit

Plastic bags are banned in the following states: Baja California, Mexico City, Colima, Durango, Hidalgo, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Querétaro, Quintana Roo, Sonora, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatán and Zacatecas.[139]

PanamaEdit

Panama's Assembly has passed legislation banning plastic bags.[322] The law was sanctioned by the president in January 2017 and retailers have until January 2020 to phase out their existing stock.[168]

United StatesEdit

 
Phase out of lightweight plastic bags in the United States (laws in GU, ME, NY, VT passed but not in effect yet not shown on map)
  Plastic bags banned
  A charge on some plastic bags
  Partial charge or ban (county or municipality level)

There is no national plastic bag fee or ban currently in effect in the United States. However, the states of California,[323] Connecticut (July 2021), Delaware (2021), Hawaii (de facto), Maine (January 2021),[324] New York,[325] Oregon, Vermont (July 2020)[326] and Washington (2021)[327] and the territories of American Samoa, Guam (2021), Northern Mariana Islands, US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico[328] have banned disposable bags. By September 2018, about 350 counties and municipalities had enacted ordinances either imposing a fee on plastic bags or banning them outright,[329] including all counties in Hawaii.[330] Other attempts at banning plastic shopping bags statewide (for example in Massachusetts, though as of August 2019, 122 cities and towns in the state have done so)[331][332]) have not succeeded mainly due to plastic industry lobbying.[333] A few jurisdictions have chosen to implement a fee-only approach to bag reduction such as Connecticut, Washington, D.C. and adjacent Montgomery County, Maryland.[334] Some US states, such as Florida and Arizona, have passed laws preventing local municipalities from passing their own bans.[335]

OceaniaEdit

AustraliaEdit

 
Plastic bag bans in Australian states and territories
  Ban in effect (South Australia, Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory, Tasmania, Queensland, Victoria and Western Australia
  No ban (New South Wales)

Although the nation does not ban lightweight bags, all states except New South Wales do ban them. Coles Bay, Tasmania was the first location in Australia to ban the bag.[336] The introduction of the "Zero Waste" program in South Australia led to its lightweight bag ban in October 2008. It is estimated that 400 million bags are saved each year.[337] Western Australia and Queensland banned them in July 2018 and Victoria introduced a ban in November 2019.[30][31][32]

In Australia, 6 billion HDPE bags were used in 2002.[3] Usage reduced to 5.6 billion in 2004,[4] and 3.9 billion in 2007.[3]

After the two biggest supermarket chains in Australia banned single-use plastic grocery bags, the consumption of plastic bags in Australia dropped by 80% in three months.[338]

New ZealandEdit

In 2018, the Labour government pledged to phase out single-use plastic bags within a year's time. New Zealand is one of the highest producers of urban waste in the developed world, per capita, according to OECD data. Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern and Associate Environment Minister Eugenie Sage made the announcement on 10 August 2018.[339] On 18 December 2018, the Labour Government announced that all plastic shopping bags, including biodegradable, compostable, and oxy-gradable bags, that have handles with a thickness of less than 70 microns, will be banned from 1 July 2019.[155] Retailers who do not comply could face fines of up to NZD$100,000 (£51,000)[340]

South AmericaEdit

ArgentinaEdit

In 2012, the Buenos Aires city government allowed supermarkets to charge for plastic bags in order to discourage their use, which is said to have reduced their use by 50%.[341] In 2016 the city announced a full ban on the distribution of plastic bags in supermarkets and hypermarkets, commencing 1 January 2017.[342][343]

In 2009 the Governor of Buenos Aires Province, Daniel Scioli, approved Law 13868,[344] which mandated that by the end of that year, all non-biodegradable plastic bags should be phased out in favour of degradable materials.[345][346]

Other provinces like Neuquén, Chubut, Río Negro and cities like Rosario, Villa Gesell or Bariloche had already banned the distribution of plastic bags in supermarkets as well.[28]

ChileEdit

In May 2018, the House of Representatives voted for a gradual phaseout of plastic bags from retailers nationwide.[347][348][349][350] In August 2018, the legislation was approved by Congress and the President,[351] making Chile the first Latin American country to ban plastic bags. Beginning on 3 August 2018, each purchase could be accompanied by no more than two plastic bags. Under the legislation, six months later, supermarkets and large retail businesses were not permitted to provide plastic bags at all, and on 3 August 2020 the total ban also began to apply to small businesses. Environment minister Carolina Schmidt said it is believed that the law eliminated the use of billions of plastic bags.[352]

Before the nationwide ban, similar rules existed regionally. As of 2017, some 80 municipalities already restricted plastic bag distribution, while some coastal and lakeside areas had banned plastic bags altogether.[353]

ColombiaEdit

As of 2015, Colombia planned to reduce the use of plastic bags by 80% by the year 2020 and to completely eliminate their use by the year 2025.[354] On 29 April 2016, the Ministry of Environment passed a resolution banning plastic bags under 30 cm by 30 cm.[355]

From 1 July 2017, the Colombian Government applies a tax of 20 pesos per plastic bag, with a planned annual increase of 10 pesos per bag until 2020.[70]

A challenge has been the single-use plastic that accompanies grocery and restaurant delivery; these services were in high demand during the 2020 coronavirus pandemic.[356]

UruguayEdit

In 2018, the Uruguayan Parliament approved the law Nº19655[232] that banned the production, importation and commercialization of all non-biodegradable single-use plastic bags throughout the country. Since 1 July 2019 only biodegradable bags are allowed for commercial use, with a tax of 4 pesos per bag. According to government agencies, just days after the law was approved, the use of plastic bags dropped by 80%, marking a huge success for the regulation.[357]

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

FootnotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Schnurr, Riley E.J.; Alboiu, Vanessa; Chaudhary, Meenakshi; Corbett, Roan A.; Quanz, Meaghan E.; Sankar, Karthikeshwar; Srain, Harveer S.; Thavarajah, Venukasan; Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R. (2018). "Reducing marine pollution from single-use plastics (SUPs): A review". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 137: 157–171. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.10.001. PMID 30503422.
  2. ^ a b Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R. (2017). "International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 118 (1–2): 17–26. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.02.048. PMID 28238328.
  3. ^ a b c d "Plastic bags". Australian Government. 5 November 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  4. ^ a b "Plastic Bag Fact Sheet" (PDF). Sustainability Victoria. 9 November 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  5. ^ a b c d Kogoy, D (8 November 2010). "Plastic bag reduction around the world" (PDF). Marrickville Council.
  6. ^ Onyanga-Omara, Jane (14 September 2013). "Plastic bag backlash gains momentum". BBC News – via bbc.co.uk.
  7. ^ a b c d e Nielsen, T. D.; Holmberg, K.; Stripple, J. (15 March 2019). "Need a bag? A review of public policies on plastic carrier bags – Where, how and to what effect?". Waste Management. 87: 428–440. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2019.02.025. PMID 31109543.
  8. ^ "Our planet is drowning in plastic pollution. This World Environment Day, it's time for a change". www.unenvironment.org. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  9. ^ Marine litter – trash that kills (PDF). Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  10. ^ a b "Plastic Waste and Wildlife". Plastic Waste Solutions. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  11. ^ "Getting+Friendly+Environment"+"The+Dell+Challenge"&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8 "Getting Friendly Environment". The Dell Challenge. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  12. ^ Watts, Jonathan (27 February 2008). "China's biggest plastic bag maker closes after ban". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  13. ^ Kiener, Robert (1 July 2010). "Plastic Pollution". CQ Global Researcher: 157–184.
  14. ^ "Facts". Garbage Patch – The Great Pacific Garbage Patch and other pollution issues. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  15. ^ Garces, Diego. "A staggering amount of waste – much of which has only existed for the past 60 years or so – enters the oceans each year". World Wildlife Fund. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  16. ^ a b c d e Skumatz, Lisa; D'Souza, Dana (November 2016). "Bag ban basics". Plastics Recycling Update. 35 (11): 16–19.
  17. ^ a b c "Momentum for Plastic Bag Bans Spreading; Recycling Programs Earn Mixed Reviews". Solid Waste Report. 45 (8): 5–6. 25 April 2014.
  18. ^ https://travel.usnews.com/features/why-ecotourism-is-booming
  19. ^ "Say "No to Plastic" in 9 Languages".
  20. ^ Homonoff, Tatiana A. (2018). "Can Small Incentives Have Large Effects? The Impact of Taxes versus Bonuses on Disposable Bag Use". American Economic Journal: Economic Policy. 10 (4): 177–210. doi:10.1257/pol.20150261. ISSN 1945-7731.
  21. ^ a b Taylor, Rebecca L.C. (2019). "Bag leakage: The effect of disposable carryout bag regulations on unregulated bags". Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 93: 254–271. doi:10.1016/j.jeem.2019.01.001.
  22. ^ Rosalsky, Greg (9 April 2019). "Are Plastic Bag Bans Garbage?". NPR.org. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  23. ^ a b Taylor, Rebecca (4 January 2019). "Bag leakage: The effect of disposable carryout bag regulations on unregulated bags". Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 93: 254–271. doi:10.1016/j.jeem.2019.01.001.
  24. ^ a b c d e "Legal Limits on Single-Use Plastics and Microplastics" (PDF). United Nations. 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  25. ^ "Albania bans lightweight plastic bags". Emerging Europe. 31 July 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  26. ^ "Reducció del consum de les bosses de plàstic". mediambient.ad. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  27. ^ "Antigua and Barbuda bans plastic bags". 12 July 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  28. ^ a b "Adiós a las bolsas del súper". Clarin. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  29. ^ "Armenia to introduce environmental tax on plastic bags, looks to ban from 2022". Panorama.am. 23 February 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  30. ^ a b "New laws that will affect Australia". January 2018. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  31. ^ a b "Plastic bag ban gets green light in Queensland". 6 September 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  32. ^ a b "Victoria set to ban plastic bags next year". Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  33. ^ "Council Adopts a Plastic Bag Policy for Norfolk Island". Norfolk Online. 20 October 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  34. ^ "Victoria moves to ban plastic bags". SBS. 19 June 2019.
  35. ^ "Austria to ban most plastic bags starting in 2020". The Seattle Times. 5 December 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  36. ^ "Plastic bags to be banned in country". AzerNews.az. 28 November 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  37. ^ "Customer Complaints As Single Use Plastic Ban Comes Into Effect". The Tribune. 3 January 2020.
  38. ^ "Bahrain to ban plastic bags in July". Khaleej Times. 13 June 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  39. ^ a b Nicole Bogart (7 June 2012). "Top 5 places with plastic bag bans". Global News. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  40. ^ "Jamaica Observer Limited". Jamaica Observer.
  41. ^ "Belarus joins garbage combating trend". TVR. 28 July 2019.
  42. ^ "Plastic bags law in Belgium". FF Packaging. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  43. ^ "Verbod plastic zakjes definitief van kracht". Bakkers Vlaanderen (in Dutch). 25 March 2019.
  44. ^ "Belize pledges to ban plastic forks, bags and other single-use items by 2019". Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  45. ^ "Stop banning plastic bags, please". Bloomberg. 8 November 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Adam, Issahaku; Walker, Tony R.; Bezerra, Joana Carlos; Clayton, Andrea (1 June 2020). "Policies to reduce single-use plastic marine pollution in West Africa". Marine Policy. 116: 103928. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2020.103928.
  47. ^ "Plastic ban still ineffective". BBS. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  48. ^ "La Paz, Bolivia BANS Plastic Bags!". Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  49. ^ "Namibia and Botswana Act Against Plastic Bag Pollution". Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  50. ^ "City of São Paulo, Brazil Launches Ban on Traditional Plastic Bags – The Global Grid". 6 May 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  51. ^ Soares, Eduardo (5 July 2018). "Brazil: State of Rio de Janeiro Bans Plastic Bags | Global Legal Monitor". www.loc.gov. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  52. ^ "Brunei aims to phase out plastic bags in supermarkets by 2019". The Scoop. 16 April 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  53. ^ "Bulgaria's Environment Ministry Reports Substantial Reduction in Plastic Bag Use – Novinite.com – Sofia News Agency". Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  54. ^ "Burkina Faso endorses law on sustainable development and bans non-biodegradable plastic bags - UN Environment". unpei.org. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  55. ^ "Burundi brings forward plastic bag ban by six months". The East African. 14 August 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  56. ^ a b "Cambodia to charge customers for plastic bags". Channel News Asia. 19 October 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  57. ^ "Cameroon: bagging it after the plastic ban". African Arguments. 30 November 2016.
  58. ^ "Canada to ban single-use plastics as early as 2021". BBC News. 10 June 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2019 – via bbc.co.uk.
  59. ^ "Cabo Verde: ban on plastic bags - Partenariat Régional pour la conservation". prcmarine.org. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  60. ^ "Chad - Prohibited & Restricted Imports - export.gov". export.gov. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  61. ^ Concepción, Diario. "Comienza la aplicación de la nueva Ley de Bolsas Plásticas". Diario Concepción. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  62. ^ a b Shi Jierui (10 July 2009). "China's bag ban, one year later". China Dialogue. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  63. ^ a b "Plastic bag ban abroad". China Network Television. 6 January 2011. Archived from the original on 11 April 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  64. ^ "Shops providing free plastic bags to customers will be fined in Macau". Macau Hub. 19 August 2019.
  65. ^ "China to cut single-use plastic reliance by 2025". Circular Online. 20 January 2020.
  66. ^ a b "Retail Bags Report – List of Retail Bag Policies – Asia". Department of Environmental Protection Florida. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  67. ^ a b "Taiwan to ban disposable plastic items by 2030". The Straits Times. AFP. 22 February 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  68. ^ a b Everington, Keoni. "Taiwan EPA sets timeline for ban on plastic straws". Taiwan News. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  69. ^ a b McCarthy, Joe. "Taiwan Announces Ban on All Plastic Bags, Straws, and Utensils". Global Citizen. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  70. ^ a b "Abecé de lo que tiene que saber sobre el impuesto a bolsas plásticas". ElTiempo.com. 30 June 2017.
  71. ^ "REPORT ON THE STATUS OF STYROFOAM AND PLASTIC BAG BANS IN THE WIDER CARIBBEAN REGION" (PDF). United Nations. 11 July 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  72. ^ "Comores : Moroni fait la guerre aux sacs plastique". L'Express (in French). 1 July 2015.
  73. ^ "By 2021 Costa Rica Will be the First Country to Eliminate Single-Use Plastics". The Costa Rica News. 27 July 2017.
  74. ^ Oldenburg, Silke (6 December 2018). "Living without plastic bags — the Democratic Republic of Congo is paving the way". Medium. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  75. ^ Editorial, Reuters (2 June 2011). "Congo bans plastic bags to fight pollution". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  76. ^ "From 2019, No More Free Plastic Bags in Croatian Stores". Total Croatia News. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  77. ^ "Shops ignoring plastic bag ban – Cyprus Mail". 4 January 2018.
  78. ^ "Czech Republic Says Goodbye to Free Plastic Bags". 3 February 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  79. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "ENOUGH EXCUSES: Time for Europe to act against plastic bag pollution" (PDF). Surfrider Foundation Europe.
  80. ^ a b http://www.ina.gl/demokratihome/publikationer.aspx?docgallery=10554
  81. ^ Gibbens, Sarah (8 August 2018). "This Island Nation Is Banning Plastic". National Geographic. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  82. ^ "Chile becomes first South American country to ban commercial use of plastic bags- Technology News, Firstpost". Tech2. 5 August 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  83. ^ "Red Sea Governorate bans plastics". 2 April 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  84. ^ "Retail Bags Report – List of Retail Bag Policies". Department of Environmental Protection Florida. 16 December 2008. Archived from the original on 27 December 2008.
  85. ^ "Ethiopia puts a squeeze on plastic bags". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  86. ^ "Fiji's plastic bag ban to come into effect on New Year's Day". Radio NZ. 31 December 2019.
  87. ^ a b "Ditching Plastic Bags: A Lesson from Africa – Zero Waste Europe". 3 July 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  88. ^ Robert, Aline (19 November 2015). "France postpones plastic bag ban for six months". EurActiv.fr. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  89. ^ "St-Pierre-et-Miquelon: A taste of French freedom for N.L.ers". The Telegram. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  90. ^ "Protection de l'environnement : création de l'écotaxe et interdiction des sacs plastiques / 2017 / Articles archivés / Autres dossiers archivés / Publications / Accueil - Les services de l'État à Wallis et Futuna". wallis-et-futuna.pref.gouv.fr. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  91. ^ "Le gouvernement annonce une interdiction des sacs plastiques en 2019". TAHITI INFOS, les informations de Tahiti. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  92. ^ "La Nouvelle-Calédonie interdit les plastiques jetables". Euractiv (in French). Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  93. ^ "Gabon to ban plastic bags, introduces biodegradable bags". panapress.com.
  94. ^ "Gambia: The Ban On Plastic Bag Use". allafrica.com.
  95. ^ "Armenia Fails to Ban Plastic Bags. Taxing Them Could Generate $215 Million for the Government – Hetq – News, Articles, Investigations". Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  96. ^ "Plastic bags: Germany is passing a law to ban them". BBC. 14 August 2019.
  97. ^ a b "Free plastic shopping bags banned from start of new year – Kathimerini". Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  98. ^ "Grenada bans single use plastics". Travel Weekly. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  99. ^ a b "To Help Conserve Lake Atitlán, Town Bans Plastic Bags". 4 May 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  100. ^ a b "Acatenango prohíbe el uso de bolsas plásticas, pajillas y duroport" (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  101. ^ a b "Municipalidad de Villa Canales prohíbe el uso de bolsas plásticas y otros artículos no reusables". elPeriodico. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  102. ^ a b "San Miguel Petapa se une a la prohibición de bolsas plásticas". Prensa Libre. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  103. ^ a b KM169, Prensa Comunitaria (5 June 2018). "Totonicapán dice NO al uso del plástico". Prensa Comunitaria KM169. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  104. ^ "Guatemala to ban plastic bags, straws, cups beginning 2021". AP. 20 September 2019.
  105. ^ "Guinea-Bissau: retail hits back at plastic bag ban – Trendtype". 17 April 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  106. ^ GTIMES (29 April 2018). "Countrywide ban on plastic bags by 2021 - Guyana Times". guyanatimesgy.com. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
  107. ^ Lall, Rashmee Roshan (15 August 2013). "Haiti police raid warehouses in plastics ban crackdown". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  108. ^ "Roatan Bans Plastic Bags and Straws!". Honduras Travel. 24 January 2019.
  109. ^ "Single-Use Plastic Bags Banned in Iceland". Iceland Review. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  110. ^ a b "plastic pollution: cow eating a plastic bag, near the Ganges River, Allahabad, India, 2007". Britannica. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  111. ^ a b Sujadi Siswo (21 February 2016). "Indonesia launches campaign to reduce use of plastic bags". Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  112. ^ "Indonesia: Plastic bag ban in Bali to go into effect June 2019". GardaWorld. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  113. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "Jakarta to ban single-use plastic bags by June". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  114. ^ https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/07/indonesia-bans-single-use-plastic-bags-200701143231575.html
  115. ^ a b Summers, Chris (19 March 2012). "What should be done about plastic bags?". BBC News. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  116. ^ a b c d Convery, Frank; McDonnell, Simon; Ferreira, Susana (1 September 2007). "The most popular tax in Europe? Lessons from the Irish plastic bags levy". Environmental and Resource Economics. 38 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1007/s10640-006-9059-2. ISSN 1573-1502.
  117. ^ a b Udasin, Sharon: "Knesset bills seeks to alleviate scourge of plastic shopping bags in Israel ", in The Jerusalem Post, 10 February 2014
  118. ^ "Italy Carries Out Plastic Bag Ban". Environmental Leader. 6 January 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  119. ^ "Plastic bag protest in Ivory Coast". BBC News. 25 November 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  120. ^ a b "Gov't ban on single use plastic bags, straws, Styrofoam starts January". Jamaica Observer. 17 September 2018. Retrieved 18 September 2018.
  121. ^ "Current Status of Plastic Bag Reduction Efforts in Japan|JFS Japan for Sustainability".
  122. ^ "Can Japan end its love affair with plastic?". Japan Today. 25 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  123. ^ "Japan retailers to charge for plastic bags from 2020". Phys. 1 November 2019.
  124. ^ "Kazakhstan authorities decide to abolish plastic shopping bags - Tajikistan News ASIA-Plus". Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  125. ^ a b Freytas-Tamura, Kimiko de (28 August 2017). "In Kenya, Selling or Importing Plastic Bags Will Cost You $19,000 — or Jail". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  126. ^ BENGARD, Anastasia (8 February 2018). "Kyrgyzstan intends to prohibit use of plastic bags". Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  127. ^ "Stores in Latvia will no longer provide plastic bags free of charge". 11 January 2018.
  128. ^ "Lebanese mayor bans plastic bags: 'We need to start somewhere'". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  129. ^ Rajaona, Antso. "Madagascar: Prohibition of the use of plastic bags as from May 1 2015".
  130. ^ "Plastic bag manufacturers' honeymoon ends Monday". Times.mw. 27 June 2015.
  131. ^ "Launching of No Free Plastic Bags Day at Tesco Sg Dua". Penang Government. 24 January 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  132. ^ Shaun Ho (3 January 2010). "Selangor implements 'No Plastic Day' every Saturday". The Star. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  133. ^ "Maldives parliament approves ban on single-use plastics import". Avas.mv. 15 July 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  134. ^ "Could 2013 spell the end for plastic bags?". France 24. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  135. ^ "Single-Use Plastics Will Be Banned In Malta By 2022". Lovin Malta. 14 October 2019.
  136. ^ a b "More Pacific islands step up battle against plastic". Radio New Zealand. 1 August 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  137. ^ "Mauritania bans plastic bag use". BBC News. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  138. ^ "Mauritius bans the use of plastic bags". Government of Mauritius. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  139. ^ a b https://www.excelsior.com.mx/nacional/estos-son-los-estados-del-pais-que-prohiben-el-uso-de-plasticos/1356289
  140. ^ "Pacific Islands Moving Towards Banning Single Use Plastic". SPREP. 29 June 2018.
  141. ^ "Plastic Bag Ban coming April 2019 for Kosrae State". Kirma Kosrae. 4 December 2018.
  142. ^ "Chuuk State Clean Environment Act of 2018" (PDF). Chuuk State Senate. April 2018.
  143. ^ a b "Plastic bags are banned in Moldova » Accent TV". a-tv.md. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  144. ^ Writer, Staff (8 January 2017). "Plastic bag restrictions continue in Monaco". Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  145. ^ "Mongolia decides to ban single-use plastic bags". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  146. ^ "Plastic Bag Ban to be Introduced in Montenegro". Total Montenegro News. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  147. ^ "Morocco enforcing nationwide ban on plastic bags". Africanews. 1 July 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  148. ^ "Mozambique: Restrictions On Plastic Bags Take Effect On 5 February". AllAfrica. 29 January 2016.
  149. ^ Aye Sapay Phyu; Juliet Shwe Gaung (2 May 2011). "Plastic bags get the toss from Yangon". The Myanmar Times. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  150. ^ "Govt to rake in N$14m from plastic levy". Namibian. 29 July 2019.
  151. ^ "Namibia officially bans plastic bags in protected areas". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  152. ^ "Ban on production and use of plastic bags comes into effect". 17 July 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  153. ^ a b Milieu, Ministerie van Infrastructuur en (26 August 2015). "Verbod op gratis plastic tassen – Afval – Rijksoverheid.nl". rijksoverheid.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  154. ^ "Why Aruba Just Banned Plastic Bags". Caribbean Journal. 9 August 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  155. ^ a b "Single-use plastic bags banned from July 1, Government confirms". Newshub. 18 December 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  156. ^ "Niue joins growing Pacific movement to ban plastics". Radio New Zealand. 11 July 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  157. ^ "Cook Islands moves to ban single-use plastic". Radio NZ. 11 June 2019.
  158. ^ "Niger: Govt. bans production, import, trade, use of plastic bags". panapress.com. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  159. ^ a b Opara, George (21 May 2019). "Reps pass bill banning plastic bags, prescribe fines against offenders". Daily Post. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  160. ^ Saveski, Zdravko (5 August 2019). "Оние незабележливи пластични ќеси". Nezavisen (in Macedonian).
  161. ^ "Plastic bag charge carries to Norway". 3 October 2017.
  162. ^ "Oman announces end to single-use plastic bags by 2021". The National. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  163. ^ "Pakistan will become 128th country to ban use of plastic bags on 14th". The News. 5 August 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  164. ^ "KP govt bans plastic bags". The News. 17 March 2019.
  165. ^ "In Pakistan's northern mountains, plastic bags face the bin". Quantara. 26 June 2019.
  166. ^ "AJK bans production, use of plastic shopping bags". Nation. 30 May 2019.
  167. ^ "Palau Moves To Ban Plastic Bags". Pacific Note. 9 November 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  168. ^ a b "Panama Bans the Use of Plastic Bags". Audubon. 7 February 2018.
  169. ^ "PNG prepares for ban on non-biodegradable plastic bags". ABC News. 15 December 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
  170. ^ "Ban on plastic bags begins in PNG". 28 January 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
  171. ^ "Ley de plásticos: todo lo que debes saber sobre el cobro de bolsas en establecimientos". El Comercio (in Spanish). 7 May 2019.
  172. ^ "Peru to phase out throw-away plastic bags in three years". Reuters. 6 December 2018. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  173. ^ Valisno, Jeffrey O. (2 March 2012). "To plastic or not to plastic, that is the question..." Business World Online. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  174. ^ "Quezon City plastic bag fee".
  175. ^ "Industry expects downsizing plastic in Manila".
  176. ^ "Valenzuela stubbornly says no to plastic ban".
  177. ^ "Malabon delays plastic ban".
  178. ^ a b "Koniec z darmowymi reklamówkami. Jakie są ceny foliówek w supermarketach?". Wprost. 2 January 2018. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  179. ^ a b "Plastic bag use plummets a year after tax introduction". Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  180. ^ "Russia Moves to Phase Out Plastic Bags in New Draft Law". The Moscow Times. 18 October 2019.
  181. ^ Clavel, Émilie (15 February 2014). "Think you can't live without plastic bags? Consider this: Rwanda did it". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  182. ^ "St Vincent and the Grenadines bans single-use plastic bags". WICNEWS. 29 November 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  183. ^ "Samoa to ban plastics". Samoa Observer. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  184. ^ "Deputados são-tomenses aprovam lei para reduzir sacos plásticos no País". Agencia (in Portuguese). 8 August 2019.
  185. ^ Iwuoha, John-Paul (3 June 2016). "Plastic Shopping Bags Will Soon Be History Everywhere in Africa. Here's Why..." Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  186. ^ a b "Serbia Throws Plastic Bags in Dustbin of History". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  187. ^ https://www.sllistbeograd.rs/pdf/2018/85-2018.pdf#view=Fit&page=1
  188. ^ "In another environmental push, Seychelles bans single-use plastic straws". seychellesnewsagency.com. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  189. ^ "STA: Govt bans free lightweight plastic bags as of 2019". english.sta.si. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
  190. ^ "The Solomons has announced a ban on plastic bags!". 21 June 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  191. ^ a b Somaliland bans use of plastic bags, IRIN News, 1 March 2005. Accessed on 30 October 2017.
  192. ^ a b Somaliland still blighted by plastic bags, despite ban, IRIN News, 24 March 2005. Accessed on 30 October 2017.
  193. ^ a b Somaliland plastic ban: Enforcement teams formed for implementation Archived 7 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Somaliland Informer, 9 September 2016. Accessed on 30 October 2017.
  194. ^ a b Somaliland: Ban on Plastic Bags Imposed Archived 19 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Somaliland Sun, 14 April 2015. Accessed on 30 October 2017.
  195. ^ a b The Official text of the Presidential decree (in Somali) Archived 6 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed on 30 October 2017.
  196. ^ a b Dikgang, Johane; Leiman, Anthony; Visser, Martine (8 July 2010). "Analysis of the plastic-bag levy in South Africa" (PDF). Economic Research Southern Africa.
  197. ^ a b John Roach (4 April 2008). "Plastic-Bag Bans Gaining Momentum Around the World". National Geographic. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  198. ^ "South Korea bans disposable coffee cups, plastic bags". Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  199. ^ "Gov't bans plastic bags". 18 December 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  200. ^ a b "Charging for carrier bags to be mandatory in Spain from 2018". thinkSPAIN. 16 February 2017.
  201. ^ "Balearic Islands to ban plastic by 2020 in bid to clean its beaches". The Telegraph. 17 January 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  202. ^ "Sri Lanka bans plastic bags, other disposables after garbage crisis". The Straits Times. 1 September 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  203. ^ "Sudan: Khartoum State Bans Light Plastic Bags". Sudan News Agency (Khartoum). 21 September 2017. Retrieved 10 August 2018 – via AllAfrica.
  204. ^ "Sweden considers higher fees for plastic bags". 6 July 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  205. ^ a b c d (in French) Michel Guillaume, "L'économie suisse promet de verdir", Le temps, Monday 26 September 2016, page 4. Published on-line as "L'économie suisse promet de verdir malgré le rejet de l'initiative" on 25 September 2016 (page visited on 26 September 2016).
  206. ^ a b c (in French) Michael West, "Environnement. « Petits prix pour grands effets »", Migros Magazine, number 39, 29 September 2016, page 38-39.
  207. ^ a b c (in French) "Chez Coop et Migros, les sacs jetables vont désormais coûter 5 centimes", Radio télévision suisse, 22 September 2016 (page visited on 25 September 2016).
  208. ^ "Geneva set to ban single-use plastics". The Local. 23 April 2019.
  209. ^ "Tanzania to ban single-use plastics by July - environment minister". 8 April 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2019 – via af.reuters.com.
  210. ^ a b "Tanzania latest African nation to ban plastic bags". France 24. 31 May 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  211. ^ "Major Thai stores to stop giving out plastic bags by 2020: minister". Reuters. 24 September 2019. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  212. ^ "Thailand to ban single-use plastics in 2021". Coconuts Bangkok. 12 November 2019.
  213. ^ "Togo bans plastic bags amid growing global trend". 19 January 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2018.
  214. ^ a b "Tunisia bans disposable plastic shopping bags". TreeHugger. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  215. ^ "Plastic bags to be banned on Istanbul's Princes' Islands". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  216. ^ Hartmann, Jens. "TURKEY: Introduction of fees for retail plastic bags from January 2018 / Ban on thin plastic bags". plasteurope.com. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  217. ^ "North Cyprus introduces plastic bag charge – T-VINE". Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  218. ^ "Tuvalu: Ban on Single-Use Plastics Commences". Library of Congress. 19 August 2019. Archived from the original on 14 September 2019.
  219. ^ a b "East African ban on plastic bags". BBC. 14 June 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  220. ^ "In Ukraine, plastic bags to be banned". Front News. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  221. ^ "Abu Dhabi to ban single-use plastic bags next year". Packaging Gateway. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  222. ^ a b "Retailers". Carrier bag charge Wales. Crown. July 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  223. ^ a b "NI Direct Bag Levy". Carrier bag Levy Northern Ireland. NI Direct. 20 November 2015.
  224. ^ a b c Natasha Culzac (20 October 2014). "Scotland's 5p carrier bag charge comes into effect". The Independent. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  225. ^ a b Howell, Dominic (30 July 2016). "The 5p plastic bag charge: All you need to know". BBC News. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  226. ^ "Goodbye to single use plastic bags Ban to take effect from January 2019". Turks and Caicos Weekly News. 8 October 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  227. ^ "Anguilla Joins Region's Governments Banning Plastic". The Anguillan. 26 November 2018.
  228. ^ "New legislation bans most single use plastic bags and makes washing down dog urine a legal obligation". GBC. 17 September 2019.
  229. ^ "Tackling Plastic Pollution - British Indian Ocean Territory". Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  230. ^ "Manx government proposes ban on single-use plastics". BBC News. 24 July 2019.
  231. ^ {{cite web|url=https://www.gov.je/News/2020/Pages/PlasticBagBan.aspx/%7Ctitle=Jersey to ban single-use plastic bags|work=Jersey Government|date=17 June 2020
  232. ^ a b "Ley N° 19655". www.impo.com.uy. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  233. ^ UzDaily.com. "Free distribution of plastic bags to be banned in Uzbekistan from 2019". UzDaily.com. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  234. ^ "Plastic bag ban in Vanuatu from February". 3 January 2018. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  235. ^ "Vatican City State set to end sale of single-use plastics". The Tablet. 16 July 2019.
  236. ^ "Plastic bags banned". Zambia Daily Mail. Retrieved 27 December 2018.
  237. ^ "Kenya bans plastic bags". The Independent UK. 9 January 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  238. ^ "Nairobi city to ban use of plastic bags". Africa Review Kenya. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  239. ^ "Government bans use of plastic bags". Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  240. ^ "Uhuru Kenyatta bans single-use plastic products in parks, beaches". Daily Nation. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  241. ^ "Zanzibar islands ban plastic bags". BBC. 10 November 2006. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  242. ^ Pflanz, By Mike (4 April 2006). "Tanzania to ban all plastic bags". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  243. ^ "Plastic bag ban delayed – Dar Post". Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  244. ^ http://www.thearabweekly.com/, The Arab Weekly. "Tunisia bans plastic bags in supermarkets". The Arab Weekly. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  245. ^ Tenywa, Gerald (11 January 2009). "Paper bag makers shift base as kaveera ghost hits with vengeance". New Vision. Kampala. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  246. ^ "Makers of plastic bags get reprieve". Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  247. ^ "Minimum Thickness of Plastic Carry Bags Increased from 40 to 50 Microns". Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
  248. ^ "India's first organic state". The Hindu. 14 January 2016.
  249. ^ "Ban on plastic bottles".
  250. ^ "Total plastic ban in Karnataka".
  251. ^ "HC refuses to stay plastic ban; asks plastic industry to go to Green Tribunal". 30 March 2016.
  252. ^ TNN (20 May 2013). "Plea to relax ban on plastic bags below 40 microns". The Times of India. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  253. ^ Press Trust of India (2 January 2010). "Mumbai to ban plastic bags; to amend law". Diligent Media Corporation Ltd. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  254. ^ "Plastic Waste Management in Maharashtra". Maharashtra Pollution Control Board. 23 June 2018. Archived from the original on 21 August 2018. Retrieved 22 June 2018.
  255. ^ "Tamil-Nadu-to-start-new-year-with-plastics-ban".
  256. ^ Heyden, Dylan. "Bali Institutes a Ban on Single-Use Plastics in 2019 With Aggressive Reduction Goals". The Inertia.
  257. ^ Dharmastuti, Hestiana (7 January 2020). "Sebelum Jakarta, Bali hingga Semarang Lebih Dulu Larang Kantong Plastik". detiknews (in Indonesian).
  258. ^ "Disposable plastic bag use falls very sharply – Globes English". Globes. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  259. ^ "Philippines plastic pollution: why so much waste ends up in oceans".
  260. ^ "Muntinlupa first to ban plastics".
  261. ^ "To plastic or not to plastic, that is the question..."
  262. ^ "Valenzuela stubbornly says 'no'".
  263. ^ "Single-Use Plastics Regulation and Management Act of 2019".
  264. ^ "Days of single-use plastic to end with approval of Pangilinan's Senate Bill 40".
  265. ^ "Why plastic shopping bag bans and taxes don't work" (doc). Canadian Plastics Industry Association. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  266. ^ "Many support EPA ban on throw-away utensils". taipeitimes.com. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  267. ^ "EUROPA – Press release – Environment: Commission proposes to reduce the use of plastic bags". European Commission. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
  268. ^ Cécile Barbière (29 April 2015). "EU to halve plastic bag use by 2019". Euractiv. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  269. ^ "Directive 2015/720". 29 April 2015. amending Directive 94/62/EC as regards reducing the consumption of lightweight plastic carrier bags
  270. ^ "Learn About Global Efforts to Reduce Waste from Disposable Products". Reuse it. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  271. ^ "Europe votes to slash plastic bag use", ABC News, 17 April 2014
  272. ^ "How To Germany – All About Recycling in Germany". howtogermany.com. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  273. ^ a b "List by country; 'bag charges, taxes and bans'. – Big Fat Bags". Big Fat Bags. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  274. ^ a b "Ende der kostenlosen Plastiktüten – Fragen und Antworten" (in German). Umweltbundesamt. 2 June 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  275. ^ "Plastiktüten ab Juli kostenpflichtig" (in German). Umweltbundesamt. 26 April 2016. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  276. ^ "Plastic bags to cost 4 cents each in Greece after January 1 – CretePost.gr". chaniapost.eu. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  277. ^ Pokojska, Agnieszka (19 December 2017). "Opłata recyklingowa w 2018 roku. Fiskus zarobi ćwierć miliarda złotych na sprzedaży foliówek". Gazeta Prawna. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  278. ^ a b Luís, Idalina Perestrelo; Spínola, Hélder (2010). "The influence of a voluntary fee in the consumption of plastic bags on supermarkets from Madeira Island (Portugal)". Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 53 (7): 883–889. doi:10.1080/09640568.2010.490054.
  279. ^ "Ecotaxa pe pungi şi sacoşe pentru cumpărături". 2 June 2011.
  280. ^ "Serbia set to ban plastic bags". Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  281. ^ "NAPLATA PLASTIČNE AMBALAŽE: Traže dva dinara za kesu" (in Serbian). Večernje novosti. 17 July 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  282. ^ "Carrier bag charges compulsory from July this year". Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  283. ^ Everett, Michael; Priestley, Sara (22 June 2017). "The 5p Plastic Bag Charge". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  284. ^ "NI Bag Levy Annual Statistics 2013/14" (PDF). Carrier bag Levy Northern Ireland Statistics. DOE NI. August 2014.
  285. ^ "Home – Carrier Bag Charge Scotland". Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  286. ^ "The Single Use Carrier Bags Charge (Scotland) Regulations 2014". Schedule 1, Act No. 161 of 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  287. ^ "5p carrier bag fee 'will cost families £1.5 billion' over next 10 years". ITV News. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  288. ^ Ritch, Elaine; Brennan, Carol; MacLeod, Calum (2009). "Plastic bag politics: Modifying consumer behaviour for sustainable development". International Journal of Consumer Studies. 33 (2): 168–174. doi:10.1111/j.1470-6431.2009.00749.x.
  289. ^ Howell, Dominic (30 July 2016). "The 5p plastic bag charge: All you need to know". BBC News. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  290. ^ "Carrier bags: why there's a charge". Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. 3 November 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  291. ^ Morelle, Rebecca (30 July 2016). "BBC News:Plastic bag use plummets in England". BBC News. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  292. ^ "Single-use plastic carrier bags charge: data in England for 2015 to 2016". Gov.uk. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  293. ^ "WRAP announces new carrier bag figures | WRAP UK". wrap.org.uk. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  294. ^ a b Thomas, Gregory Owen; Sautkina, Elena; Poortinga, Wouter; Wolstenholme, Emily; Whitmarsh, Lorraine (2019). "The English Plastic Bag Charge Changed Behavior and Increased Support for Other Charges to Reduce Plastic Waste". Frontiers in Psychology. 10: 266. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00266. ISSN 1664-1078. PMC 6399129. PMID 30863332.
  295. ^ Everett, Michael; Priestley, Sara (22 June 2017). "The 5p Plastic Bag Charge". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  296. ^ "Plastic bags: Government response – News from Parliament". UK Parliament. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  297. ^ DEFRA, War on plastic waste stepped up with extension of plastic bag charge, published 31 August 2020,accessed 29 September 2021
  298. ^ Ambrose, Kristal K.; Box, Carolynn; Boxall, James; Brooks, Annabelle; Eriksen, Marcus; Fabres, Joan; Fylakis, Georgios; Walker, Tony R. (May 2019). "Spatial trends and drivers of marine debris accumulation on shorelines in South Eleuthera, the Bahamas using citizen science". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 142: 145–154. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.03.036. PMID 31232287.
  299. ^ "Plastic bags officially banned in Manitoba town". Bell Media. 2 April 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  300. ^ "Toronto bans plastic bags by the start of 2013". The Toronto Sun. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  301. ^ "Toronto plastic bag ban: Bylaw ready to go for a Jan. 1 soft launch". The Toronto Star. 7 November 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  302. ^ "Bag ban overturned, shopping bylaw unchanged". CP24. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  303. ^ Hannah, Thibedeau (9 June 2019). "Government to ban single-use plastics as early as 2021". CBC News. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  304. ^ "BYLAW NO. 12/007" (PDF). Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  305. ^ "Plastic bags no more: Victoria to implement ban July 1". CBC News. 17 December 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  306. ^ "Leaf Rapids Green Initiatives". Leaf Rapids, Manitoba, Canada. Town of Leaf Rapids. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  307. ^ "Single Use Plastic Bag By-law". City of Thompson. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  308. ^ a b c "City of Moncton passes bylaw banning some plastic and placing fee on paper checkout bags – Dieppe and Riverview introduce bylaws identical to Moncton Bylaw". Retail Council. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  309. ^ a b c https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/moncton-dieppe-riverview-plastic-bag-bylaw-1.5566126
  310. ^ "N.S. passes legislation banning single-use plastic bags". CBC. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  311. ^ https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/plastic-free-july-pandemic-newfoundland-1.5655757
  312. ^ "FAQ - Single-use Retail Bag Program". Northwest Territories Government. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  313. ^ "N.S. passes legislation banning single-use plastic bags". CBC. 30 October 2019. Retrieved 3 November 2019.
  314. ^ "Plastic bag ban a relief for Island Waste Management". CBC. 11 June 2018. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
  315. ^ "Brossard bans plastic bags in stores for fall 2016". CBC. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  316. ^ "Sacs d'emplettes" (in French). Ville de Brossard. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  317. ^ a b Bruemmer, René (7 November 2014). "Can Montreal's proposed ban on plastic bags work?". Montreal Gazette. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  318. ^ Evans, Lacey (8 September 2016). "Montreal is largest Canadian city to ban plastic bags".
  319. ^ "Plastic bags soon to be banned in Regina". CKRM.
  320. ^ "No more single-use plastic bags in Carmacks". Yukon News. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  321. ^ "Last day for feedback on proposal to ban plastic bags". jamaica-gleaner.com. 25 August 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  322. ^ "Plastic Bags Banned in Panama – THE PANAMA PERSPECTIVE". 16 August 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  323. ^ Luna, Taryn (10 November 2016). "Californians say farewell to the plastic bag". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 14 November 2016.
  324. ^ "Maine halts plastic bag ban as part of plan to mitigate coronavirus spread". Plastics News. 18 March 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
  325. ^ Nace April, Trevor (23 April 2019). "New York Officially Bans Plastic Bags". Forbes. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  326. ^ "Vermont adopts the most comprehensive plastics ban in U.S." National Geographic. 18 June 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  327. ^ Staff, KREM. "WaBagBan". KREM. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  328. ^ Coto, Danica (30 October 2015). "Puerto Rico to ban use of plastic bags through executive order after legislators opposed bill". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
  329. ^ Here's A List Of Every City In The US To Ban Plastic Bags, Will Your City Be Next?
  330. ^ Llanos, Miguel (16 May 2012). "Hawaii first state to ban plastic bags at checkout". NBC News. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  331. ^ Massachusetts plastic bag ban is now tied up in Beacon Hill
  332. ^ Plastic Bag Laws in Massachusetts
  333. ^ "This time, pass California ban on plastic bags: Editorial". Los Angeles Daily News. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.[permanent dead link]
  334. ^ Verespej, Nike (16 November 2012). "Massachusetts town bans plastic bags". Waste & Recycling News. Retrieved 29 November 2012.[permanent dead link]
  335. ^ Frazier, Ian. "The Bag Bill". The New Yorker. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  336. ^ "Tasmania carries eco-fight, bans plastic bags". Mail & Guardian. 29 April 2003. Retrieved 3 July 2012.
  337. ^ "Plastic Bag Ban". Zero Waste South Australia. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2012.[permanent dead link]
  338. ^ Lorraine Chow, Lorraine (3 December 2018). "Australia Cuts 80% of Plastic Bag Use in 3 Short Months". Ecowatch. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  339. ^ "Government pledges mandatory phase-out of plastic bags". 9 August 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  340. ^ Lyons, Kate; agencies (10 August 2018). "Jacinda Ardern says New Zealand will ban plastic bags". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  341. ^ "El gobierno porteño anunció que desde 2017 se prohibirán bolsas plásticas en los súper". Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  342. ^ "Adiós a un clásico: desde 2017, no habrá más bolsas de plástico en los súper porteños". Clarin. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  343. ^ "Polémica por la prohibición de bolsas en los comercios porteños". La Nacion. 3 September 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  344. ^ "Ley 13868 PBA". Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  345. ^ "Prohibición del uso de bolsas plasticas en supermercados, hipermercados y minimercados de la Provincia de Buenos Aires". Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  346. ^ "SE REGLAMENTÓ LA LEY DE SUSTITUCIÓN DE BOLSAS PLÁSTICAS". Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  347. ^ Bonnefoy, Pascale (1 June 2018). "Chile Bans Plastic Bags at Retail Businesses". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  348. ^ "Chile adopts new law to ban the use of plastic bags". ClimateActionProgramme.org. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  349. ^ Chow, Lorraine (31 May 2018). "Chile to Become First Country in the Americas to Ban Plastic Bags". EcoWatch. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  350. ^ "Chile set to become first American country to ban plastic bags – The Santiago Times". santiagotimes.cl. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
  351. ^ "Chile bans supermarket plastic bags". BBC News. 3 August 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  352. ^ El Tiempo, Casa Editorial (3 August 2020). "El primer país de Latinoamérica que se despide de las bolsas plásticas". El Tiempo (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  353. ^ "Chile to ban plastic bags in coastal regions". Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  354. ^ "Colombia apunta a la eliminación completa del uso de bolsas plásticas en 2025". 27 November 2015.
  355. ^ Tiempo, Casa Editorial El (12 April 2016). "Las bolsas plásticas pequeñas tienen los días contados en Colombia – Sectores – El Tiempo".
  356. ^ Tiempo, Casa Editorial El (1 August 2020). "Plástico de un solo uso: protege del virus pero amenaza al planeta". El Tiempo (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  357. ^ "Bajó 80% el uso de bolsas plásticas desde el pasado 1º de abril". LARED21 (in Spanish). 25 April 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2019.