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Phanerochaete is a genus of crust fungi in the family Phanerochaetaceae.

Phanerochaete
Phanerochaete.velutina2.-.lindsey.jpg
Phanerochaete velutina
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Polyporales
Family: Phanerochaetaceae
Genus: Phanerochaete
P.Karst (1889)
Type species
Phanerochaete alnea
(Fr.) P.Karst. (1889)
Synonyms[1]
  • Corticium Fr. (1835)
  • Xerocarpus P.Karst. (1881)
  • Grandiniella P.Karst. (1895)
  • Membranicium J.Erikss. (1958)

Contents

TaxonomyEdit

The genus was circumscribed by Finnish mycologist Petter Karsten in 1889.[2] Marinus Anton Donk redefined the limits of the genus in two publications in 1957 and 1962.[3][4] Phanerochaete has traditionally been delimited based on the overall morphology of the fruit body, as well as microscopic characteristics including the nature of the hyphal structure, cystidia, and spores. Molecular analyses demonstrate that the genus is polyphyletic, containing members placed throughout the phlebioid clade of the Polyporales.[5][6]

The genus name is derived from the Greek words φανεφός ("distinct") and χαίτη ("hair").[3]

DescriptionEdit

Phanerochaete species have membranaceous, crust-like fruit bodies. The hyphal system is monomitic, with simple-septate generative hyphae; single or multiple clamps may be present in the subiculum. The basidia (spore-bearing cells) are club-shaped and smooth. Spores of the genus are thin-walled, inamyloid, hyaline, and have a cylindrical to ellipsoidal shape. Phanerochaete species cause white rot on both conifers and hardwoods.[5]

ChemistryEdit

Phanerochaete includes white rot fungi that are able to degrade the woody polymer lignin to carbon dioxide. This is achieved, in part, by lignin peroxidases and manganese peroxidases. These peroxidases are also able to mediate oxidation of a wide variety of organic pollutants. The genome of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was sequenced and shows the genetic potential to make over 100 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases.[7] White rot fungi have been used in bioremediation efforts to break down potentially harmful chemicals in soil and in water.[8] For example, phenol-formaldehyde is degraded by P. chrysosporium,[9] while P. sordida breaks down the neonicotinoid pesticide clothianidin.[10]

SpeciesEdit

As of December 2016, Index Fungorum accepts 92 species of Phanerochaete:[11]

 
P. sordida

Further readingEdit

  • Spirin, Viacheslav; Volobuev, Sergey; Okun, Mikhail; Miettinen, Otto; Larsson, Karl-Henrik (2016). "What is the type species of Phanerochaete (Polyporales, Basidiomycota)?". Mycological Progress. 16 (2): 171–183. doi:10.1007/s11557-016-1267-8.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Phanerochaete P. Karst. 1889". MycoBank. International Mycological Association. Retrieved 2012-05-02.
  2. ^ Karsten, Petter (1889). "Kritisk öfversigt af Finlands Basidsvampar (Basidiomycetes; Gastero- & Hymenomycetes)". Bidrag till Kännedom of Finlands Natur Folk (in Finnish). 48: 1–470 (see p.&nbsp, 426).
  3. ^ a b Donk, M.A. (1957). "The proposed names for Hymenomycetes. VII: "Thelephoraceae" (Conclusion)". Taxon. 6 (4): 106–123. doi:10.2307/1217754.
  4. ^ Donk, M.A. (1962). "Notes on resupinate Hymenomycetes-VI". Persoonia. 2: 217–238.
  5. ^ a b Wu, Sheng-Hua; Nilsson, Henrik R.; Chen, Cheng-Tao; Yu, Shi-Yi; Hallenberg, Nils (2010). "The white-rotting genus Phanerochaete is polyphyletic and distributed throughout the phleboid clade of the Polyporales (Basidiomycota)". Fungal Diversity. 42 (1): 107–118. doi:10.1007/s13225-010-0031-7.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Floudas, D; Hibbett, D.S. (2015). "Revisiting the taxonomy of Phanerochaete (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) using a four gene dataset and extensive ITS sampling". Fungal Biology. 119: 679–719. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2015.04.003.
  7. ^ Martinez, Diego; Larrondo, Luis F.; Putnam, Nik; Gelpke, Maarten D Sollewijn; Huang, Katherine; Chapman, Jarrod; Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Ramaiya, Preethi; Detter, J. Chris; Larimer, Frank; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Berka, Randy; Cullen, Dan; Rokhsar, Daniel (2004). "Genome sequence of the lignocellulose degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain RP78". Nature Biotechnology. 22 (6): 695–700. doi:10.1038/nbt967. PMID 15122302.
  8. ^ Syed, K.; Yadav, J.S. (2012). "P450 monooxygenases (P450ome) of the model white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium". Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 38 (4): 339–363. doi:10.3109/1040841X.2012.682050. PMC 3567848. PMID 22624627.
  9. ^ Gusse, A.C.; Miller, P.D.; Volk, T.J. (2006). "White-rot fungi demonstrate first biodegradation of phenolic resin". Environmental Science and Technology. 40: 4196–9. doi:10.1021/es060408h. PMID 16856735.
  10. ^ Mori, T.; Wang, J.; Tanaka, Y.; Nagai, K.; Kawagishi, H.; Hirai, H. "Bioremediation of the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida". Journal of Hazardous Materials. 321: 586–590. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.09.049. PMID 27694022.
  11. ^ Kirk PM. "Species Fungorum (version 29th November 2016). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life". Retrieved 2016-12-01.
  12. ^ a b Lin, S.H.; Chen, Z.C. (1990). "The Corticiaceae and the resupinate Hydnaceae of Taiwan". Taiwania. 35 (2): 69–111.
  13. ^ a b c d Burdsall, H.H. Jr.; Gilbertson, R.L. (1974). "Three new species of Phanerochaete (Aphyllophorales, Corticiaceae)". Mycologia. 66: 780–790. doi:10.2307/3758198.
  14. ^ Burdsall, H.H.; Beltrán-Tejera, E.; Rodríguez-Armas, J.L. (1995). "Phanerochaete andreae sp. nov. (Aphyllophorales, Basidiomycotina), from the Canary Islands". Mycotaxon. 54: 295–298.
  15. ^ a b Wu, S.H. (2000). "Six new species of Phanerochaete from Taiwan". Botanical Bulletin of the Academia Sinica (Taipei). 41: 165–174.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wu, Sheng-Hua (1998). "Nine new species of Phanerochaete from Taiwan". Mycological Research. 102 (9): 1126–1132. doi:10.1017/S0953756298006091.
  17. ^ Ghobad-Nejhad, Masoomeh; Liu, Shi-Liang; Dai, Yu-Cheng (2015). "Molecular and morphological evidence reveal a new non-cystidiate species belonging to the core Phanerochaete (Polyporales)". Mycological Progress. 14: 69. doi:10.1007/s11557-015-1072-9.
  18. ^ a b Sheng-Hua Wu; Yu-Ping Chen; Chia-Ling Wei; Dimitrios Floudas; Yu-Cheng Dai (2018). "Two new species of Phanerochaete (Basidiomycota) and redescription of P. robusta". Mycological Progress. 17 (4): 425–435. doi:10.1007/s11557-017-1368-z.
  19. ^ De, A.B. (1991). "A new species of Phanerochaete (Aphyllophorales, Corticiaceae) from India". Mycotaxon. 42: 29–34.
  20. ^ Bresadola, G. (1903). "Fungi Polonici a cl. Viro B. Eichler lecti". Annales Mycologici. 1 (1): 65–96.
  21. ^ Hjortstam, K.; Ryvarden, L. (2004). "Some new tropical genera and species of corticioid fungi (Basidiomycotina, Aphyllophorales)". Synopsis Fungorum. 18: 20–32.
  22. ^ Wu, S.H.; Losi, C. (1995). "Phanerochaete parvispora sp. nov. (Aphyllophorales) from Venetian Lagoon, Italy". Mycotaxon. 55: 543–545.
  23. ^ Roberts, P. (2000). "Corticioid fungi from Korup National Park, Cameroon". Kew Bulletin. 55 (4): 803–842.
  24. ^ Liu, S.L.; He, S.H. (2016). "Phanerochaete porostereoides, a new species in the core clade with brown generative hyphae from China" (PDF). Mycosphere. 7 (5): 648–655. doi:10.5943/mycosphere/7/5/10.
  25. ^ Hallenberg, N. (1978). "Wood-Fungi (Corticiaceae, Coniophoraceae, Lachnocladiaceae, Thelephoraceae) in N. Iran. I". Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 14: 38–87.
  26. ^ Sádlíková, M.; Kout, J. (2017). "A new Phanerochaete (Polyporales, Basidiomycota) with brown subicular hyphae from Thailand" (PDF). Mycosphere. 8 (1): 1124–1030.  
  27. ^ Hjortstam, K. (2000). "Two new species of Phanerochaete (Basidiomycotina, Aphyllophorales), and a key to species from subtropical and tropical areas". Karstenia. 40: 53–62.
  28. ^ Martínez, Sebastian; Nakasone, Karen K. (2005). "The genus Phanerochaete (Corticiaceae, Basidiomycotina) sensu lato in Uruguay" (PDF). Sydowia. 57 (1): 94–101.
  29. ^ Burdsall, H.H. (1985). "A contribution to the taxonomy of the genus Phanerochaete". Mycologia Memoirs. 10: 1–165.