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Pesticide standard values are applied worldwide to control pesticide pollution,[1] since pesticides are largely applied in numerous agricultural, commercial, residential, and industrial applications. Usually, pesticide standard value is regulated in residential surface soil (i.e., pesticide soil regulatory guidance value, or RGV),[1] drinking water (i.e., pesticide drinking water maximum concentration level, or MCL),[2] foods (i.e., pesticide food maximum residue level, or MRL),[3] and other ecological sections (e.g., air, surface water, groundwater, bed sediment, or aquatic organisms).[4]

DefinitionEdit

Pesticide standard values specify the maximum amount of a pollutant that may be present without prompting some form of regulatory response such as human health and ecological effects.[5] Pesticide standard values are often derived from laboratory toxicology data (i.e., animal tests), human or ecological parameters (i.e., body weight, intake rate, lifetime, etc.), and human health risk models such as USEPA and RIVM models.[6][7] On the other hand, the European Union took a precautionary approach (in accordance with the principles of its environmental policy) before toxicological data was available and provided very strict and protective standards for all pesticides in drinking water.[8]

Worldwide pesticide standard valuesEdit

Up till now (November 2017), less than 30% of the worldwide nations have regulated pesticide standard values in surface residential soil,[9][10][11] about 50% of the total nations have provided pesticide standard values in drinking water and agricultural foods.[12] Many nations in Africa, Asia, and South America are lacking pesticide standard values for the major human and ecological exposure pathways such as soil, sediment, and water.

Pesticide standard values for many current and historical largely used pesticides such as DDT, aldrin, lindane, glyphosate, MCPA, chlorpyrifos, and 2,4-D often vary over seven, eight, or nine orders of magnitude and are log-normally distributed, which indicates that there is little agreement on the regulation of pesticide standard values among worldwide jurisdictions.[13] Additionally, many worldwide pesticide standard values are not sufficiently low to protect public health based on human health risk uncertainty bounds calculations and maximum legal contribution estimations.[14]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Jennings, A. and Li, Z., 2014. Scope of the worldwide effort to regulate pesticide contamination in surface soils. Journal of environmental management, 146, pp.420-443.
  2. ^ [1], USEPA-Drinking Water Contaminant Human Health Effects Information.
  3. ^ [2], USEPA-Regulation of Pesticide Residues on Food
  4. ^ Nowell, L.H. and Resek, E.A., 1994. National standards and guidelines for pesticides in water, sediment, and aquatic organisms: application to water-quality assessments. In Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology (pp. 1-154). Springer New York
  5. ^ Jennings, A. and Li, Z., 2014. Scope of the worldwide effort to regulate pesticide contamination in surface soils. Journal of environmental management, 146, pp.420-443
  6. ^ [3], USEPA-Regional Screening Levels (RSLs) - Equations (June 2017 )
  7. ^ [4], RIVM Committed to health and sustainability
  8. ^ Li, Z. and Jennings, A., 2017. Worldwide regulations of standard values of pesticides for human health risk control: A review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(7), p.826.
  9. ^ Jennings, A. and Li, Z., 2015. Residential surface soil guidance applied worldwide to the pesticides added to the Stockholm Convention in 2009 and 2011. Journal of environmental management, 160, pp.226-240.
  10. ^ Jennings, A. and Li, Z., 2015. Residential surface soil guidance values applied worldwide to the original 2001 Stockholm Convention POP pesticides. Journal of environmental management, 160, pp.16-29.
  11. ^ Li, Z., 2018. Health risk characterization of maximum legal exposures for persistent organic pollutant (POP) pesticides in residential soil: An analysis. Journal of Environmental Management, 205, pp.163-173.
  12. ^ Li, Z. and Jennings, A., 2017. Worldwide regulations of standard values of pesticides for human health risk control: A review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(7), p.826.
  13. ^ Li, Z. and Jennings, A., 2017. Worldwide regulations of standard values of pesticides for human health risk control: A review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(7), p.826.
  14. ^ Li, Z. and Jennings, A., 2017. Implied maximum dose analysis of standard values of 25 pesticides based on major human exposure pathways. AIMS Public Health, 4(4), pp.383-398.