Peruvian Segunda División

The Peruvian Second Division (Peruvian Segunda División in Spanish), officially known as the Liga 2 (Ligue 2) of Peru is the second-highest division in the Peruvian football league system. It is a professional and promotional division organized by the Peruvian Football Federation. The winners and Ligiulla winners get promoted to the Peruvian Primera División. The bottom two teams get relegated to the Copa Perú, which will be later changed to relegation to the Peruvian Tercera División. After years of changing numbers of clubs, as of 2024 the league includes 18 clubs.

Peruvian Segunda División
Founded1943; 81 years ago (1943)
First season1943
CountryPeru
ConfederationCONMEBOL
Number of teams18
Level on pyramid2
Promotion toLiga 1
Relegation toLiga 3
Domestic cup(s)Copa Bicentenario
Current championsComerciantes Unidos
(2023)
Most championshipsCarlos Concha
Ciclista Lima
Deportivo Municipal
Guardia Republicana
Mariscal Sucre
Sport Boys
Unión Callao
Unión Huaral (3 titles each)
Current: 2024 season

History edit

Before the current Liga 2, there was the Peruvian Segunda División, which was the second division of Peruvian football from 1912 to 1925. It allowed promotion to the Peruvian Primera Division for the starting seasons. It was not a professional tournament. In the inaugural 1912 season, the Peruvian Segunda Division and Primera Division were put together with 8 teams each. It was dissolved in 1925 after the Peruvian Football Federation was formed. The tournament was restarted in 1926, under the organization of the Peruvian Football Federation, with the name of "Intermediate Tournament", the first champion was Association Alianza, after that in 1935 the championship was renamed "Ascenso División de Honor" where it granted promotion to teams from Lima and Callao, at this stage the most relevant was the championship of 1939 where Alianza Lima won the championship and climbed to the top division. It would later be replaced by the Peruvian Segunda Division, now known as the Liga 2, in 1936. Despite being founded in 1936, the Peruvian Segunda Division did not have its first season up until 1943, where Atlético Telmo Carbajo of Callao won the tournament.

For decades after it was first formed in 1936, only clubs from the Department of Lima participated in the annual tournament where the winner gets promoted to the Copa Perú. From 1988 to 1990, the winner got promoted to the Torneo Metropolitano Regional. It was not until 1992 when Peruvian football federation expanded the tournament to other regions, expanding it to the Department of Ica and Callao with a total of 12 teams.

From 1993 to 1997 the winner was promoted directly to the Primera División. From 1998 it was established that the champion of this tournament would play a revalidation match with the team that finished second to last in the decentralized championship of the same year. In 2002, following the Peruvian Football Federation's policy of increasing the number of teams in the first division, the champion of this tournament was immediately promoted. In 2004 and 2005 the format changed, establishing that the champion and runner-up of the second division would be integrated into Region 4 of the Copa Perú.

In 2006, the Peruvian Segunda Division was moved up to the second tier once again, where the winner gets promotion to the First Division. As a result, the Copa Peru was moved down to the third tier, where is currently stands.It was only in 2006 that it was decided to decentralize this tournament (until then reserved for teams from the Department of Lima and the Constitutional Province of Callao), the championship began to be played with teams from different departments of Peru that obtained the category through a contest called by the Peruvian Football Federation or by relegation from the first division. However, despite the decentralist spirit of this measure (which recently turned this category into a true Peruvian Second Division), some articles were established in the regulations that obliged teams of a certain distance from Lima to pay the tickets of rival teams. It should be said that with this, the duality of promotion to the First Division occurred because the Copa Perú, the traditional amateur football tournament, was also of a national nature, a situation that does not happen in any country worldwide and where it was seen that the Second Division should remain as the only way to promotion to the First Division. However, while it was nominally Second Professional, it was officially promotional.

 
A match between Cienciano and Santos in 2019

In 2013, the tournament was expanded from 12 to 14 teams as a plan to make it more competitive. In the same decade, many current giants of Peru such as Sport Boys, Universidad César Vallejo and others obtained promotion to the Liga 1, where some still stand to this day. Multiple other expansions and reductions of teams were made and the league was originally set to be 16 teams but reduced to 14 because of financial issues.

In 2019, the Peruvian Football Federation announced the creation of the Peruvian Tercera División, which will replace the Copa Peru as the third tier, moving the Copa Peru down to the fourth tier. This had the relegated teams of the Liga 2 move down to the Liga 3. Liga 2 teams also participate in the national tournament, the Copa Bicentenario along with the teams from the Liga 1. For the 2024 season, the Liga 2 was expanded to 18 teams, the same as the Liga 1. A new format was made which would split the 18 teams into two groups known as the Zona Norte and Zona Sur, based on the northern and southern locations of the clubs. The top six teams in each group would advance to the group stage, with the other three being placed in the relegation group. Two teams will be promoted to the First Division and two relegated to the newly created Third Division.

Division levels edit

Year Level Promotion to Relegation to
1943–1950
2
Primera División Liga Regional de Lima y Callao
1951–1955
2
Primera División Liga Provincial de Lima
Liga Provincial del Callao
1956–1972
2
Primera División Liga Provincial de Lima
Liga Provincial del Callao
Liga de los Balnearios del Sur
1983
2
(None) [note 1] Copa Perú
1984–1987
3
División Intermedia [note 2] Copa Perú
1988–1990
2
Primera División Copa Perú
1991
2
Torneo Zonal [note 3] Copa Perú
1992–2003
2
Primera División Copa Perú
2004–2005
2
Copa Perú (National stage) [note 4] Copa Perú
2006–2011
2
Primera División Copa Perú (National stage)
2012–2018
2
Primera División Copa Perú
2019–2023
2
Liga 1 Copa Perú
2024–present
2
Liga 1 Liga 3

Competition format and sponsorship edit

 
Logo for ADFP Segunda División

Since 2006, the winner of the tournament is promoted to the First Division, while the last two teams are relegated from the tournament to the Departamental Stage of the Copa Perú. Their places are taken by the two relegated clubs from the First Division, and the team that finishes second place in the Copa Perú. From 2018 to 2023, the Liga 2 would adopt a new format, where the top ranking team throughout the whole season would win the tournament and be automatically promoted, and the next six teams compete in a bracket Ligiulla stage, with the winner also being promoted.

After the expansion to 18 for the 2024 season, the format was changed to multiple stages. The first stage known as the Regional Stage would split the 18 teams into two groups of nine, called the Zona Norte and Zona Sur, based in the north and the south. The top six of each zone would advance to the Group Stage and bottom three into the Relegation Group. In the Group Stage, the 12 teams will be split into two groups of six with the top three teams advance to the Ligiulla stage, with the top team of each group in the semi-finals and rest in quarter-finals. The finalists of the Ligiulla stage will be promoted to the first division and the winners winning the league. In the relegation group, each team will play in a round-robin format. The lowest ranked team of each group gets relegated to the Liga 3.[1]

Sponsorship edit

The Peruvian Second Division is sponsored by Movistar's Gol Perú, which has exclusive broadcasting rights. L1MAX, Nativa TV and FPF Play also broadcast the tournament.

Criticisms edit

The Segunda División has received numerous criticisms, chiefly due to the lack of stability in the process of competition and promotion, and the lack of professionalism.[2]

Team count edit

The Segunda División has changed the number of teams that operate in the league several times. Over the course of 74 years, the Segunda has had as few as four teams and as many as 16. The early Segunda División were played with an average number of teams ranging from 4 to 10. Prior to the current 12-club Segunda División, during the 2000s, the team count continued to fluctuate between 10, 12, 14, 16 and even a surprising 13. For example, 12 teams competed in 2009, 10 competed in 2008, 11 competed in 2007, and 12 teams competed from 2004 to 2006. The over-all goal of the organization is to have a stable league of 16 teams. It would be expanded to 18 in 2024.

Artificial turf edit

Several stadiums used in the second division have artificial grass installed for the so-called massification of sport.[3] Most stadiums in Peru are owned by the IPD (Instituto Peruano del Deporte), which is the state group responsible for supporting the use of artificial turf. This has been severely criticized by top division teams and the media. At first, these artificial turfs were installed for the 2005 FIFA U-17 World Cup; however, more artificial turf was installed in other stadiums after the U-17 World Cup concluded.[4] These turfs are criticized for having a negative influence on the game and for the injuries which they cause to players.

Clubs edit

Currently, 18 clubs participate in Liga 2. There are currently no teams from the Lima Metropolitan area with all clubs representing cities from the country's interior. The number of clubs has fluctuated season by season from 10 to 18 teams participating in the tournament.

Ciclista Lima, Unión Huaral, Deportivo Municipal, Guardia Republicana, Mariscal Sucre, Unión Callao, Telmo Carbajo, Sport Boys, Unión Gonzáles Prada, and Carlos Concha trail behind with 3 titles. Universidad César Vallejo, Total Clean, Cobresol, José Gálvez, Los Caimanes, and Comerciantes Unidos are the only clubs outside the metropolitan area of Lima to have won a Segunda Division championship. In addition, Alianza Lima, Atlético Chalaco, Centro Iqueño, Defensor Lima, Municipal, Mariscal Sucre, San Agustín, Sport Boys, and Unión Huaral are the only teams that have been champions of the First and Second Division.

Since the Second Division became a nation-wide tournament in 2006, 20 of the 25 regions have had representative teams in the Segunda División/Liga 2. The only five regions that have never had a representative are Amazonas, Huancavelica, Madre de Dios, Pasco, and Tumbes.

Team City Stadium[5] Capacity[6]
Academia Cantolao Callao Miguel Grau 17,000
ADA Jaén Víctor Montoya Segura 9,000
Alianza Universidad Huánuco Heraclio Tapia 25,000
Ayacucho Ayacucho Ciudad de Cumaná 12,000
Binacional Juliaca Guillermo Briceño Rosamedina 20,030
Carlos Stein Ferreñafe Carlos Samamé Cáceres 6,000
Comerciantes Iquitos Max Augustín 24,576
Deportivo Coopsol Ventanilla Municipal Facundo Ramírez Aguilar 5,000
Deportivo Llacuabamba Otuzco Municipal de Otuzco 18,000
Deportivo Municipal Lima Iván Elías Moreno 10,000
Juan Aurich Ferreñafe Carlos Samamé Cáceres 6,000
Juan Pablo II College Chongoyape Municipal de la Juventud 2,000
Pirata Chongoyape Municipal de la Juventud 2,000
San Marcos Huari Rosas Pampa 18,000
Santos Nasca Municipal de Nasca 10,000
Unión Huaral Chancay Rómulo Shaw Cisneros 3,000
UCV Moquegua Moquegua 25 de Noviembre 21,000
Universidad San Martín Lima Iván Elías Moreno 10,000

Champions edit

Peruvian Segunda División had amateur status since its foundation until 1987. In the course of this era, Telmo Carbajo, Ciclista Lima, Unión Callao, Carlos Concha and Mariscal Sucre shared the most titles. The first run from 1943 to 1987 featured clubs only from Lima and Callao. In 1988 the league obtained professional status and in 2006 expanded the league to the entire nation, beginning the Segunda División Nacional.

Amateur league (1943–1987) edit

Tournament names:

  • 1943–1972: "Segunda División Metropolitana"
  • 1983: "Segunda División Experimental"
  • 1984–1987: "Región IX"
Ed. Season Champion Runner-up
1
1943 Telmo Carbajo[7] Progresista Apurímac
2
1944 Ciclista Lima[8] Telmo Carbajo
3
1945 Santiago Barranco[9] Atlético Lusitania
4
1946 Ciclista Lima[10] Unión Callao
5
1947 Jorge Chávez[11] Santiago Barranco
6
1948 Centro Iqueño[12] Santiago Barranco
7
1949 Jorge Chávez[13] Ciclista Lima
8
1950 Unión Callao[14] Association Chorrillos
9
1951 Association Chorrillos[15] Atlético Lusitania
10
1952 Unión Callao[16] Porvenir Miraflores
11
1953 Carlos Concha[17] Atlético Lusitania
12
1954 Unión Callao[18] KDT Nacional
13
1955 Carlos Concha[19] Porvenir Miraflores
14
1956 Porvenir Miraflores[20] Unión América
15
1957 Mariscal Castilla[21] Carlos Concha
16
1958 Unión América[22] Porvenir Miraflores
17
1959 Mariscal Sucre[23] KDT Nacional
18
1960 Defensor Lima[24] Carlos Concha
19
1961 KDT Nacional[25] Association Chorrillos
20
1962 Mariscal Sucre[26] Carlos Concha
21
1963 Carlos Concha[27] Porvenir Miraflores
22
1964 Defensor Arica[28] Porvenir Miraflores
23
1965 Mariscal Sucre[29] Íntimos de la Legua
24
1966 Porvenir Miraflores[30] Racing
25
1967 KDT Nacional[31] Independiente Sacachispas
26
1968 Deportivo Municipal[32] ADO
27
1969 Deportivo SIMA[33] Mariscal Sucre
28
1970 ADO[34] Centro Iqueño
29
1971 Deportivo SIMA[35] Atlético Chalaco
30
1972 Atlético Chalaco[36] Porvenir Miraflores
1973–1982 No Tournament (see Liguilla de Ascenso and Liga Mayor de Fútbol de Lima)
31
1983 Unión Gonzáles Prada[37] Academia Cantolao
32
1984 Unión Gonzáles Prada[38] Juventud La Joya
33
1985 Alcides Vigo[39] Centro Iqueño
34
1986 Internazionale[40] AELU
35
1987 AELU[41] CITEN

Professional league (1988–present) edit

Tournament names:

  • 1988–2005: "Segunda División Metropolitana"
  • 2005–2018: "Segunda División Nacional"
  • 2019–present: "Liga 2"
Ed. Season Champion Runner-up Third Place
36
1988 Defensor Lima[42] Juventud La Palma Sport Boys
37
1989 Sport Boys[43] Juventud La Palma Guardia Republicana
38
1990 Hijos de Yurimaguas[44] Walter Ormeño Juventud La Palma
39
1991 Enrique Lau Chun[45] Deportivo Zúñiga Guardia Republicana
40
1992 Unión Huaral[46] Ciclista Lima Guardia Republicana
41
1993 Ciclista Lima[47] Guardia Republicana Alcides Vigo
42
1994 Unión Huaral[48] Hijos de Yurimaguas Deportivo Zúñiga
43
1995 Guardia Republicana[49] Deportivo Zúñiga Lawn Tennis
44
1996 Alcides Vigo[50] Hijos de Yurimaguas Unión Huaral
45
1997 Lawn Tennis[51] Bella Esperanza Hijos de Yurimaguas
46
1998 Hijos de Yurimaguas[52] Alcides Vigo AELU
47
1999 América Cochahuayco[53] Sporting Cristal B[note 5] Alcides Vigo
48
2000 Deportivo Aviación[54] Alcides Vigo Hijos de Yurimaguas
49
2001 Alcides Vigo[55] AELU Bella Esperanza
50
2002 Unión Huaral Defensor Villa del Mar Sporting Cristal B[note 5]
51
2003 Sport Coopsol Sporting Cristal B[note 5] Olímpico Somos Perú
52
2004 Olimpico Aurora Deportivo Municipal Unión de Campeones
53
2005 Olimpico Aurora Deportivo Aviación Deportivo Municipal
54
2006 Deportivo Municipal[56] Universidad San Marcos Deportivo Aviación
55
2007 Universidad César Vallejo[57] Atlético Minero UTC
56
2008 Total Clean[58] Inti Gas Sport Águila
57
2009 Sport Boys[59] Cobresol Deportivo Coopsol
58
2010 Cobresol Sport Áncash Hijos de Acosvinchos
59
2011 José Gálvez Deportivo Coopsol Alianza Unicachi
60
2012 Pacífico Deportivo Coopsol Los Caimanes
61
2013 Los Caimanes Alfonso Ugarte Atlético Torino
62
2014 Deportivo Municipal Deportivo Coopsol Carlos A. Mannucci
63
2015 Comerciantes Unidos Los Caimanes Atlético Torino
64
2016 Academia Cantolao Sport Ancash Cienciano
65
2017 Sport Boys Universidad César Vallejo Deportivo Hualgayoc
66
2018 Universidad César Vallejo Carlos A. Mannucci Cienciano
67
2019 Cienciano Alianza Atlético Juan Aurich
68
2020 Alianza Atlético Juan Aurich Unión Huaral
69
2021 Atlético Grau Carlos Stein Sport Chavelines
70
2022 Cusco Unión Comercio Santos
71
2023 Comerciantes Unidos Los Chankas Alianza Universidad
72
2024

Titles by club edit

Rank Club Winners Runners-up Winning years Runners-up years
1
Carlos Concha 3 3 1953, 1955, 1963 1957, 1960, 1962
Ciclista Lima 3 2 1944, 1946, 1993 1949, 1992
Deportivo Municipal 3 1 1968, 2006, 2014 2004
Guardia Republicana 3 1 1985, 1987, 1995 1993
Mariscal Sucre 3 1 1959, 1962, 1965 1969
Unión Callao 3 1 1950, 1952, 1954 1946
Sport Boys 3 0 1989, 2009, 2017
Unión Huaral 3 0 1992, 1994, 2002
2
Porvenir Miraflores 2 6 1956, 1966 1952, 1955, 1958, 1963, 1964, 1972
Santiago Barranco 2 3 1941, 1945 1940, 1947, 1948
Alcides Vigo 2 2 1996, 2001 1998, 2000
Hijos de Yurimaguas 2 2 1990, 1998 1994, 1996
KDT Nacional 2 2 1961, 1967 1954, 1959
Defensor Lima 2 0 1960, 1988
Olímpico Aurora 2 1 2004, 2005 2008
Universidad César Vallejo 2 1 2007, 2018 2017
Comerciantes Unidos 2 0 2015, 2023
Deportivo SIMA 2 0 1969, 1971
Jorge Chávez 2 0 1947, 1949
Unión Gonzáles Prada 2 0 1983, 1984
3
AELU 1 3 1987 1984, 1986, 2001
Centro Iqueño 1 3 1948 1939, 1941, 1970
Juventud La Palma 1 2 1981 1988, 1989
Association Chorrillos 1 2 1951 1950, 1961
ADO 1 1 1970 1968
Alianza Atlético 1 1 2020 2019
Atlético Chalaco 1 1 1972 1971
Cobresol 1 1 2010 2009
Deportivo Aviación 1 1 2000 2005
Los Caimanes 1 1 2013 2015
Telmo Carbajo 1 1 1943 1944
Unión América 1 1 1958 1956
Academia Cantolao 1 0 2016
América Cochahuayco 1 0 1999
Atlético Grau 1 0 2021
Cienciano 1 0 2019
Compañía Peruana de Teléfonos 1 0 1975
Cusco 1 0 2022
Defensor Arica 1 0 1964
Enrique Lau Chun 1 0 1991
Internazionale 1 0 1986
José Gálvez 1 0 2011
Lawn Tennis 1 0 1997
Mariscal Castilla 1 0 1957
Pacífico 1 0 2012
San Agustín 1 0 1984
Sport Coopsol 1 0 2003
Total Clean 1 0 2008

Titles by region edit

Region Nº of titles Clubs
  Lima 45 Ciclista Lima (4), Unión Huaral (4), Deportivo Municipal (3), Guardia Republicana (3), Mariscal Sucre (3), Unión Gonzáles Prada (3), Alcides Vigo (2), Defensor Lima (2), Olímpico Aurora (2), Porvenir Miraflores (2), América Cochahuayco (1), AELU (1), Association Chorrillos (1), Centro Iqueño (1), Compañía Peruana de Teléfonos (1), Defensor Arica (1), Deportivo Aviación (1), Enrique Lau Chun (1), Juventud La Palma (1), Lawn Tennis (1), Mariscal Castilla (1), Pacífico (1), San Agustín (1), Santiago Barranco (1), Sport Coopsol (1), Internazionale (1), Unión América (1)
  Callao 20 Carlos Concha (3), Unión Callao (3), Sport Boys (3), Hijos de Yurimaguas (2), Jorge Chávez (2), KDT Nacional (2), Deportivo SIMA (2), Atlético Chalaco (1), ADO (1), Academia Cantolao (1), Telmo Carbajo (1)
  Cajamarca 2 Comerciantes Unidos (2)
  Cusco 2 Cienciano (1), Cusco (1)
  La Libertad 2 Universidad César Vallejo (2)
  Piura 2 Alianza Atlético (1), Atlético Grau (1)
  Ancash 1 José Gálvez (1)
  Arequipa 1 Total Clean (1)
  Lambayeque 1 Los Caimanes (1)
  Moquegua 1 Cobresol (1)

Notes edit

  1. ^ The FPF annulled the promotion to the First Division.
  2. ^ There was no promotion to the Peruvian First Division. The champion and runner-up qualified for the División Intermedia A.
  3. ^ There was no promotion to the Peruvian First Division. The first six places qualified for the 1992 Torneo Zonal while the rest of the teams were relegated to the Copa Perú.
  4. ^ There was no promotion to the Peruvian First Division. The champion and runner-up qualified for the Copa Peru's National stage.
  5. ^ a b c Sporting Cristal B can´t be promoted as they are the "reserve team" of Sporting Cristal which plays in First Division.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "El nuevo formato de la Liga 2 para el 2024". 22 February 2024.
  2. ^ Becker, Wolfy (6 March 2007). "The dreadful situation of Peruvian football". Wolfy Becker. Archived from the original on 31 January 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  3. ^ "Woodman: "No habrá cambio de césped en el Elías Aguirre"" [There will not be changes to the field in the Elías Aguirre] (in Spanish). Peru.com. Retrieved 26 April 2010. Agregó que de ninguna manera se cambiara el césped sintético a los demás estadios del país que tienen este tipo de gramado. 'Nosotros estamos para masificar el deporte y el pasto sintético es un tema apoyado por la FIFA.... Además sí se puede jugar al fútbol, como se juega en todos lados' subrayó Woodman.
  4. ^ "Three Companies re-sign agreement". FIFA. Retrieved 26 May 2010. Polytan Sportstättenbau GmbH, the German-based company, won the tender for installing 4 fields in Peru, all of which were used for the FIFA U-17 World Championship Peru 2005. This was the first time a FIFA Final tournament was played entirely on artificial turf.[dead link]
  5. ^ Most stadiums are owned by the Instituto Peruano del Deporte (IPD).
  6. ^ "Peru". fussballtempel.net. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-02.
  7. ^ Nieto, Carlos. "Torneo Segunda Division 1943". perufootball.org. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
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  58. ^ "Segunda División 2008 - Results, fixtures, tables and stats - Global Sports Archive". globalsportsarchive.com. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
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External links edit

  • FPF Official Federation Website