Per mille

(Redirected from Permille)

Per mille (from Latin per mīlle, "in each thousand")[1] is an expression that means parts per thousand.[2] Other recognised spellings include per mil,[2] per mill,[1][3] permil,[1] permill,[1] or permille.[4][5]

Per mille
In UnicodeU+2030 PER MILLE SIGN (‰)
See alsoU+0025 % PERCENT SIGN
U+2031 PER TEN THOUSAND SIGN (Basis point)
Visualisation of 1%, 1‰, 1‱, 1 pcm and 1 ppm as fractions of the large block (larger version)

The associated sign is written , which looks like a percent sign % with an extra zero or o in the divisor.

The term occurs so rarely in English[citation needed] that major dictionaries do not agree on the spelling[1][2][3] and some major dictionaries such as Macmillan[6] do not even contain an entry. The term is more common in other European languages where it is used to express fractions smaller than 1%. One common usage is blood alcohol content, which is usually expressed as a percentage in English-speaking countries.

Per mille should not be confused with parts per million (ppm).

Computer systemsEdit

The code point for the glyph is included in the General Punctuation block of Unicode characters: U+2030 PER MILLE SIGN.[4] It may be typed using Alt+0137, Compose%o, Ctrl+⇧ Shift+u 2030, or ⌥ Option+⇧ Shift+r according to operating system.

Note that for the compose key sequence the percent key (%) is followed by lower case letter o and not, as might be expected, by digit 0.[7]


A tram and gradient sign in Gdańsk, Poland. The 50‰ grade is equivalent to 5%.

Examples of use include:

Related unitsEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d e Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2005. per mil, adv
  2. ^ a b c "per mille". Business English. Cambridge Dictionary Online. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 8 June 2020. per mille adverb (also per mil)
  3. ^ a b "per mill". Oxford Dictionaries: The American Dictionary. Archived from the original on August 9, 2013. Retrieved 1 Aug 2014.
  4. ^ a b Unicode. "General Punctuation". 2014. Accessed 5 Aug 2014.
  5. ^ "per mille". Longman Business Dictionary. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  6. ^ "Macmillan Dictionary". Retrieved 1 Aug 2014. No result
  7. ^ Monniaux, David. "UTF-8 (Unicode) compose sequence". Retrieved 2015-07-15.

External linksEdit