Pennington, New Jersey

Pennington is a borough in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 2,585,[8][9][10] reflecting a decline of 111 (-4.1%) from the 2,696 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 159 (+6.3%) from the 2,537 counted in the 1990 Census.[19]

Pennington, New Jersey
Borough of Pennington
First Presbyterian Church
Location in Mercer County and the state of New Jersey.
Location in Mercer County and the state of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Pennington, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Pennington, New Jersey
Pennington is located in Mercer County, New Jersey
Pennington
Pennington
Location in Mercer County
Pennington is located in New Jersey
Pennington
Pennington
Location in New Jersey
Pennington is located in the United States
Pennington
Pennington
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 40°19′30″N 74°47′20″W / 40.324923°N 74.78878°W / 40.324923; -74.78878Coordinates: 40°19′30″N 74°47′20″W / 40.324923°N 74.78878°W / 40.324923; -74.78878[1][2]
Country United States
State New Jersey
CountyMercer
IncorporatedJanuary 31, 1890
Government
 • TypeBorough
 • BodyBorough Council
 • MayorJoseph Lawver (D, term ends December 31, 2019)[3][4]
 • AdministratorEileen Heinzel[5]
 • Municipal clerkElizabeth Sterling[5]
Area
 • Total0.958 sq mi (2.481 km2)
 • Land0.956 sq mi (2.476 km2)
 • Water0.002 sq mi (0.005 km2)  0.22%
Area rank506th of 565 in state
11th of 12 in county[1]
Elevation210 ft (60 m)
Population
 • Total2,585
 • Estimate 
(2018)[11]
2,531
 • Rank465th of 565 in state
11th of 12 in county[12]
 • Density2,703.9/sq mi (1,044.0/km2)
 • Density rank230st of 565 in state
4th of 12 in county[12]
Time zoneUTC−5:00 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4:00 (Eastern (EDT))
ZIP Code
Area code(s)609[15]
FIPS code3402157600[1][16][17]
GNIS feature ID885347[18]
Websitewww.penningtonboro.org

HistoryEdit

According to an 1883 history, "the first name of the village was Queenstown, which was given it in honor of Queen Anne. Later it was by some, in derision of its comparative insignificance, Pennytown, and as early as 1747 it began to be called Pennington."[20][21][22] The name "Penington" was already known in the area, as Edward Penington (1667-1701), son of the British Quaker leader Isaac Penington, was appointed by his kinsman William Penn as Surveyor General of Pennsylvania. His father-in-law was a longtime leader, including as Governor, of the province of West Jersey, where Edward married.[23] Henry Gannett attributes the borough's name to colonial governors from the Pennington family.[24]

Pennington was established as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 31, 1890, from portions of Hopewell Township, based on the results of a referendum held on January 21, 1890.[25] It is a dry borough, where alcohol cannot be sold.[26][27]

Pennington is a close-knit community with holiday events every season. At Christmas, there is a tree lighting celebration along Main Street, the grade school children sing, there are cookies and hot chocolate, and live music is played until a countdown to the official lighting of the town's tree for the season. Santa also arrives to the delight of the children. Memorial Day and the Fourth of July feature a variety of activities including parades.

GeographyEdit

According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 0.958 square miles (2.481 km2), including 0.956 square miles (2.476 km2) of land and 0.002 square miles (0.005 km2) of water (0.22%).[1][2]

The borough is an independent municipality completely surrounded by Hopewell Township,[28] making it part one of 21 pairs of "doughnut towns" in the state, where one municipality entirely surrounds another.[29][30][31]

ClimateEdit

According to the Köppen climate classification system, Pennington, New Jersey has a hot-summer, wet all year, humid continental climate (Dfa). Dfa climates are characterized by at least one month having an average mean temperature ≤ 32.0 °F (≤ 0.0 °C), at least four months with an average mean temperature ≥ 50.0 °F (≥ 10.0 °C), at least one month with an average mean temperature ≥ 71.6 °F (≥ 22.0 °C), and no significant precipitation difference between seasons. During the summer months, episodes of extreme heat and humidity can occur with heat index values ≥ 100 °F (≥ 38 °C). On average, the wettest month of the year is July which corresponds with the annual peak in thunderstorm activity. During the winter months, episodes of extreme cold and wind can occur with wind chill values < 0 °F (< -18 °C). The plant hardiness zone at the Pennington Municipal Court is 6b with an average annual extreme minimum air temperature of -0.7 °F (-18.2 °C).[32] The average seasonal (November-April) snowfall total is 24 to 30 inches (610 to 760 mm) and the average snowiest month is February which corresponds with the annual peak in nor'easter activity.

Climate data for Pennington Municipal Court, Mercer County, NJ (1981-2010 Averages)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 39.2
(4.0)
42.6
(5.9)
50.8
(10.4)
62.8
(17.1)
72.3
(22.4)
81.6
(27.6)
86.0
(30.0)
84.1
(28.9)
77.1
(25.1)
65.8
(18.8)
55.0
(12.8)
43.8
(6.6)
63.5
(17.5)
Daily mean °F (°C) 31.0
(−0.6)
33.6
(0.9)
41.1
(5.1)
51.8
(11.0)
61.2
(16.2)
70.8
(21.6)
75.5
(24.2)
73.8
(23.2)
66.5
(19.2)
55.0
(12.8)
45.5
(7.5)
35.7
(2.1)
53.6
(12.0)
Average low °F (°C) 22.7
(−5.2)
24.7
(−4.1)
31.3
(−0.4)
40.8
(4.9)
50.1
(10.1)
59.9
(15.5)
65.0
(18.3)
63.4
(17.4)
55.8
(13.2)
44.1
(6.7)
36.0
(2.2)
27.6
(−2.4)
43.5
(6.4)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.49
(89)
2.75
(70)
4.13
(105)
4.11
(104)
4.25
(108)
4.37
(111)
5.31
(135)
4.11
(104)
4.41
(112)
3.93
(100)
3.70
(94)
4.06
(103)
48.62
(1,235)
Average relative humidity (%) 65.8 62.4 58.1 57.8 63.0 67.0 66.8 69.5 70.7 69.5 67.9 67.8 65.5
Average dew point °F (°C) 20.9
(−6.2)
22.1
(−5.5)
27.5
(−2.5)
37.4
(3.0)
48.5
(9.2)
59.3
(15.2)
63.7
(17.6)
63.2
(17.3)
56.7
(13.7)
45.2
(7.3)
35.5
(1.9)
26.1
(−3.3)
42.3
(5.7)
Source: PRISM Climate Group[33]

EcologyEdit

According to the A. W. Kuchler U.S. potential natural vegetation types, Pennington, New Jersey would have an Appalachian Oak (104) vegetation type with an Eastern Hardwood Forest (25) vegetation form.[34]

DemographicsEdit

Census Pop.
1880723
1890588−18.7%
190073324.7%
1910722−1.5%
19201,33584.9%
19301,3350.0%
19401,49211.8%
19501,68212.7%
19602,06322.7%
19702,1514.3%
19802,109−2.0%
19902,53720.3%
20002,6966.3%
20102,585−4.1%
Est. 20182,531[11][35]−2.1%
Population sources:
1880-1890[36] 1890-1920[37]
1890-1910[38] 1910-1930[39]
1930-1990[40] 2000[41][42] 2010[8][9][10]

Census 2010Edit

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 2,585 people, 1,031 households, and 712.421 families living in the borough. The population density was 2,703.9 per square mile (1,044.0/km2). There were 1,083 housing units at an average density of 1,132.8 per square mile (437.4/km2). The racial makeup of the borough was 95.24% (2,462) White, 1.82% (47) Black or African American, 0.00% (0) Native American, 1.78% (46) Asian, 0.08% (2) Pacific Islander, 0.08% (2) from other races, and 1.01% (26) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.43% (37) of the population.[8]

There were 1,031 households out of which 34.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.4% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.9% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 19.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.04.[8]

In the borough, the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 4.5% from 18 to 24, 17.9% from 25 to 44, 33.4% from 45 to 64, and 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45.7 years. For every 100 females there were 87.7 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 79.4 males.[8]

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $107,250 (with a margin of error of +/- $18,509) and the median family income was $156,923 (+/- $18,294). Males had a median income of $106,250 (+/- $20,859) versus $76,477 (+/- $25,432) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $56,962 (+/- $6,372). About 6.2% of families and 6.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.2% of those under age 18 and 2.9% of those age 65 or over.[43]

Census 2000Edit

As of the 2000 United States Census[16] there were 2,696 people, 1,013 households, and 761 families residing in the borough. The population density was 2,801.0 people per square mile (1,084.3/km2). There were 1,040 housing units at an average density of 1,080.5 per square mile (418.3/km2). The racial makeup of the borough was 94.96% White, 2.63% African American, 1.00% Asian, 0.41% from other races, and 1.00% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.19% of the population.[41][42]

There were 1,013 households out of which 40.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.2% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.8% were non-families. 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.14.[41][42]

In the borough the population was spread out with 28.7% under the age of 18, 4.9% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 27.9% from 45 to 64, and 15.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.0 males.[41][42]

The median income for a household in the borough was $90,366, and the median income for a family was $107,089. Males had a median income of $84,912 versus $43,068 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $45,843. About 0.7% of families and 2.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.4% of those under age 18 and 4.1% of those age 65 or over.[41][42]

Arts and cultureEdit

 
United Methodist Church

Pennington Day, typically in the middle of May, is an annual event where local organizations and businesses set up booths in a street-fair style on Main Street. The event, with origins back to 1980, features local music and a parade early in the day and festivities continuing into the afternoon.[44]

GovernmentEdit

 
Intersection of Main Street and Delaware Avenue

Local governmentEdit

Pennington is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government, which is used in 218 municipalities statewide, making it the most common form of government in New Jersey.[45] The governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle.[6] The Borough form of government used by Pennington, the most common system used in the state, is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at meetings and voting only in the event of a tie. The mayor can veto ordinances subject to an override by a two-thirds majority vote of the council. The mayor makes committee and liaison assignments for council members, and most appointments are made by the mayor with the advice and consent of the council.[46][47] The Borough Council has the option to designate an administrator or assign executive responsibilities to the administrator. The Council may also adopt an administrative code which describes how the Council performs its duties.[48]

As of 2019, the mayor of Pennington is Democrat Joseph L. Lawver, who was appointed to serve a term of office ends December 31, 2019. Members of the Borough Council are Council President Glen E. Griffiths (D, 2020), Catherine "Kit" Chandler (D, 2020), Deborah L. Gnatt (D, 2021), Charles "Chico" Marciante (D, 2019), Beverly Mills (D, 2019) and Elizabeth Semple Rosenblatt (D, 2021).[3][49][50][51][52][53][54]

In January 2019, Joseph Lawver was appointed to fill the mayoral seat expiring in December 2019 that was vacated by Anthony Persichilli, the borough's longest-serving mayor, when he resigned from office the previous month.[55] Former mayor Persichilli was first elected on November 7, 2006, to fill the vacancy left by the resignation of James Loper. Returned to office at that same election were Democratic council members Joseph Lawver and Eileen Heinzel.[56] James Loper, the previous elected mayor, had resigned from office effective February 1, 2006. The Pennington Republican Committee nominated three candidates to take his place and the Council selected James Benton from the three candidates to fill the vacancy.[57] That same procedure was repeated in December 2006, when the Borough Council selected Diane Zompa to fill the unexpired term left by Persichilli.[58]

Federal, state and county representationEdit

Pennington is located in the 12th Congressional District[59] and is part of New Jersey's 15th state legislative district.[9][60][61]

For the 116th United States Congress, New Jersey's Twelfth Congressional District is represented by Bonnie Watson Coleman (D, Ewing Township).[62][63] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Democrats Cory Booker (Newark, term ends 2021)[64] and Bob Menendez (Paramus, term ends 2025).[65][66]

For the 2018–2019 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 15th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Shirley Turner (D, Lawrence Township, Mercer County) and in the General Assembly by Reed Gusciora (D, Trenton) and Verlina Reynolds-Jackson (D, Trenton).[67][68] Reynolds-Jackson was sworn into office on February 15, 2018 to fill the seat of Elizabeth Maher Muoio, who had resigned from office on January 15, 2018 to serve as Treasurer of New Jersey.[69][70]

Mercer County is governed by a County Executive who oversees the day-to-day operations of the county and by a seven-member Board of Chosen Freeholders that acts in a legislative capacity, setting policy. All officials are chosen at-large in partisan elections, with the executive serving a four-year term of office while the freeholders serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats up for election each year.[71] As of 2014, the County Executive is Brian M. Hughes (D, term ends December 31, 2015; Princeton).[72] Mercer County's Freeholders are Freeholder Chair Andrew Koontz (D, 2016; Princeton),[73] Freeholder Vice Chair Samuel T. Frisby, Sr. (2015; Trenton),[74] Ann M. Cannon (2015; East Windsor Township),[75] Anthony P. Carabelli (2016; Trenton),[76] John A. Cimino (2014, Hamilton Township),[77] Pasquale "Pat" Colavita, Jr. (2015; Lawrence Township)[78] and Lucylle R. S. Walter (2014; Ewing Township)[79][80][81] Mercer County's constitutional officers are County Clerk Paula Sollami-Covello (D, 2015),[82] Sheriff John A. Kemler (D, 2014)[83] and Surrogate Diane Gerofsky (D, 2016).[84][85]

PoliticsEdit

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 2,017 registered voters in Pennington, of which 828 (41.1%) were registered as Democrats, 467 (23.2%) were registered as Republicans and 720 (35.7%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 2 voters registered to other parties.[86]

Presidential Elections Results
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016[87] 20.3% 309 75.4% 1,149 4.3% 65
2012[88] 32.7% 488 66.0% 985 1.3% 19
2008[89] 31.0% 506 66.9% 1,090 1.1% 18
2004[90] 35.9% 581 61.7% 999 0.5% 11

In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 66.0% of the vote (985 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 32.7% (488 votes), and other candidates with 1.3% (19 votes), among the 1,653 ballots cast by the borough's 2,115 registered voters (161 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 78.2%.[88][91] In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 66.9% of the vote (1,090 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 31.0% (506 votes) and other candidates with 1.1% (18 votes), among the 1,630 ballots cast by the borough's 2,088 registered voters, for a turnout of 78.1%.[89] In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 61.7% of the vote (999 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 35.9% (581 votes) and other candidates with 0.5% (11 votes), among the 1,619 ballots cast by the borough's 2,022 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 80.1.[90]

Gubernatorial Elections Results
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2017[92] 28.3% 296 69.9% 730 1.8% 19
2013[93] 49.6% 496 48.7% 487 1.6% 16
2009[94] 35.7% 425 53.8% 640 9.6% 114
2005[95] 40.2% 460 56.8% 649 3.0% 34

In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 49.6% of the vote (496 cast), ahead of Democrat Barbara Buono with 48.7% (487 votes), and other candidates with 1.6% (16 votes), among the 1,015 ballots cast by the borough's 2,067 registered voters (16 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 49.1%.[96][97] In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 53.8% of the vote (640 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 35.7% (425 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 9.3% (111 votes) and other candidates with 0.3% (3 votes), among the 1,190 ballots cast by the borough's 2,057 registered voters, yielding a 57.9% turnout.[94]

EducationEdit

 
Toll Gate Grammar School

Public school students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade attend the Hopewell Valley Regional School District.[98] The comprehensive regional public school district serves students from Hopewell Borough, Hopewell Township and Pennington Borough.[99][100] As of the 2017-18 school year, the district and its six schools had an enrollment of 3,572 students and 347.5 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 10.3:1.[101] Schools in the district (with 2017-18 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[102]) are Bear Tavern Elementary School[103] (439 students; in grades PreK-5), Hopewell Elementary School[104] (436; PreK-5), Stony Brook Elementary School[105] (393; K-5), Toll Gate Grammar School[106] (273; K-5), Timberlane Middle School[107] with 841 students in grades 6-8 and Hopewell Valley Central High School[108] with an enrollment of 1,153 students in grades 9 - 12.[109] The district's Board of Education is composed of nine members allocated to each of the three municipalities based on population, with Pennington assigned a single seat.[110]

Eighth grade students from all of Mercer County are eligible to apply to attend the high school programs offered by the Mercer County Technical Schools, a county-wide vocational school district that offers full-time career and technical education at its Health Sciences Academy, STEM Academy and Academy of Culinary Arts, with no tuition charged to students for attendance.[111][112]

The Pennington School serves students in sixth through twelfth grades, having been founded in 1838 with a single teacher and three students.[113]

TransportationEdit

Roads and highwaysEdit

 
Route 31 is the primary state highway serving Pennington

As of May 2010, the borough had a total of 12.34 miles (19.86 km) of roadways, of which 8.57 miles (13.79 km) were maintained by the municipality, 3.17 miles (5.10 km) by Mercer County and 0.60 miles (0.97 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.[114]

Route 31 passes through Pennington, providing access to Interstate 295 at exit 72.[115] Additionally, exit 73 along I-295 connects to Scotch Road North, which provides access to all of the surrounding Hopewell Township area.[116]

Public transportationEdit

NJ Transit provides bus service between the borough and Trenton on the 624 route.[117][118]

Points of interestEdit

Notable peopleEdit

People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Pennington include:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e 2010 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey County Subdivisions, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
  2. ^ a b US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  3. ^ a b Mayor and Council, Borough of Pennington. Accessed November 28, 2019.
  4. ^ 2019 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed August 1, 2019.
  5. ^ a b Administration and Finance, Borough of Pennington. Accessed November 28, 2019.
  6. ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 73.
  7. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Borough of Pennington, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 8, 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Pennington borough, Mercer County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 19, 2012.
  9. ^ a b c d Municipalities Sorted by 2011-2020 Legislative District, New Jersey Department of State. Accessed October 30, 2019.
  10. ^ a b c Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Pennington borough, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed November 19, 2012.
  11. ^ a b PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2018 - 2018 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 1, 2019.
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  13. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code for Pennington, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed November 19, 2012.
  14. ^ Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed August 29, 2013.
  15. ^ Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Pennington, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed August 29, 2013.
  16. ^ a b American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  17. ^ Geographic codes for New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed September 1, 2019.
  18. ^ US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  19. ^ Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed November 19, 2012.
  20. ^ Pennington Borough History from History of Burlington and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, with Biographical Sketches of Many of Their Pioneers and Prominent Men by Major E. M. Woodward & John F. Hageman, 1883. Accessed September 1, 2014.
  21. ^ Rojas, Cristina. "'Celebrating our Hometown Heritage': Pennington kicks off 125th anniversary celebrations", NJ.com, April 16, 2015. Accessed September 17, 2015. "The borough's history dates to the early 1700s when it was called Queenstown in honor of Queen Anne. It was later known as Penny Town and was established as a borough in 1890 from portions of Hopewell Township."
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  32. ^ USDA Interactive Plant Hardiness Map, United States Department of Agriculture. Accessed November 26, 2019.
  33. ^ PRISM Climate Group, Oregon State University. Accessed November 26, 2019.
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  44. ^ A Rich History, Pennington Day. Accessed November 19, 2012.
  45. ^ Inventory of Municipal Forms of Government in New Jersey, Rutgers University Center for Government Studies, July 1, 2011. Accessed November 18, 2019.
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