Pembroke (or Pembroke Boroughs) was a parliamentary constituency centred on the town of Pembroke in West Wales. It returned one Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post system.
|Former Borough constituency|
for the House of Commons
|Number of members||one|
|Replaced by||Pembroke and Haverfordwest|
For the creation and early history of the seat, see the Boundaries section below.
From its first known general election in 1542 until 1885, the constituency consisted of a number of boroughs within the historic county of Pembrokeshire in Wales.
On the basis of information from several volumes of the History of Parliament, it is apparent that the history of the borough representation from Wales and Monmouthshire is more complicated than that of the English boroughs.
The Laws in Wales Act 1535 (26 Hen. VIII, c. 26) provided for a single borough seat for each of 11 of the 12 Welsh counties and Monmouthshire. The legislation was ambiguous as to which communities were enfranchised. The county towns were awarded a seat, but this in some fashion represented all the ancient boroughs of the county, as the other boroughs were required to contribute to the member's wages. It was not clear if the burgesses of the contributing boroughs could take part in the election. The only election under the original scheme was for the 1542 Parliament. It seems that only burgesses from the county towns actually took part. An Act of 1544 (35 Hen. VIII, c. 11) confirmed that the contributing boroughs could send representatives to take part in the election at the county town. As far as can be told from surviving indentures of returns, the degree to which the "out boroughs" participated varied, but by the end of the sixteenth century all the seats had some participation from them, at some elections at least.
The original scheme was modified by later legislation and decisions of the House of Commons (which were sometimes made with no regard to precedent or evidence: for example in 1728 it was decided that only the freemen of the borough of Montgomery could participate in the election for that seat, thus disenfranchising the freemen of Llanidloes, Welshpool and Llanfyllin).
In the case of Pembrokeshire, the number of boroughs involved gradually decreased. The county town was Pembroke. The out boroughs which continued to participate were Tenby and Wiston. Haverfordwest was involved in 1542 only, as it became a separate constituency in 1545. Narberth, New Moat, and Templeton had dropped out by 1558. Newport, Cilgerran, and Llawhaden ceased to participate between 1603 and 1690.
In 1690–1832 the freemen of the three remaining boroughs of Pembroke, Tenby, and Wiston were entitled to vote. There was a dispute in 1702–1712 about the right of the Wiston freemen to vote. The Whig family of Owen of Orielton, which had the dominant influence in Pembroke, had the Pembroke Corporation bar the participation of the Wiston men (who were influenced by the Tory Wogan family). In 1712 Parliament upheld the rights of the freemen of Wiston.
There were 331 electors in 1710 (including non-resident freemen). The electorate increased to about 500 in the 1754–1790 period.
Pembroke Boroughs 1832–1885Edit
This was a district of boroughs constituency, which grouped a number of parliamentary boroughs in Pembrokeshire into one single member constituency. The voters from each participating borough cast ballots, which were added together over the whole district to decide the result of the poll. In addition to the ancient right freemen voters, who retained the franchise after 1832, there was a new householder franchise applicable to all boroughs. The enfranchised communities in this district, from 1832, were the four boroughs of Pembroke, Milford, Tenby, and Wiston.
Members of ParliamentEdit
The Roman numerals after some names are to distinguish different members for this constituency, with the same name. It is not suggested this use of Roman numerals was applied at the time.
MPs in the Parliament of England 1542–1707Edit
As there were sometimes significant gaps between Parliaments held in this period, the dates of first assembly and dissolution are given. Where the name of the member has not yet been ascertained or (before 1558) is not recorded in a surviving document, unknown is entered in the table.
|1542||16 January 1542||28 March 1544||John Adams|
|1545||23 November 1545||31 January 1547||Lewis Watkins|
|1547||4 November 1547||15 April 1552||John Harington II|
|1553||1 March 1553||31 March 1553||Henry Adams|
|1553||5 October 1553||5 December 1553||Henry Adams|
|1554||2 April 1554||3 May 1554||John Herle|
|1554||12 November 1554||16 January 1555||John Garnons|
|1555||21 October 1555||9 December 1555||Richard Philipps|
|1558||20 January 1558||17 November 1558||William Watkin|
|1559||23 January 1559||8 May 1559||Henry Dodds|
|1562 or 1563||11 January 1563||2 January 1567||William Revell|
|1571||2 April 1571||29 May 1571||Robert Davy|
|1572||8 May 1572||19 April 1583||Robert Lougher|
|1584||23 November 1584||14 September 1585||John Vaughan III|
|1586||13 October 1586||23 March 1587||John Vaughan III|
|1588||4 February 1589||29 March 1589||Nicholas Adams|
|1593||18 February 1593||10 April 1593||Sir Conyers Clifford|
|1597||24 October 1597||9 February 1598||Edward Burton|
|1601||27 October 1601||19 December 1601||John Lougher|
|1604||19 March 1604||9 February 1611||Richard Cuney|
|1614||5 April 1614||7 June 1614||Sir Walter Devereux|
|1620 or 1621||16 January 1621||8 February 1622||Lewis Powell|
|1623 or 1624||12 February 1624||27 March 1625||Sir Walter Devereux|
|1625||17 May 1625||12 August 1625||Lewis Powell|
|1626||6 February 1626||15 June 1626||Hugh Owen|
|1628||17 March 1628||10 March 1629||Hugh Owen|
|1640||13 April 1640||5 May 1640||Sir John Stepney, 3rd Baronet|
|3 November 1640||5 December 1648||Sir Hugh Owen, 1st Baronet ||Parliamentarian|
|—||6 December 1648||20 April 1653||vacant|
|1653||4 July 1653||12 December 1653||unrepresented|
|1654||3 September 1654||22 January 1655||unrepresented|
|1656||17 September 1656||4 February 1658||unrepresented|
|1658 or 1659||27 January 1659||22 April 1659||Sampson Lort
|N/A||7 May 1659||20 February 1660||vacant|
|21 February 1660||16 March 1660|
|c. April 1660||25 April 1660||29 December 1660||Sir Hugh Owen, 1st Baronet|
|22 April 1661||8 May 1661||24 January 1679||Rowland Laugharne||Died 16 November 1675|
|2 October 1676||Sir Hugh Owen, 2nd Baronet||By-election|
|3 March 1679||6 March 1679||12 July 1679||Arthur Owen|
|1679||21 October 1680||18 January 1681||Arthur Owen|
|1681||21 March 1681||28 March 1681||Arthur Owen|
|1685||19 May 1685||2 June 1687||Arthur Owen|
|1689||22 January 1689||6 February 1690||Arthur Owen|
|1690||20 March 1690||11 October 1695||Arthur Owen|
|1695||22 November 1695||6 July 1698||Arthur Owen||Ceased to be MP|
|30 December 1695||Sir John Philipps, 4th Baronet||By-election|
|1698||24 August 1698||19 December 1700||Sir John Philipps, 4th Baronet|
|16 January 1701||6 February 1701||11 November 1701||Sir John Philipps, 4th Baronet|
|1 December 1701||30 December 1701||2 July 1702||Sir John Philipps, 4th Baronet|
|24 July 1702||20 August 1702||5 April 1705||John Meyrick||Tory|
|21 May 1705||14 June 1705||1707||John Meyrick||Tory|
Elections in the 1830sEdit
|Tory||Hugh Owen Owen||Unopposed|
|Tory||Hugh Owen Owen||Unopposed|
|Registered electors||c. 1,400|
|Tory||Hugh Owen Owen||Unopposed|
|Conservative||Hugh Owen Owen||Unopposed|
|Conservative||Hugh Owen Owen||Unopposed|
Owen resigned, causing a by-election.
Elections in the 1840sEdit
|Conservative||Hugh Owen Owen||184||32.8||N/A|
|Radical||James Mark Child||95||16.9||New|
|Peelite gain from Conservative|
Elections in the 1850sEdit
Elections in the 1860sEdit
Owen's death caused a by-election.
|Liberal||Hugh Owen Owen||342||57.1||N/A|
|Liberal||Hugh Owen Owen||668||68.7||N/A|
|Liberal||Hugh Owen Owen||1,049||42.5||−26.2|
|Conservative gain from Liberal||Swing||+26.2|
Elections in the 1870sEdit
|Liberal gain from Conservative||Swing||+8.0|
Elections in the 1880sEdit
|Liberal||Henry George Allen||1,462||50.6||+0.1|
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2018)
- British Parliamentary Election Results 1832–1885, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (The Macmillan Press 1977)
- The House of Commons 1690–1715, by Eveline Cruickshanks, Stuart Handley and D.W. Hayton (Cambridge University Press 2002)
- The Parliaments of England by Henry Stooks Smith (1st edition published in three volumes 1844–50), second edition edited (in one volume) by F.W.S. Craig (Political Reference Publications 1973)
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "P" (part 1)
- s:Clifford, Sir Conyers (DNB00)
- Excluded in Pride's Purge
- Date of Pride's Purge, which converted the Long Parliament into the Rump Parliament.
- Date when Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Rump Parliament by force.
- Date when the members of the nominated or Barebones Parliament were selected. Pembroke was not represented in this body.
- Date when the members of the First Protectorate Parliament were elected. Pembroke was not represented in this body. Pembroke formed part of the county constituency of Pembrokeshire for this Parliament.
- Date when the members of the Second Protectorate Parliament were elected. Pembroke was not represented in this body. Pembroke formed part of the county constituency of Pembrokeshire for this Parliament.
- The Rump Parliament was recalled and subsequently Pride's Purge was reversed, allowing the full Long Parliament to meet until it agreed to dissolve itself.
- The MPs of the last Parliament of England and 45 members co-opted from the former Parliament of Scotland, became the House of Commons of the 1st Parliament of Great Britain which assembled on 23 October 1707 (see below for the members in that Parliament).
- Stooks Smith, Henry (1845). The Parliaments of England, from 1st George I., to the Present Time. Vol II: Oxfordshire to Wales Inclusive. London: Simpkin, Marshall, & Co. pp. 199–200. Retrieved 5 May 2020 – via Internet Archive.
- "Election Talk". The Spectator. 6 March 1852. p. 6. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- "Pembrokeshire (Boroughs)". Evening Mail. 9 July 1852. pp. 6–7. Retrieved 22 August 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- Escott, Margaret. "Pembroke Boroughs". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. p. 511. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
- "Pembroke, July 2". Evening Mail. 5 July 1841. p. 6. Retrieved 13 August 2019 – via British Newspaper Archive.
- "The General Election". The Examiner. 15 July 1865. pp. 7–11. Retrieved 14 March 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.